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ID Date Authorup Type Category Subject
  25   Thu Sep 9 20:42:34 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsRerun HR coatings with n,k dispersion

[Paco]

Alright, I've done a re-optimization targetting a wider T band around 2128 nm. For this I modified the scalar minimization cost to evaluate the curvature term (instead of the slope) around a wide range of 10% (instead of 1%). Furthermore, in prevision of the overall effects of using the updated dispersion, I intentionally optimized for a lower T such that we intentionally overshoot.

The results are in Attachment #1 and Attachment #2.

Attachment 1: ETM210909190218.pdf
ETM210909190218.pdf
Attachment 2: ITMLayers210909204021.pdf
ITMLayers210909204021.pdf
  28   Sun Sep 19 18:52:58 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsHR coating emissivity

[Paco, Nina]

We have been working on an estimate of the wavelength dependent emissivity for the mariner test mass HR coatings. Here is a brief summary.

We first tried extending the thin film optimization code to include extinction coefficient (so using the complex index of refraction rather than the real part only). We used cubic interpolations of the silica and tantala thin film dispersions found here for wavelengths in the 1 to 100 um range. This allowed us to recompute the field amplitude reflectivity and transmissivity over a broader range. Then, we used the imaginary part of the index of refraction and the thin film thicknesses to estimate the absorbed fraction of power from the interface. The power loss for a given layer is exponential in the product of the thickness and the extinction coefficient (see eq 2.6.16 here) . Then, the total absorption is the product of all the individual layer losses times the transmitted field at the interface. This is true when energy conservation distributes power among absorption (=emission), reflection, and transmission:

1 = \epsilon + R + T

The resulting emissivity estimate using this reasoning is plotted as an example in Attachment #1 for the ETM design from April. Two things to note from this; (1) the emissivity is vanishignly small around 1419 and 2128 nm, as most of the power is reflected which kind of makes sense, and (2) the emissivity doesn't quite follow the major absorption features in the thin film interpolated data at lower wavelengths (see Attachment #2), which is dominated by Tantala... which is not naively expected?

Maybe not the best proxy for emissivity? Code used to generate this estimates is hosted here.

Attachment 1: ETM_210409_120913_emissivity.pdf
ETM_210409_120913_emissivity.pdf
Attachment 2: interpolated_TF_k.pdf
interpolated_TF_k.pdf
  33   Fri Oct 1 11:52:06 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsHR coating emissivity

[Paco, Nina, Aidan]

Updated the stack emissivity code to use the Kitamura paper fused silica dispersion which has a prominent 20 um absorption peak which wasn't there before... (data was up to 15 um, and extrapolated smoothly beyond). The updated HR stack emissivities are in Attachments #1 - #2. A weird feature I don't quite understand is the discontinous jump at ~ 59 um ... 

Attachment 1: ETM_210409_120913_emissivity.pdf
ETM_210409_120913_emissivity.pdf
Attachment 2: interpolated_n_k.pdf
interpolated_n_k.pdf
  34   Fri Oct 1 12:01:24 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsTM Barrel coating emissivity

[Paco, Nina, Aidan]

We ran our stack emissivity calculation on different AR stacks to try and make a decision for the TM barrel coatings. This code has yet to be validated by cross checking against tmm as suggested by Chris. The proposed layer structures by Aidan and Nina are:

  1. *| Air || SiO2 x 800 nm || Ta2O5 x 5 um || Silicon |*
  2. *| Air || Ta2O5 x 10 um || Sio2 x 20 nm || Silicon |*
  3. *| Air || SiO2 x 100 nm || TiO2 x 1 um || Silicon |*

Attachments # 1-3 show the emissivity curves for these simple dielectric stacks. Attachment #4 shows the extinction coefficient data used for the three different materials. The next step is to validate these results with tmm, but so far it looks like TiO2 might be a good absorbing film option.

Attachment 1: stack_1.pdf
stack_1.pdf
Attachment 2: stack_2.pdf
stack_2.pdf
Attachment 3: stack_3.pdf
stack_3.pdf
Attachment 4: interpolated_n_k.pdf
interpolated_n_k.pdf
  36   Fri Oct 1 14:11:23 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsTM Barrel coating emissivity

Agree with this. Quickly running tmm on the same "stacks" gave the Attachment #1-3. (Ignore the vertical axis units... will post corrected plots) and extend the wavelength range to 100 um.

