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  237   Fri Aug 28 01:08:14 2015 KojiElectronicsAM Stabilized EOM DriverRF AM Measurement Unit E1500151 ~ Calibration

Worked on the calibration of the RF AM Measurement Unit.

The calibration concept is as follows:

  • Generate AM modulated RF output
  • Measure sideband amplitude using a network anayzer (HP4395A). This gives us the SSB carrier-sideband ratio in dBc.
  • Measure the output of the RF AM measurement unit with the same RF signal
  • Determine the relationship between dBc(SSB) and the output Vrms.

The AM modulated signal is produced using DS345 function generator. This FG allows us to modulate
the output by giving an external modulation signal from the rear panel. In the calibration, a 1kHz signal with
the DC offset of 3V was given as the external modulation source. The output frequency and output power of
DS345 was set to be 30.2MHz (maximum of the unit) and 14.6dBm. This actually imposed the output
power of 10.346dBm. Here is the result with the modulation amplitude varied

                 RF Power measured             Monitor output
Modulation       with HP4395A (dBm)           Measure with SR785 (mVrms)
1kHz (mVpk)   Carrier    USB      LSB          MON1       MON2
   0.5        9.841    -72.621  -73.325          8.832      8.800
   1          9.99     -65.89   -65.975         17.59      17.52
   2          9.948    -60.056  -59.747         35.26      35.07
   3          9.90     -56.278  -56.33          53.04      52.9
   5          9.906    -51.798  -51.797         88.83      88.57
  10          9.892    -45.823  -45.831        177.6      177.1
  20          9.870    -39.814  -39.823        355.3      354.4
  30          9.8574   -36.294  -36.307        532.1      531.1
  50          9.8698   -31.86   -31.867        886.8      885.2
 100          9.8735   -25.843  -25.847       1772       1769
 150          9.8734   -22.316  -22.32        2656       2652
 200          9.8665   -19.819  -19.826       3542       3539
 300          9.8744   -16.295  -16.301       5313       5308

The SSB carrier sideband ratio is derived by SSB[dBc] = (USB[dBm]+LSB[dBm])/2 - Carrier[dBm]

This measurement suggests that 10^(dBc/20) and Vrms has a linear relationship. (Attachment 1)
The data points were fitted by the function y= a x.

=> 10^dBc(SSB)/20 = 108*Vrms (@10.346dBm input)

Now we want to confirm this calibration.

DS345 @30.2MHz was modulated with the DC offset + random noise. The resulting AM modulated RF was checked with the network analyzer and the RFAM detector
in order to compare the calibrated dBc/Hz curves.

A) SR785 was set to produce random noise
B) Brought 2nd DS345 just to produce the DC offset of -2.52V (Offset display -1.26V)
Those two are added (A-B) by an SR560 (DC coupling, G=+1, 50 Ohm out).
The output was fed to Ext AM in DS345(#1)

DS345(#1) was set to 30.2MHz 16dBm => The measured output power was 10.3dBm.

On the network analyzer the carrier power at 30.2MHz was 9.89dBm

Measurement 1) SR785     1.6kHz span 30mV random noise (observed flat AM noise)
Measurement 2) SR785   12.8kHz span 100mV random noise (observed flat AM noise)
Measurement 3) SR785 102.4kHz span 300mV random noise (observed cut off of the AM modulation due to the BW of DS345)

The comparison plot is attached as Attachment 2. Note that those three measurements are independent and are not supposed to match each other.
The network analyzer result and RFAM measurement unit output should agree if the calibration is correct. In fact they do agree well.


  307   Wed Aug 29 11:06:30 2018 KojiGeneralGeneralRF AM RIN and dBc conversion

0. If you have an RF signal whose waveform is 1 \times \sin(2 \pi f t), the amplitude is constant and 1.

1. If the waveform [1+0.1 \sin(2 \pi f_{\rm m} t)] \sin(2 \pi f t), the amplitude has the DC value of 1 and AM with the amplitude of 0.1 (i.e. swing is from 0.9 to 1.1). Therefore the RMS RIN of this signal is 0.1/1/Sqrt(2).

2. The above waveform can be expanded by the exponentials.

\left[-\frac{1}{2} i e^{i\,2\,\pi f t} + 0.025 e^{i\,2\,\pi (f-f_{\rm m}) t}- 0.025 e^{i\,2\,\pi (f+f_{\rm m}) t} \right] - {\rm C.C.}

Therefore the sideband carrier ratio R is 0.025/0.5 = 0.05. This corresponds to 20 log10(0.05) = -26dBc

In total, we get the relationship of dBc and RIN as {\rm dBc} = 20 \log_{10}(\rm{RIN}/\sqrt{2}), or R = RIN/sqrt(2)

  228   Wed Jul 22 10:15:14 2015 KojiElectronicsAM Stabilized EOM DriverRF test of the EOM/AOM Driver S1500117

7) Make sure the on/off RF button works,
=> OK

8) Make sure the power output doesn't oscillate,

Connect the RF output to an oscilloscope (50Ohm)
=> RF output: there is no obvious oscillation

Connect the TP1 connector to an oscilloscope
=> check the oscillation with an oscilloscope and SR785 => OK

Connect the CTRL connector to an oscilloscope
=> check the oscillation with an oscilloscope and SR785 => OK

9) EXC check
Connect a function generator to the exc port.
Set the FG output to 1kHz 2Vpk. Check the signal TP1
Turn off the exc switch -> no output
Turn on the exc switch -> nominally 200mVpk

=> OK

10) Openloop transfer function

Connect SR785 FG->EXC TP2->CHA TP1->CHB
EXC 300mV 100Hz-100kHz 200 line

Network Analyzer (AG4395A)
EXC 0dBm TP1->CHA TP2->CHB, measure A/B
801 line
CHA: 0dBatt CHB: 0dBatt
UGF 133kHz, phase -133.19deg = PM 47deg

11) Calibrate the output with the trimmer on the front panel

13dB setting -> 12.89dBm (maximum setting)

12) Check MON, BIAS and CTRL outputs,
CTRL:    2.95V
MON(L):    6.5mV
BIAS(L):    1.81V
MON(R):    10.7mV
BIAS(R):    1.85V

