3. You need to flip the direction of the diode.
1&2 OK, so the circuits were not fucntioning. Use a dual voltage supply (in a proper cascading setting) and give +/-18V.
4. When you use SR560 as a power supply, you need to disconnect the AC power supply. Otherwise, the AC power, which charges the +/-12V lead battery, contaminates the output voltage with the 60Hz lines.