Attachment 1: stack_1.pdf
stack_1.pdf
Attachment 2: stack_2.pdf
stack_2.pdf
Attachment 3: stack_3.pdf
stack_3.pdf
  47   Fri Nov 5 11:51:50 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsEstimate of in-air absorption near 2.05 um

[Paco]

I used the HITRAN database to download the set of ro-vibrational absorption lines of CO2 (carbon dioxide) near 2.05 um. The lines are plotted for reference vs wavenumber in inverse cm in Attachment #1.

Then, in Attachment #2, I estimate the broadened spectrum around 2.05 um and compare it against one produced by an online tool using the 2004 HITRAN catalog.

For the broadened spectrum, I assumed 1 atm pressure, 296 K temperature (standard conditions) and a nominal CO2 density of 1.96 kg/m^3 under this conditions. Then, the line profile was Lorentzian with a HWHM width determined by self and air broadening coefficients also from HITRAN. The difference between 2050 nm and 2040 nm absorption is approximately 2 orders of magnitude; so 2040 nm would be better suited to avoid in-air absorption. Nevertheless, the estimate implies an absorption coefficient at 2050 nm of ~ 20 ppm / m, with a nearby absorption line peaking at ~ 100 ppm / m

For the PMC, (length = 50 cm), the roundtrip loss contribution by in-air absorption at 2050 nm would amount to ~ 40 ppm. BUT, this is nevery going to happen unless we pump out everything and pump in 1 atm of pure CO2. So ignore this part.


Tue Nov 9 08:23:56 2021 UPDATE

Taking a partial pressure of 0.05 % (~ 500 ppm concentration in air), the broadening and total absorption decrease linearly with respect to the estimate above. Attachment #3 shows the new estimate.

For the PMC, (length = 50 cm), the roundtrip loss contribution by in-air absorption at 2050 nm would amount to ~ 1 ppm.

Attachment 1: HITRAN_line_strenghts.pdf
HITRAN_line_strenghts.pdf
Attachment 2: broadened_spectrum.pdf
broadened_spectrum.pdf
Attachment 3: PP_broadened_spectrum.pdf
PP_broadened_spectrum.pdf
  48   Tue Nov 16 11:47:54 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsEstimate of in-air absorption near 2.05 um

[Paco]

There was an error in the last plot of the previous log. This was correctly pointed out by rana's pointing out that the broadening from air should be independent of the CO2 concentration, so nominally both curves should coincide with each other. Nevertheless, this doesn't affect the earlier conclusions -->

The PMC loss by background, pressure broadened absorption lines at 2049.9 nm by CO2 is < 1 ppm.

The results posted here are reflected in the latest notebook commit here.

Attachment 1: PP_broadened_spectrum.pdf
PP_broadened_spectrum.pdf
  67   Mon Jul 18 18:34:29 2022 PacoGeneralDesign specsHR coating update

I've been running the HR coating optimization for mariner TMs. Relative to the specifications found here we now are aiming for

  • ITM HR coating of 2000 ppm @ 2050.15 nm, and 1000 ppm @ 1550 nm
  • ETM HR coating of 25 ppm @ 2050.15 nm, and 1000 ppm @ 1550 nm.

Both the PSL and AUX cavity finesses range the few couple of thousands, and the goal is not to optimize the coating stack for noise, but more importantly for the transmission values and tolerances. This way we ensure the average finesse and differential finesse requirements are met. Anyways, Attachment #1-2 shows the transmission plots for the optimized coating stacks (so far). Attachments #3-4 show the dielectric stacks. The code still lives in this repository.

I'm on the process of assessing the tolerance of this design stacks against perturbations in the layer thicknesses; to be posted in a follow-up elog.

Attachment 1: ETM_R.pdf
ETM_R.pdf
Attachment 2: ITM_R.pdf
ITM_R.pdf
Attachment 3: ETM_Layers.pdf
ETM_Layers.pdf
Attachment 4: ITM_Layers.pdf
ITM_Layers.pdf
  68   Fri Jul 22 13:36:55 2022 PacoGeneralDesign specsHR coating update

Here are some corner plots to analyze the sensitivity of the designs in the previous elog to a 1% gaussian distributed perturbation using MCMC.

Attachment #1 shows the ETM corner plot 

Attachment #2 shows the ITM corner plot.

I let the indices of both high and low index materials vary, as well as the physical thicknesses and project their covariances to the transmission for PSL and AUX wavelengths.