13) Output check
4+0dB    3.99dBm
6    5.89
8    7.87
10    9.87
12    11.88
14    13.89
16    15.89
18    17.92
20    19.94
22    21.95
24    24.00
26    26.06

0.0    3.99
0.2    4.17
0.4    4.36
0.6    4.56
0.8    4.75
1.0    4.94
1.2    5.13
1.4    5.32
1.6    5.53
1.8    5.73
2.0    5.92
2.2    6.10

0.0    15.82
0.2    16.11
0.4    16.31
0.6    16.51
0.8    16.72
1.0    16.92
1.2    17.12
1.4    17.32
1.6    17.53
1.8    17.72
2.0    17.92
2.2    18.13

0.0    26.06
0.2    26.27
0.4    26.46
0.6    26.58
0.8    26.68
1.0    26.69
1.2    26.70
1.4    3.98
1.6    3.99
1.8    3.99
2.0    3.99
2.2    3.99




  229   Sat Jul 25 17:24:11 2015 KojiElectronicsAM Stabilized EOM DriverRF test of the EOM/AOM Driver S1500117

(Calibration for Attachment 5 corrected Aug 27, 2015)

Now the test procedure fo the unit is written in the document https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-T1500404

And the test result of the first unit (S1500117) has also been uploaded to DCC https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-S1500117

Here are some supplimental information with plots

Attachment 1: OLTF of the AM amplitude stabilization servo.

Attachment 2: CLTF/OLTF of the 2nd AM detector self bias adj servo

The secondary RF AM detector provides us the out-of-loop measurement. The secondary loop has an internal control loop to adjust the DC bias.
This loop supresses the RF AM error signal below the control bandwidth. This has been tested by injecting the random noise to the exc and taking
the transfer function between the primary RF AM detector error (MON1) and the secondary one (MON2).

Then the closed loop TF was converted to open loop TF to see where the UGF is. The UGF is 1Hz and the phase margin is 60deg.

Above 10Hz, the residual control gain is <3%. Therefore we practically don't need any compensation of MON2 output above 10Hz.

Attachment 3: Comparison between the power setting and the output power

Attachment 4: Raw power spectra of the monitor channels

Attachment 5: Calibrated in-loop and out-of-loop AM noise spectra

Attachment 6: TFs between BNC monitor ports and DAQ differential signals

BIAS2 and CTRL look just fine. BIAS2 has a gain of two due to the differential output. The TF for CTRL has a HPF shape, but in fact the DC gain is two.
This frequency response comesfro that the actual CTRLis taken after the final stage that has LPF feature while the CTRL DAQ was taken before this final stage.

MON1 and MON2 have some riddle. I could not justify why they have the gain of 10 instead of 20. I looked into the issue (next entry)

Attachment 7: TF between the signals for the CTRL monitor (main unit) and the CTRL monitor on the remote control test rig

The CTRL monitor for the test rig is taken from the CTRL SLOW signal. There fore there is a LPF feature together with the HPF feature described above.
This TF can be used as a reference.


  230   Tue Jul 28 18:36:50 2015 KojiElectronicsAM Stabilized EOM DriverRF test of the EOM/AOM Driver S1500117

Final Test Result of S1500117: https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-S1500117

After some staring the schematic and checking some TFs, I found that the DAQ channels for MON2 have a mistake in the circuit.
Differential driver U14 and U15 of D0900848 are intended to have the gain of +10 and -10 for the pos and neg outputs.
However, the positive output has the gain of +1.

Daniel suggested to shift R66 and R68 by one pad, replace with them by ~5.5K and add a small wire from the now "in air" pad to
the GND near pad 4.

The actual modification can be seen on Attachment 1. The resulting gain was +10.1 as the resisters of 5.49k were used.

The resulting transfer function is found in the Attachment 2. ow the nominal magnitude is ~x20.

You may wonder why the transfer function for MON1 is noisy and lower at low freq (f<1kHz). This is because the input noise of the FFT analizer
contributed to the BNC MON1 signal. High frequency part dominated the RMS of the signal and the FFT analyzer could not have proper range
for the floor noise. The actual voltage noise comparison between the BNC and DAQ signals for MON1 and MON2 can be found in Attachment 3.

  41   Mon Nov 19 13:33:14 2012 KojiOpticsCharacterizationResuming testing mirror RoCs

In order to resume testing the curvatures of the mirrors, the same mirror as the previous one was tested.
The result looks consistent with the previous measurement.

It seems that there has been some locking offset. Actually, the split peaks in the TF@83MHz indicates
the existence of the offset. Next time, it should be adjusted at the beginning.

Curved mirror SN: C1
RoC: 2.5785 +/- 0.000042 [m]

Previous measurements
=> 2.5830, 2.5638 => sqrt(RoC1*RoC2) = 2.5734 m
=> 2.5844, 2.5666 => sqrt(RoC1*RoC2) = 2.5755 m

  22   Fri Oct 5 03:39:58 2012 KojiOpticsGeneralRoC Test setup

Based on Zach's experiment design, I wrote up a bit more detailed optical layout for the mirror test.


Item: Newfocus Fast PD
Qty.: 1
Mirror: Newfocus Fast PD
Mount: Post
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Thorlabs RF PD
Qty.: 1
Mirror: Thorlabs RF PD
Mount: Post
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Newfocus Broadband
Qty.: 1
Mirror: Newfocus EOM
Mount: Newfocus
Post: Custom Mount? or Pedestal X"?
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Newfocus Resonant
Qty.: 1
Mirror: Newfocus EOM
Mount: Newfocus
Post: Custom Mount? or Pedestal X"?
Fork: Short Fork

Item: ND Filter
Qty.: 2
Mirror: -
Mount: Thorlabs FIlter Holder
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: New Port Lens Kit 1"
Qty.: 1