The result shows that for our designs it is better to undershoot in the optimization stage rather than meet the exact number. Nevertheless, 1% level perturbations in the optical thickness of the stack result in 30% deviations in our target transmission specifications. It would be nice to have a better constraint on how much each parameter is actually varying by, e.g. I don't believe we can't fix the index of refraction to better than 1%., but exactly what its value is I don't know, and what are the layer deposition tolerances? These numbers will make our perturbation analysis more precise.

Attachment 1: ETM_corner.pdf
ETM_corner.pdf
Attachment 2: ITM_corner.pdf
ITM_corner.pdf
  76   Tue Aug 16 09:58:23 2022 PacoGeneralDesign specsHR coating update

A couple of coating stacks with better tolerance (transmission +- 10%). Attachments #1-2 show the spectral reflectivities for ETM/ITM respectively, while Attachments #3-4 show the corner plots. I think the tolerances are inflated by the fact that all the stack indices and thicknesses are varying, while in reality these two effects are degenerate because what matters is the optical thickness. I will try to reflect this in the MCMC code next. Finally, attachments # 5-6 are the hdf5 files with the optimization results.

Attachment 1: ETM_R_220816_094640..pdf
ETM_R_220816_094640..pdf
Attachment 2: ITM_R_220816_095441..pdf
ITM_R_220816_095441..pdf
Attachment 3: ETM_corner.pdf
ETM_corner.pdf
Attachment 4: ITM_corner.pdf
ITM_corner.pdf
Attachment 5: ETM_Layers_220816_094640.hdf5
Attachment 6: ITM_Layers_220816_095441.hdf5
  30   Fri Sep 24 13:12:00 2021 RadhikaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

*Note: the current modeling script can be found at: CryoEngineering/MarinerCooldownEstimation.ipynb

Nina pointed me to the current mariner cooldown estimation script (path above) and we have since met a few times to discuss upgrades/changes. Nina's hand calculations were mostly consistent with the existing model, so minimal changes were necessary. The material properties and geometric parameters of the TM and snout were updated to the values recently verified by Nina. To summarize, the model considers the following heat sources onto the testmass (Pin):

- laser absorption by ITM bulk (function of incident laser power, PR gain, and bulk absorption)

- laser absorption by ITM HR coating (function of incident laser power and HR coating absorption)

- radiative heating from room-temp tube snout (function of snout radius and length, and TM radius)

The heat transfer out of the testmass (Pout) is simply the sum of the radiative heat emitted by the HR and AR faces and the barrel. Note that the script currently assumes an inner shield T of 77K, and the inner/outer shield geometric parameters need to be obtained/verified.

Nina and Paco have been working towards obtaining tabulated emissivity data as a function of temperature and wavelength. In the meantime, I created the framework to import this tabulated data, use cubic spline interpolation, and return temperature-dependent emissivities. It should be straightforward to incorporate the emissivity data once it is available. Currently, the script uses room-temperature values for the emissivities of various materials. 

Future steps:

- Incorporate tabulated emissivity data

- Verify and update inner/outer shield dimensions

 

 

 

 

  32   Wed Sep 29 16:15:19 2021 RadhikaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

Attachment 1 is a geometric diagram that reflects the current state of the ITM cooldown model, introduced in [30]. The inner shield is assumed to be held at 77K for simplicity, and 2 heat sources are considered: laser heating, and radiative heating from the room-temperature snout opening. The view factor Fij between the snout opening and test mass (modeled as 2 coaxial parallel discs separated by length L - equation found in Cengel Heat Transfer) is calculated to be 0.022. The parameters used in the model are noted in the figure.

Attachment 2 is a simplified diagram that includes the heating/cooling links to the test mass. At 123K, the radiative cooling power from the inner shield (at 77K) is 161 mW. The radiative heating from the snout opening is 35 mW, and the laser heating (constant) is 101.5 mW. Due to the tiny view factor betwen the snout opening and the test mass, most of the heat emitted by the opening does not get absorbed. 

The magnitudes of heating and cooling power can be seen in Attachment 3. Lastly, Attachment 4 plots the final cooldown curve given this model. 

My next step is to add the outer shield and fix its temperature, and then determine the optimal size/location of the inner shield to maximize cooling of the test mass. This is question was posed by Koji in order to inform inner shield/outer shield geometric specs. Then, I will add a cold finger and cryo cooler (conductive cooling). Diagrams will be updated/posted accordingly.