Item: Thorlabs ND Kit
Qty.: 1

Item: Plano Convex Lens
Qty.: f=100, 100, 150, 200
Mirror: New Port (AR)
Mount: Thorlabs
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Bi-Convex Lens
Qty.: 75
Mirror: New Port (AR)
Mount: Post
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Flipper Mirror
Qty.: 1
Mirror: CVI Y1-10XX-45P
Mount: New Focus Flipper
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Steering Mirror
Qty.: 8
Mirror: CVI Y1-10XX-45P
Mount: Suprema 1inch
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: PBS
Qty.: 3
Mirror: PBS 1inch BK7
Mount: Newport BS Mount
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Knife Edge Beam Dump
Qty.: 4
Mirror: Thorlabs Knife Edge
Mount: Post
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Half Wave Plate
Qty.: 4
Mirror: CVI QWPO-
Mount: CVI
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Quater Wave Plate
Qty.: 3
Mirror: CVI QWPO-
Mount: CVI
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: OMC Curved Mirror
Qty.: 2
Mirror: -
Mount: Suprema 0.5inch + Adapter
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: Prism Holder
Qty.: 1
Mirror: OMC Prism
Mount: Newport Prism Mount
Post: Pedestal X"
Fork: Short Fork

Item: CCD
Qty.: 1
Mirror: Thorlabs?
Mount: Thorlabs?
Post: Post Holder (Newfocus)
Fork: Short Fork

  6   Fri Jun 29 11:26:04 2012 ZachOpticsCharacterizationRoC measurement setup

Here is the proposed RoC measurement setup. Koji tells me that this is referred to as "Anderson's method".

We would like to use a linear cavity to measure the RoC of the curved mirrors independently (before forming the ring cavity), since the degeneracy of HOMs will make the fitting easier.

  • An NPRO is PDH locked to a linear cavity formed of a high-quality flat mirror on one end, and the OMC curved optic on the other.
  • A second, broadband EOM is placed after the first one, and its frequency is swept with a VCO to generate symmetric sidebands about the carrier
  • A TRANS RFPD's signal is demodulated at the secondary EOM frequency, to give a DC signal proportional to HOM transmission
  • This HOM scan is fit to a model, with RoC the free parameter. Since there are two sidebands, the HOM spectrum of the model must be folded about the carrier frequency.
  • To get a good signal, we should slightly misalign the input beam, allowing for higher overlap with HOMs.

If we decided that the symmetric sidebands are too unwieldy, or that we have issues from sidebands on sidebands, we can accomplish the same style measurement using an AOM-shifted pickoff of the pre-PDH EOM beam. The advantage of the former method is that we don't have to use any polarization tricks.


  9   Sun Jul 22 15:56:53 2012 ZachOpticsCharacterizationRoC measurement setup

Here is a more detailed version of the setup, so that we can gather the parts we will need.


Parts list:

  • Optics, etc.:
    • 1 NPRO
    • 2 QWP
    • 3 HWP
    • 2 PBS
    • 2 EOM (at least one broadband)
    • 2 RFPD (at least one very-high-bandwidth for TRANS, e.g., 1611)
    • 1 CCD camera
    • OMC curved mirrors to be tested
    • 1 low-loss flat reference mirror with appropriate transmission (e.g., G&H, ATF, etc.)
    • ~3 long-ish lenses for MMT, EOM focusing
    • ~2 short lenses for PD focusing
    • 1 R ~ 80% power splitter for TRANS (can be more or less)
    • ~7 steering mirrors
    • ~3 beam dumps
    • Mounts, bases, clamps, hardware
  • Electronics:
    • 1 fixed RF oscillator (e.g., DS345, etc.)
    • 1 VCO (e.g., Marconi, Tektronix, etc.)
    • 2 Minicircuits RF mixers
    • 2 Minicircuits RF splitters
    • 2 SMA inline LPFs
    • Locking servo (SR560? uPDH? PDH2?)
    • Some digital acquisition/FG system
    • Power supplies, wiring and cabling.


Here is the proposed RoC measurement setup. Koji tells me that this is referred to as "Anderson's method".

We would like to use a linear cavity to measure the RoC of the curved mirrors independently (before forming the ring cavity), since the degeneracy of HOMs will make the fitting easier.

  • An NPRO is PDH locked to a linear cavity formed of a high-quality flat mirror on one end, and the OMC curved optic on the other.
  • A second, broadband EOM is placed after the first one, and its frequency is swept with a VCO to generate symmetric sidebands about the carrier
  • A TRANS RFPD's signal is demodulated at the secondary EOM frequency, to give a DC signal proportional to HOM transmission
  • This HOM scan is fit to a model, with RoC the free parameter. Since there are two sidebands, the HOM spectrum of the model must be folded about the carrier frequency.
  • To get a good signal, we should slightly misalign the input beam, allowing for higher overlap with HOMs.


  30   Wed Oct 17 20:36:04 2012 KojiOpticsGeneralRoC test cavity locked

The RoC test setup has been built on the optical table at ATF.

The cavity formed by actual OMC mirrors have been locked.

The modulation frequency of the BB EOM was swept by the network analyzer.
A peak at ~30MHz was found in the transfer function when the input beam was misaligned and clipping was introduced at the transmission PD.
Without either the misalignment or the clipping, the peak disappears. Also the peak requires these imperfections to be directed in the same way
(like pitch and picth, or yaw and yaw). This strongly suggests that the peak is associated with the transverse mode.

The peak location was f_HOM = 29.79MHz. If we consider the length of the cavity is L=1.20m, the RoC is estimated as

RoC = L / (1 - Cos[f_HOM/(c/2/L) * PI]^2)

This formula gives us the RoC of 2.587 m.

I should have been able to find another peak at f_FSR-f_TMS. In deed, there was the structure found at 95MHz as expected.
However, the peak was really weak and the location was difficult to determine as it was coupled with the signal from residual RFAM.

The particle level in the clean booth was occasionally measured. Every measurement showed "zero".

To be improved:

  • The trans PD is 1801 which was found in ATF with the label of the 40m. It turned out that it is a Si PD.
    I need to find an InGaAs PD (1811, 1611, or my BBPD) or increase the modulation, or increase the detected light level.
    (==> The incident power on 1810 increased. Oct 17)
  • The BS at the transmission is actually Y1-45P with low incident angle. This can be replaced by 50% or 30% BS to increase the light on the fast PD.
    (==> 50% BS is placed. Oct 17)
  • I forgot to put a 50ohm terminator for the BB EOM.
    (==> 50Ohm installed. Oct 17)
  • A directional coupler could be used for the BBEOM signal to enhance the modulaiton by 3dB.
  • The mode matching is shitty. I can see quite strong TEM20 mode.
  • Use the longer cavity? L=1.8m is feasible on the table. This will move the peak at 27MHz and 56MHz (FSR=83MHz). Very promising.
    (==> L=1.8m, peak at 27MHz and 56MHz found. Oct.17)
  16   Mon Aug 13 16:59:11 2012 KojiCleanGeneralRoom Cleaning Log

Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Aug 13, 2012)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Aug 15, 2012)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Sep 25, 2012)
Air conditioning prefilter replaced (Sep 25, 2012)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Oct 01, 2012)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Nov 06, 2012) / ATF too
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Jan 04, 2013)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Mar 23, 2013)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Apr 17, 2013)
Air conditioning prefilter replaced (Apr 17, 2013)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Jun 24, 2013)
Removing Vladimir's mess. Floor swept with a broom (Jun 26, 2013)
Completed removing Vladimir's mess. Floor swept with a wet wiper (Jun 27, 2013)
Air conditioning prefilter replaced (Sep 12, 2013)
Floor wiper head replaced. (Dec 10, 2013)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Dec 10, 2013)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Apr 1, 2014)

Air conditioning prefilter replaced (Dec 30, 2014)
Air conditioning prefilter replaced (some time in 2015...)

Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Dec 1, 2015)
Floor wiped with a wet wiper (Aug 23, 2016)
Air conditioning prefilter replaced (Aug 8, 2017) = 1 stock remains

  58   Tue Jan 22 17:56:32 2013 KojiMechanicsGeneralRotary stage selection

Newport UTR80

Newport 481-A (SELECTED)

  • Sensitivity: 15 arcsec
  • Graduations: 1 deg
  • Vernier: 5 arcmin
  • Fine travel range: 5 deg
  • With Micrometer

Newport RS40

  • Sensitivity: 16 arcsec
  • Graduations: 2 deg
  • Vernier: 12 arcmin
  • Fine travel range: 10 deg
  • Micrometer BM11.5

Newport RS65

  • Sensitivity: 11 arcsec
  • Graduations: 2 deg
  • Vernier: 12 arcmin
  • Fine travel range: 10 deg
  • Micrometer SM-06 to be bought separately

Elliot science MDE282-20G

  • Sensitivity: 5 arcsec
  • Graduations: 2 deg
  • Vernier: 10 arcmin
  • Fine travel range: 10 deg
  • Micrometer 2 arcmin/1div
  • Metric

Suruga precision B43-110N

Thorlabs precision B43-110N

  408   Thu May 20 17:03:50 2021 KojiGeneralGeneralSRS LCR meter SRS720 borrowed from Downs

Item loan: SRS LCR meter SRS720 borrowed from Downs. The unit is at the 40m right now for testing with an excelitas PD. Once it is done, the setup will be moved to the OMC lab for testing the high QE PDs

  423   Fri Jul 22 17:41:01 2022 KojiGeneralGeneralSRS LCR meter SRS720 returned to Downs

SRS LCR meter SRS720 was returned to Downs as before.


  370   Mon Jul 1 12:49:42 2019 KojiOpticsCharacterizationScattering measurement of A and C mirrors

Liyuan's scattering measurement for the A and C mirrors.

  351   Mon Apr 22 09:54:21 2019 JoeGeneral Shortening cavity (A5,A14,PZT11,PZT22) to get closer to design FSR


in units 20um per div on the micrometer [n.b. we reailised that its 10um per div on the micrometer]

CM1 inner screw pos: 11.5

cm1 outer screw pos: 33.5

cm2 inner screw pos: 11

cm2 outer screw pos: 13

the cavity is currently 3mm too long, move each mirror closer by 0.75mm

CM1 inner screw pos: 11.5+37.5 = 49

cm1 outer screw pos: 33.5+37.5= 71

cm2 inner screw pos: 11+37.5 = 48.5

cm2 outer screw pos: 13+37.5 = 50.5

The screws on the micrometers were adjusted to these values.

cleaned cm1 (PZT 11). There was a mark near the edge which we were not able to remove with acetone. On the breadboard there were 3 spots which we could not remove with acetone. Once we wiped the mirror and breadboard we put the mirror back. 

FM2 (A5). The prism looked quite bad when inspected under the green torch, with lots of lines going breadthways. We thought about replacing this with A1, however this has had the most exposure to the environment according to koji. This has a bit of negative pitch, so would bring down the beam slightly. We decided to continue to use A5 as it had worked fairly well before. The breadboard was cleaned, we could see a few spots on it, they were cleaned using acetone.

FM1 (A14). Near the edge of the bottom surface of the prism we could see some shiny marks, which may have been first contact. We attempted to scrape them off we tweezers. The breadboard looked like it had a few marks on it. These were hard to remove with the acetone, it kept leaving residue marks. We used isopropanol to clean this now, which worked much better. The sharp edges of the breadboard can cause the lens tissue to tear a bit, so it took a few rounds of cleaning before it looked good to put a prism on. The mirror was put back onto the breadboard. 

The cavity was aligned, then we realised that 1 turn is 500um, so its still too long (1.75mm long). The FSR was 264.433Mhz, which is 

CM2 still showed quite a bit more scattering than CM1, so we want to move this beam.


  • inner = 0.405mm
  • outer = 0.67mm


  • inner = 0.507mm
  • outer = 0.42mm

want to increase by 1.7/4 = 0.425, so


  • inner = 0.405+ 0.425 mm = 0.83 mm
  • outer = 0.67+ 0.425mm = 1.095 mm


  • inner = 0.507 + 0.425mm = 0.932 mm
  • outer = 0.42 + 0.425mm = 0.845 mm

we tried to align the cavity, however the periscope screws ran out of range, so we changed the mircometers on CM2. We tried this for quite some time, but had problems with the beam reflected from the cavity clipping the steering mirror on the breadboard (to close to the outer edge of the mirror). This was fixed by changing the angle of the two curved mirrors. (We should include a diagram to explain this).