Attachment 1: Heat_Load_Sketch_geometry.pdf
Heat_Load_Sketch_geometry.pdf
Attachment 2: Heat_Load_Sketch_diagram.pdf
Heat_Load_Sketch_diagram.pdf
Attachment 3: heating_cooling_P_vs_T.pdf
heating_cooling_P_vs_T.pdf
Attachment 4: CooldownTM_radiative.pdf
CooldownTM_radiative.pdf
  37   Tue Oct 5 17:46:14 2021 RadhikaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

Building on [32], I added a copper cold finger to conductively cool the inner shield, instead of holding the inner shield fixed at 77K. The cold finger draws cooling power from a cyro cooler or "cold bath" held at 60K, for simplicity. I added an outer shield and set its temperature to 100K. The outer shield supplies some radiative heating to the inner shield, but blocks out 295K heating, which is what we want. The expanded diagram can be seen in Attachment 1. 

I wanted to find the optimal choice of inner shield area (AIS) to maximize the radiative cooling to the test mass. I chose 5 values for AIS (from ATM to AOS) and plotted the test mass cooldown for each in Attachment 2. The radiative coupling between the inner shield and test mass is maximized when the ratio of the areas, ATM/AIS, is minimized. Therefore, the larger AIS, the colder the test mass can be cooled. Even though choosing AIS close to AOS increases the coupling between the 2 shields, the resulting heating from the outer shield is negligible compared to the enhancement in cooling.

I chose AIS = 0.22 m2 to model the inner shield and test mass cooldown in Attachment 3. The test mass reaches 123 K at ~ 125 hours, or a little over 5 days. I have pushed the updated script which can be found under mariner40/CryoEngineering/MarinerCooldownEstimation.ipynb.

Attachment 1: Heat_Load_Sketch_all.pdf
Heat_Load_Sketch_all.pdf
Attachment 2: VaryingISA.pdf
VaryingISA.pdf
Attachment 3: CooldownTM.pdf
CooldownTM.pdf
  42   Fri Oct 15 13:45:55 2021 RadhikaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

I used the same model in [37] to consider how test mass length affects the cooldown. Attachment 1 plots the curves for TM length=100mm and 150mm. The coupling between the test mass and inner shield is proportional to the area of the test mass, and therefore increases with increasing length. Choosing l=100mm (compared to 150mm) thus reduces the radiative cooling of the test mass. The cooldown time to 123K is ~125 hrs or over 5 days for TM length=150mm (unchanged from [37]), but choosing TM length=100m increases this time to ~170 hrs or ~7 days. (Note that these times/curves are derived from choosing an arbitrary inner shield area of 0.22 m2, but the relative times should stay roughly consistent with different IS area choices.)

Attachment 1: VaryingTMl.pdf
VaryingTMl.pdf
  43   Fri Oct 15 14:31:15 2021 RadhikaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

I reran the cooldown model, setting the emissivity of the inner surface of the inner shield to 0.7 (coating), and the emissivity of the outer surface to 0.03 (polished Al). Previously, the value for both surfaces was set to 0.3 (rough aluminum). 

Attachment 1: TM cooldown, varying area of the inner shield. Now, the marginal improvement in cooldown once the IS area reaches 0.22 m2 is negligible. Cooldown time to 123K is ~100 hrs, just over 4 days. I've kept IS area set to 0.22 m2 moving forward.

Attachment 2: TM/IS cooldown, considering 2 lengths for the test mass. Choosing l=100m instead of 150mm increases cooldown time from ~100 hrs to ~145 hrs, or 6 days.

Attachment 1: VaryingISA.pdf
VaryingISA.pdf
Attachment 2: VaryingTMl.pdf
VaryingTMl.pdf
  3   Fri Jun 5 11:13:50 2020 RaymondGeneralHeat LoadSteady state heat load example

Attached is a cartoon partial view into the heat load experienced by the Mariner assembly.

The omnigraffle file with more explicit arrow labelling in the 'layers' tab is available here. The dashed red lines along to top represent vacuum chamber radiation incident on all sides of the OS/IS, not just from the top. Off picture to the right is the BS, left is the beam tube/ETM chamber -- hence the lower absored laser power (solid line) absorbtion (PR power + no HR coating absorption). 