The cavity was locke, the FSR was measured using the detuned locking method, and we found that the FSR = 264.805 MHz, which corresponds to a cavity length of 1.1321m

we took some photos, the spot is quite far to the edge of the mirrors (3 to 4mm), but its near the centre vertically. photos are 

123-7699 = CM2

123-7697 = CM1



  36   Thu Nov 8 19:47:55 2012 KojiElectronicsConfigurationSolder for PZTs

Rich saids:

I have ordered a small roll of solder for the OMC piezos. 
The alloy is: Sn96.5 Ag3.0 Cu0.5

  48   Mon Dec 31 03:10:09 2012 KojiOpticsGeneralSolidWorks model of the OMC breadboard
  52   Sun Jan 6 23:22:21 2013 KojiMechanicsGeneralSolidWorks model of the OMC suspension


  284   Sat Jul 1 21:33:18 2017 KojiGeneralGeneralSome purchase notes

- Forgot to close the cylinder valve...

v HEPA prefilter (20"x20"x1" MERV 7)

- Replace the filter for the air conditioning

v Texwipe TX715 SWAB http://www.texwipe.com/store/p-817-tx715.aspx

v Gloves ~3 bags
VWR GLOVE ACCTCH NR-LTX SZ7.0 PK25 79999-304 x3
VWR GLOVE ACCTCH NR-LTX SZ7.5 PK25 79999-306 x1

v Vectra IPA soaked cloths

v Sticky mats

  • GLOVE ACCTCH NR-LTX SZ7 PK25 / 79999-304 / PK4
  • GLOVE ACCTCH NR-LTX SZ7.5 PK25 / 79999-306 / PK1
  • WIPER 100% IPA 23X23CM PK50. / TWTX8410 / PK2
  • MAT CLEAN ROOM 18X36IN BLUE / 89021-748 / CS1 (Qty4)
  • FILTER PLET AIR MERV8 20X20X1 / 78002-422 / EA4 / Direct from Supplier


  138   Wed Jun 5 18:19:51 2013 KojiGeneralGeneralSome recent photos from the OMC final test at CIT

Applying First Contact for the optics cleaning

PD alignment / scattering photos


Cabling (final) 

  213   Mon Jul 21 01:02:43 2014 KojiMechanicsCharacterizationSome structual mode analysis


Fundamental: 12.3kHz Secondary: 16.9kHz

PRISM_12_3kHz.png PRISM_16_9kHz.png


Fundamental: 2.9kHz Secondary: 4.1kHz

DCPD_2_9kHz.png DCPD_4_1kHz.png


Fundamental: 5.6kHz Secondary: 8.2kHz

QPD_6_0kHz.png QPD_8_2kHz.png

  120   Mon May 6 19:31:51 2013 KojiOpticsCharacterizationSpot position measurement on the diode mounts

Measurement Order: DCPD2->DCPD1->QPD1->QPD2

DCPD1: 1.50mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.027mm too low

DCPD2: 1.75mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.051mm too high (...less confident)

QPD1:   1.25mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.077mm too low

QPD2:   1.25mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.134mm too low
          or 1.00mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.116mm too high

  121   Wed May 8 15:08:57 2013 KojiOpticsCharacterizationSpot position measurement on the diode mounts

Remeasured the spot positions:

DCPD1: 1.50mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.084mm too high

DCPD2: 1.50mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.023mm too high

QPD1:   1.25mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.001mm too low

QPD2:   1.25mm+0.085mm => Beam 0.155mm too low

  158   Tue Aug 27 17:02:31 2013 KojiMechanicsCharacterizationSpot position measurement on the diode mounts

After the PZT test, the curved mirrors were aligned to the cavity again.

In order to check the height of the cavity beam, the test DCPD mount was assembled with 2mm shim (D1201467-3)
The spot position was checked with a CCD camera.

According to the analysis of the picture, the spot height is about 0.71mm lower than the center of the mount.

  180   Mon Mar 3 02:46:21 2014 KojiGeneralCharacterizationSpot positions scanned

Spot positions on CM1 and CM2 scanned according to the recipes provided by the previous entry.

The best result obtained was:

Transmission from FM2: 32.7mW
Incident on BS1: 34.4mW

Reflection (Unlocked): 5.99V
Reflection (Locked): 104mV
Reflection (Dark): -7.5mV

to accomodate the spot on BS1 it had to be about a mm moved from the template.

This gives us:
- Portion of the TEM00 carrier: R = 1-(104+7.5)/(5990+7.5) = 0.981
- Raw transmission: 32.7/34.4 = 0.950
- TEM00 transmission 0.950/R = 0.969
- Excluding the transmission of BS1: 0.969/0.9926 = 0.976
  => loss per mirror ~40ppm


  168   Fri Sep 13 15:09:20 2013 KojiGeneralGeneralSprinkler installation: done

A sprinkler head was installed on the HEPA enclosure. The head is covered with a plastic cap.

  218   Tue Sep 9 20:59:19 2014 KojiMechanicsCharacterizationStructural mode analysis for the PZT mirror

Structural analysis of the PZT mirror with COMSOL.

Inline figures: Eigenmodes which involves large motion of the tombstone. In deed 10kHz mode is not the resonance of the PZT-mirror joint, but the resonance of the tombstone.

Attached PDF: Simulated transfer function of the PZT actuation. In order to simulate the PZT motion, boundary loads on the two sides of the PZT were applied with opposite signs.
10kHz peak appears as the resonance of the tombstone dominates the mirror motion. At 12kHz, the PZT extension and the backaction of the tombstone cancells each other and
the net displacement of the mirror becomes zero.