Parameters: 

  • Emissivities are listed outside the cartoon.
  • Shields consist of polished aluminum outer surfaces and high emissivity inner surfaces. 
  • 1 W input power, 50 W power recycling, 30 kW cavity power
  • All shields held at 77K 
  • IS snout radius is equal to TM radius
  • 20 ppm/cm bulk silicon absoprtion, 5 ppm coating absorption

Assumptions

  • Steady state condition, where the shields are able to be cooled/held to 77K
  • Holes punched into the inner shield for stops, magnets, etc are assumed to shine RT light onto 123K TM
    • This is very conservative, MOS will stablize at some temp and the OS should block ~all vacuum chamber radiation not funneled through inner shield snout

Missing or wrong

  • [M] Contribution of MOS conduction and emission on the outer shield heat budget
  • [M] Inner shield 
  • [W] OS inner surface currently modelled as one surface seeing incident RT light, need to accomodate the view factor of each of the 5 high e sides to the open maw of the OS
  • [M] Conduction through shield masses, how efficient is it to link them with straps
  • [M] no AR coating absorption 
  • [M/W] Cold finger cooling power from room temp shield to 77K cryocooler ('wrong' label because 61W is only the heat load once shields are cooled):
    • Worst case to reach: 1.5m connection between tank flange and shield (from flange at bottom of the tank)
      • Phosphorous deoxidized copper:  5 cm diameter
      • ETP copper:  3.5 cm diameter
    • Best case: 0.5m connection, from flange at level of OS
      • Phos deox Cu: 3 cm diameter
      • ETP Cu: 2 cm diameter
    • ​​​q_{\text{conductive}} = \frac{A}{L} \left[\int_{4\, \text{K}}^{T_2} \lambda(T) dT - \int_{4\, \text{K}}^{T_1} \lambda(T)dT \right]
Attachment 1: Heat_Load_Sketch.pdf
Heat_Load_Sketch.pdf
  2   Thu May 21 12:10:03 2020 StephenGeneralResourcesOngoing Mariner Resources

Ongoing points of updates/content (list to be maintained and added)
Mariner Chat Channel
Mariner Git Repository
Mariner 40m Timeline [2020-2021] Google Spreadsheet
 

  5   Fri Mar 5 11:05:13 2021 StephenGeneralDesign specsFeasibility of 6" optic size in CAD

6" vs 4" optic size comparison using CAD - worth hopping into the 3D geometry using the link below, but also posting a couple of images below.

1) We can adjust all parameters relating to the suspension frame except the beam height. Is there enough clearance under the optic for the internal shield?

--> Using the representation of the MOS structure as-is, there is about 1" of clearance between the bottom panel of the first/internal shield under the 6" case, compared with 2" of clearance in the 4" case. This is not very scary, and suggests that we could use a 6" optic size.

2) Any other concerns at this point?

--> Not really, there are degrees of freedom to absorb other issues that arise from the simple 4" --> 6" parameter shift

EASM posted at https://caltech.app.box.com/folder/132918404089

 

Attachment 1: 4in_from_20210305_easm.png
4in_from_20210305_easm.png
Attachment 2: 6in_from_20210305_easm.png
6in_from_20210305_easm.png
  13   Fri May 7 09:57:18 2021 StephenGeneralEquipmentOverall Dimensions for Mariner Suspension Test Chamber Concept

Koji, Stephen

Putting together Koji's design work with Stephen's CAD, we consider the size of a test chamber for the Mariner suspension.

Koji's design uses a 6" x 6" Si optic, with an overall height of about 21.5".

Stephen's offsets suggest a true shield footprint of 14" x 14" with an overall height of 24".

With generous clearances on all sides, a test chamber with a rectangular footprint internally of about 38" x 32" with an internal height of 34" would be suitable. This scale seems similar to the Thomas Vacuum Chamber in Downs, and suggests feasibility. It will be interesting to kick off conversations with a fabricator to get a sense for this.

This exercise generated a few questions worth considering; feel welcome to add to this list!

  • do we need to have the suspended snout(s)?
  • are we studying an ITM or ETM (or both)?
  • relays or other optical components on the baseplate?
  • angles of optical levers?
  • off center mounting?
  • two doors for front/back access?

 

Attachment 1: mariner_suspension_test_chamber_concept.jpg
mariner_suspension_test_chamber_concept.jpg
  17   Wed Jun 30 16:21:53 2021 StephenGeneralDesign specs 

[Stephen, Koji]

WIP - check layout of 60 cm suspension in chamber at 40m, will report here

WIP - also communicate the

  18   Wed Jul 7 16:32:27 2021 StephenGeneralEquipmentOverall Dimensions for Mariner Suspension Test Chamber Concept

WIP - Stephen to check on new suspension dimensions and fit into 40m chamber

  23   Thu Aug 26 17:40:41 2021 StephenGeneralSuspensionSelecting MOS-style frame

[Koji, Stephen]

Kind of a silly post, and not very scientific, but we are sticking to it. During our check in today we discussed Mariner suspension frame design concept, and we chose to proceed with MOS-style (4 posts, rectangular footprint).