PZT_10.0kHz.png PZT_14.6kHz.png PZT_18.0kHz.png

PZT_22.5kHz.png PZT_29.7kHz.png

  315   Sat Feb 2 16:17:13 2019 KojiOpticsCharacterizationSummary: OMC(001) HOM structure recalculation

Each peak of the transfer function measurement was fitted again with a complex function:

\begin{align} h(f;a_{\rm r}, a_{\rm i}, f_0, dT, \Gamma, a_0, b_0, a_1, b_1) & \nonumber\\ = (a_{\rm r} + i a_{\rm i}) e^{-i 2 \pi f dT} \frac{1}{1 + i (f - f_0)/\Gamma} &+ (a_0 + i b_0) + (a_1 + i b_1)f \nonumber \end{align}

OMC (001)
Measurement date 2013/5/31, Installed to L1 2013/6/10~

  316   Sat Feb 2 20:03:19 2019 KojiOpticsCharacterizationSummary: OMC(002) HOM structure recalculation (before mirror replacement)

OMC (002)
Measurement date 2013/10/11, Installed to L1 2013/XX

  317   Sat Feb 2 20:28:21 2019 KojiOpticsCharacterizationSummary: OMC(003) HOM structure recalculation

OMC (003)
Measurement date 2014/7/5, Stored for I1, Installed to H1 2016/8 upon damage on 002

  192   Fri Jun 27 18:51:33 2014 KojiGeneralGeneralSupply

PTOUCH TAPE (12mm white) x 2

9V batteries

  396   Fri Oct 9 01:01:01 2020 KojiGeneralGeneralTFT Monitor mounting

To spare some room on the optical table, I wanted to mount the two TFT monitor units on the HEPA enclosure frame.
I found some Bosch Rexroth parts (# 3842539840) in the lab, so the bracket was taken for the mount. This swivel head works very well. It's rigid and still the angle is adjustable.


BTW, this TFT display (Triplett HDCM2) is also very nice. It has HDMI/VGA/Video/BNC inputs (wow perfect) and the LCD is Full-HD LED TFT.



The only issue is that one unit (I have two) shows the image horizontally flipped. I believe that I used the unit with out this problem before, I'm asking the company how to fix this.


  397   Fri Oct 16 00:53:29 2020 KojiGeneralGeneralTFT Monitor mounting

The image flipping of the display unit was fixed. The vendor told me how to fix it.

- Open the chassis by the four screws at the side.
- Look at the pass-through PCB board between the mother and display boards.
- Disconnect the flat flex cables from the pass-through PCB (both sides) and reconnect them (i.e. reseat the cables)

That's it and it actually fixed the image flipping issue.


  10   Mon Jul 23 17:15:14 2012 KojiCleanGeneralTalking with Margot

I consulted with Margot about the cleaning of the optics

  • Optics are considered as a clean object. Large dusts can be removed by ionized N2 flow etc.
  • Barrel of optics can be wiped with Acetone.
  • Optical surfaces are best to be cleaned by First Contact.
  • A peek mesh should be embedded in the first contact so that the First Contact sheet can be easily removed.
  • When peeling a F.C. sheet from a mirror surface, ionized N2 should be brown for discharging.
  • If there are residuals visible on the mirror surface, it should be removed by Acetone. Don't use alchols.
  • Use paper lens tissue for wiping as the lint free wipe can be eaten by Acetone.
  • In fact, All of the procedure is described in a certain document.
  • For a small amount, Margot can provide us a bottle of F.C. and some PEEK meshes.

Details of the Ionized N2 system

  • This N2 should have higher purity than 4N (UHP - Ultra High Purity). This means we should use 4N - UHP or 5N - Research Grade.
  • The ionized gun used in the clean room at Downs: made by Terra Universal.com
  • Flow path: N2 cylinder - Filter - Gun
  86   Thu Mar 28 03:37:07 2013 ZachOpticsConfigurationTest setup input optics progress

[Lisa, Zach]

Last night (Tuesday), I finished setting up and aligning most of the input optics for the OMC characterization setup. See the diagram below, but the setup consists of:

  • Faraday isolator/polarization definition
  • HWP+PBS for power splitting into two paths:
    • EOM path
      • Resonant EOM for PDH sideband generation
      • Broadband EOM for frequency scanning
    • AOM path
      • Double-passed ~200-MHz Isomet AOM for subcarrier generation. NOTE: in this case, I have chosen the m = -1 diffraction order due to the space constraints on the table.
  • Recombination of paths on a 50/50 beam splitter---half of the power is lost through the unused port into a black glass dump
  • Coupler for launching dual-field beam into a fiber (to OMC)

OMC_test_setup_IO.jpg 2013-03-27_05.48.20.jpg

Today, we placed some lenses into the setup, in two places:

  1. In the roundabout section of the AOM path that leads to the recombination, to re-match the AOM-path beam to that of the EOM path
  2. After the recombination beam splitter, to match the combined beam mode into the fiber

We (Koji, Lisa, and myself) had significant trouble getting more than ~0.1% coupling through the fiber, and after a while we decided to go to the 40m to get the red-light fiber illuminator to help with the alignment.

Using the illuminator, we realigned the input to the coupler and eventually got much better---but still bad---coupling of ~1.2% (0.12 mW out / 10 mW in). Due to the multi-mode nature of the illuminator beam, the output cannot be used to judge the collimation of the IR beam; it can only be used to verify the alignment of the beam.

With 0.12 mW emerging from the other end of the fiber, we could see the output quite clearly on a card (see photo below). This can tell us about the required input mode. From the looks of it, our beam is actually focused too strongly. We should probably replace the 75mm lens again with a slightly longer one.

Lisa and I concurred that it felt like we had converged to the optimum alignment and polarization, which would mean that the lack of coupling is all from mode mismatch. Since the input mode is well collimated, it seems unlikely that we could be off enough to only get ~1% coupling. One possibility is that the collimator is not well attached to the fiber itself. Since the Rayleigh range within it is very small, any looseness here can be critical.


I think there are several people around here who have worked pretty extensively with fibers. So, I propose that we ask them to take a look at what we have done and see if we're doing something totally wrong. There is no reason to reinvent the wheel.

  212   Sun Jul 20 17:20:39 2014 KojiGeneralGeneralThe 3rd (LIO) OMC was shipped out to LHO

The 3rd (LIO) OMC was shipped out to LHO on Friday (Jul 18) Morning.


- All of the on-breadboard cables should be attached and tied down.

- Peel First Contact paint and pack the OMC for storage.


  285   Wed Jul 5 16:59:44 2017 KojiGeneralGeneralThe OMC #002 was packed

[Stephen Koji]

The OMC #002 was packed for the transportation to Downs.

===> And transported to Downs 227 on Jul 6th.

  404   Mon Nov 23 23:17:19 2020 KojiElectronicsCharacterizationThe dark noise of the Q3000 QPDs

The dark noise levels of the four Q3000 QPDs were measured with FEMTO DLPCA200 low noise transimpedance amp.

The measurement has been done in the audio frequency band. The amp gain was 10^7 V/A. The reverse bias was set to be 5V and the DC output of the amplifier was ~40mV which corresponds to the dark current of 4nA. It is consistent with the dark current measurement.

The measured floor level of the dark current was below the shot noise level for the DC current of 0.1mA (i.e. 6pA/rtHz).
No anomalous behavior was found with the QPDs.

Note that there is a difference in the level of the power line noise between the QPDs. The large part of the line noises was due to the noise coupling from a soldering iron right next to the measurement setup, although the switch of the iron was off. I've noticed this noise during the measurement sets for QPD #83. Then the iron was disconnected from the AC tap.

  405   Tue Nov 24 10:45:07 2020 gautamElectronicsCharacterizationThe dark noise of the Q3000 QPDs

I see that these measurements are done out to 100 kHz - I guess there is no reason to suspect anything at 55 MHz which is where this QPD will be reading out photocurrent given the low frequency behavior looks fine? The broad feature at ~80 kHz is the usual SR785 feature I guess, IIRC it's got to do with the display scanning rate.


The measured floor level of the dark current was below the shot noise level for the DC current of 0.1mA (i.e. 6pA/rtHz).

  406   Tue Nov 24 12:27:18 2020 KojiElectronicsCharacterizationThe dark noise of the Q3000 QPDs

The amplifier BW was 400kHz at the gain of 1e7 V/A. And the max BW is 500kHz even at a lower gain. I have to setup something special to see the RF band dark noise.
With this situation, I stated "the RF dark noise should be characterized by the actual WFS head circuit." in the 40m ELOG.

  421   Thu Jul 21 17:47:00 2022 KojiGeneralGeneralThe profile of the beam incident on the fiber input coupler

The profile of the beam incident on the fiber input

The fiber input was deflected by a 45deg mirror. The beam profile was measured with WincamD. The beam was too strong (~60mW) even at the smallest pump power (ADJ -50) of the NPRO. So the two ND20 filters were added to the lens right before the 45 deg mirror and the camera.

The measured profile had some deviation from the nice TEM00 particularly around the waist. This could be a problem of the too small beam on the ND filter and the CCD.
This is not an issue as we just want to know the approximate shape of the beam.

For the fiber coupling, if we have the beam waist radius of ~200um it is sufficient for decent coupling.

  413   Tue Jun 28 16:13:34 2022 KojiGeneralGeneralThe small optical table not small enough to get out

The table width was an inch too large compared to the door width. We need to tilt the table and it seemed too much for us. Let's ask the transportation for handling.

Photo courtesy by Juan

  50   Wed Jan 2 07:35:55 2013 KojiOpticsCharacterizationThickness of a curved mirror

Measured the thickness of a curved mirror:

Took three points separated by 120 degree.

S/N: C2, (0.2478, 0.2477, 0.2477) in inch => (6.294, 6.292, 6.292) in mm

  177   Tue Dec 10 16:41:51 2013 KojiGeneralGeneralTo Buy

Masks / Wipes => done

  200   Mon Jul 7 01:36:03 2014 KojiGeneralGeneralTo Do

Optical tests

  • Cleaning
  • Power Budget
  • FSR measurement
  • TMS measurement
  • TMS measurement (with DC voltage on PZTs)
  • PZT DC response
  • PZT AC response
  • QPD alignment
  • DCPD alignment

Backscattering test

Cabling / Wiring

  • Attaching cable/mass platforms
  • PZT cabling
  • DCPD cabling
  • QPD cabling

Vibration test


First Contact

Packing / Shipping

  204   Thu Jul 10 08:34:57 2014 KojiGeneralGeneralTo Do

Optical tests

  • Cleaning
  • Power Budget
  • FSR measurement
  • TMS measurement
  • TMS measurement (with DC voltage on PZTs)
  • PZT DC response
  • PZT AC response
  • QPD alignment
  • DCPD alignment

Backscattering test

Cabling / Wiring

  • Attaching cable/mass platforms
  • PZT cabling
  • DCPD cabling (to be done at LHO)
  • QPD cabling (to be done at LHO)

Vibration test


First Contact

Packing / Shipping

  2   Sat Jun 16 08:53:09 2012 KojiGeneralGeneralTo Do List



  • Work 
  • Design
    • How do we hold the PDs, QPDs, and black glass - we put 2 PDs and 2 QPDs on the PD mounting blacket.
  • Test
  • Things to be tested
    • New suspension scheme (cup & cone design)
    • Balancing the plates
    • Dummy metal payload?
  • => Suspending test with a suspension cage for a Faraday isolator@CIT
    • Supporting block for the suspension cage (to mimic the OMC suspension)
  • Things to be designed
    • Wire end (cone)
    • Diode holding structures
      PD/QPD/PZT holding structure
  • PZT alignment
  • Prototyping with metal parts?
  • UV glue? (heat) / gluing test
  • Balance / ballast
  • Solid works


  • Mirrors to be delivered ~Aug
  • Design down select
    • Between "Single output & BS" vs "Two outputs & no BS"
  • Mode design
  • Finalization of scattering paths / PD angles etc
  • Things to be decided / confirmed:
    • How to handle optics / assemblies (Talk to the prev people)
    • First contact? (Margot: applicable to a short Rc of ~2.5m)
    • Gluing templates to be designed (how to handle it?)
  • Things to be tested:
    • R&T of each mirror
    • Cavity ref/trans/finesse
    • PD QE / incident angle
  • What PD do we use?
  • CCD beam analyzer (Zach: It is fixed.)
  • PD angle measurement
  • Obtain EG&G 3mm PDs


  • Electronics / CDS electronics / software
  • Things to be tested
    • QPD/PD pre-selections (QE/noise)
    • Functionality test of QPD/PD/PZT

Shipping, storage etc

    - Lab renovtion
    - Mechanics design
    - Glue training
    - Mirror delivery
    - Basic optics test
    - Cavity test
    - Suspending test
    - Shipping to LLO

Open questions
    Two optical designs
    Clamp design / stencil design
    gluing-installation procedure

  4   Wed Jun 20 20:37:45 2012 ZachOpticsConfigurationTopology / parameter selection

EDIT (ZK): All the plots here were generated using my MATLAB cavity modeling tool, ArbCav. The utility description is below. The higher-order mode resonance plots are direct outputs of the function. The overlap plots were made by modifying the function to output a list of all HOM resonant frequencies, and then plotting the closest one as a function of cavity length. This was done for various values of highest mode order to consider, as described in the original entry.


This function calculates information about an arbitrary optical cavity. It can plot the cavity geometry, calculate the transmission/reflection spectrum, and generate the higher-order mode spectrum for the carrier and up to 2 sets of sidebands.

The code accepts any number of mirrors with any radius of curvature and transmission, and includes any astigmatic effects in its output.

As opposed to the previous version, which converted a limited number of cavity shapes into linear cavities before performing the calculation, this version explicitly propagates the gouy phase of the beam around each leg of the cavity, and is therefore truly able to handle an arbitrary geometry.

----------------Original Post----------------

I expressed concern that arbitrarily choosing some maximum HOM order above which not to consider makes us vulnerable to sitting directly on a slightly-higher-order mode. At first, I figured the best way around this is to apply an appropriate weighting function to the computed HOM frequency spacing. Since this will also have some arbitrariness to it, I have decided to do it in a more straightforward way. Namely, look at the spacing for different values of the maximum mode number, nmax, and then use this extra information to better select the length.


  • The curved mirror RoC is the design value of 2.50±0.025 m
  • The ±9 MHz sidebands will have ~1% the power of the other fields at the dark port. Accordingly, as in Sam's note, their calculated spacing is artificially increased by 10 linewidths.
  • The opening angle of 4º is FIXED, and the total length is scaled accordingly

Below are the spacing plots for the bowtie (flat-flat-curved-curved) and non-bowtie (flat-curved-flat-curved) configurations. Points on each line should be read out as "there are are no modes of order N or lower within [Y value] linewidths of the carrier TEM00 transmission", where N is the nmax appropriate for that trace. Intuitively, as more orders are included, the maxima go down, because more orders are added to the calculation.

*All calculations are done using my cavity simulation function, ArbCav. The mode spacing is calculated for each particular geometry by explicitly propagating the gouy phase through each leg of the cavity, rather than by finding an equivalent linear cavity*


Since achievable HOM rejection is only one of the criteria that should be used to choose between the two topologies, the idea is to pick one length solution for EACH topology. Basically, one maximum should be chosen for each plot, based on how how high an order we care about.


For the bowtie, the nmax = 20 maximum at L = 1.145 m is attractive, because there are no n < 20 modes within 5 linewidths, and no n < 25 modes within ~4.5 linewidths. However, this means that there are also n < 10 modes within 5 linewidths, while they could be pushed (BLUE line) to ~8.5 linewidths at the expense of proximity to n > 15 modes.

Therefore, it's probably best to pick something between the red and green maxima: 1.145 m < L < 1.152 m.

By manually inspecting the HOM spectrum for nmax = 20, it seems that L = 1.150 m is the best choice. In the HOM zoom plot below and the one to follow, the legend is as follows

  • BLUE: Carrier
  • GREEN: +9 MHz
  • RED: -9 MHz
  • CYAN: +45 MHz
  • BLACK: -45 MHz



Following the same logic as above, the most obvious choice for the non-bowtie is somewhere between the red maximum at 1.241 m and the magenta maximum at 1.248 m. This still allows for reasonable suppression of the n < 10 modes without sacrificing the n < 15 mode suppression completely.

Upon inspection, I suggest L = 1.246 m


I reiterate that these calculations are taking into account modes of up to n ~ 20. If there is a reason we really only care about a lower order than this, then we can do better. Otherwise, this is a nice compromise between full low-order mode isolation and not sitting directly on slightly higher modes.


RoC dependence

One complication that arises is that all of these are highly dependent on the actual RoC of the mirrors. Unfortunately, even the quoted tolerance of ±1% makes a difference. Below is a rendering of the RED traces (nmax = 20) in the first two plots, but for R varying by ±2% (i.e., for R = 2.45 m, 2.50 m, 2.55 m).


The case for the non-bowtie only superficially seems better; the important spacing is the large one between the three highest peaks centered around 1.24 m.

Also unfortunately, this strong dependence is also true for the lowest-order modes. Below is the same two plots, but for the BLUE (nmax = 10) lines in the first plots.


Therefore, it is prudent not to pick a specific length until the precise RoC of the mirrors is measured.



Assuming the validity of looking at modes between 10 < n < 20, and that the curved mirror RoC is the design value of 2.50 m, the recommended lengths for each case are:

  • Bowtie: LRT = 1.150 m
  • Non-bowtie: LRT = 1.246 m

 HOWEVER, variation within the design tolerance of the mirror RoC will change these numbers appreciably, and so the RoC should be measured before a length is firmly chosen.

  278   Fri May 26 21:53:20 2017 KojiGeneralConfigurationTrans RF PD setup

Recent work

- DC output of the trans RF PD was connected to the BNC patch panel. => Now CH4 of the scope is monitoring this signal

- The RF sweep signal from the network analyzer is connected to the power combiner for the EOM drive via the SMA patch panel.

- The trans RF PD was aligned first to the leakage beam. It turned out that this signal is too weak. Then the PD was aligned to one of the main OMC transmission. For this purpose, the OMC DCPD (T) was removed from the OMC breadboard.

- It seems that there is a significant amount of RF AM from the EOM. I suspect it is associated with the residual S-pol and birefringence of the steering mirrors (45deg HR). But the HWP at the output of the Faraday is fixed on the Faraday body with a screw and cumbersome for fine adjustment. A PBS and an HWP are added right before the EOM. This made the fiber coupler slightly misaligned. I suppose this new setup still has S&P on the fiber too. Thus, readjustment of the fiber rotations at the input is necessary.

Next step

- Input power to the fiber should be determined before the EOM. Otherwise, touching the HWP before the EOM causes too much power change at the optics of the OMC side.

- Precise adjustment of the RFAM is still necessary.

- The OMC curved mirror should be held by the new fixture.

- Check the beam spots

- Measure cavity parameters. (transmission/FSR/HOM/etc)

==> Then the curved mirror and the PZT will be glued on the prism

ELOG V3.1.3-