 - We looked at a scaled-up SOS (WIP, lots of things broke, just notice the larger side plates and base - see Attachment 1) and we were not super excited by the aspect ratio of the larger side plates - didn't look super stiff - or the mass of the base.

 - We noted that the intermediate mass will need OSEMs, and accommodating those will be easier if there is a larger footprint (as afforded by MOS).

MOS-style it is, moving forward!

Also, Checked In to PDM (see Attachment 2 - filename 40mETMsuspension_small-shields.SLDASM and filepath \llpdmpro\Voyager\mariner 40m cryo upgrade ) the current state of the Mariner suspension concept assembly (using MOS). Other than updating the test mass to the 6" configuration, I didn't do any tidying up, so I'm not perfectly satisfied with the state of the model. This at least puts the assembly in a place where anyone can access and work on it. Progress!

Attachment 1: no_sos_cad_screenshot.png
no_sos_cad_screenshot.png
Attachment 2: vault_check_in_of_mariner_suspension_cad.png
vault_check_in_of_mariner_suspension_cad.png
  38   Mon Oct 11 15:22:18 2021 YehonathanGeneralGeneralMicrocomb alternatives

Following our discussion at the Friday JC meeting, I gathered several resources and made a small simulation to show how frequency combs might be generated on platforms other than microcombs or mode-locked lasers.

Indeed, frequency combs generated directly from a mode-locked laser are expensive as they require ultra-broadband operation (emitting few fs pulses) to allow for f-2f interferometry.

Microcombs are a fancy way of generating combs. They are low-power-consuming, chip-scale, have a high repetition rate, and are highly compatible with Silicon technology. While these are huge advantages for industry, they might be disadvantageous for our purpose. Low-power means that the output comb will be weak (on the order of uW of average power). Microscopic/chip-scale means that they suffer from thermal fluctuations. High rep-rate means we will have to worry about tuning our lasers/comb to get beat notes with frequencies smaller than 1GHz.

Alternatively, and this is what companies like Menlo are selling as full-solution frequency combs, we could use much less fancy mode-locked lasers emitting 50fs - 1ps pulses and broaden their spectrum in a highly nonlinear waveguide, either on a chip or a fiber, either in a cavity or linear topologies. This has all the advantages:

1. High-power (typically 100mW)

2. Low rep-rate (typically 100MHz)

3. Relatively cheap

4. "Narrowband" mode-locked lasers are diverse and can come as a fiber laser which offers high stability.

As a proof of concept, I used this generalized Schrodinger equation solver python package to simulate 1d light propagation in a nonlinear waveguide. I simulated pulses coming out of this "pocket" laser (specs in attachment 1) using 50mW average power out of the available 180mW propagating in a 20cm long piece of this highly nonlinear fiber (specs in attachment 2).

The results are shown in attachments 3-4:

Attachment 3 shows the spectrum of the pulse as a function of propagation distance.

Attachment 4 shows the spectrum and the temporal shape of the pulse at the input and output of the fiber.

It can be seen that the spectrum is octave-spanning and reaches 2um at moderate powers.

One important thing to consider in choosing the parameters of the laser and fiber is the coherence of the generated supercontinuum. According to this paper and others, >100fs pulses and/or too much power (100mW average is roughly the limit for 50fs pulses) result in incoherent spectra which is useless in laser locking or 1f-2f interferometry. These limitations apply only when pumping in the anomalous dispersion regime as traditionally have been done. Pumping in an all-normal (but low) dispersion (like in this fiber) can generate coherent spectra even for 1ps pulses according to this paper and others. So even cheaper lasers can be used. ps pulses will require few meter-long fibers though.

 

 

Attachment 1: ELMO_specs.png
ELMO_specs.png
Attachment 2: HNLF_specs.png
HNLF_specs.png
Attachment 3: SimulationResults1.png
SimulationResults1.png
Attachment 4: SimulationResults3.png
SimulationResults3.png
  7   Wed Mar 17 21:24:27 2021 gautamGeneralDesign specsSilicon TM dichroic coatings for phase I

I guess you have tried it already - but does enforcing the stacks to be repeating bilayer pairs of the same thickness fail miserably? When doing this for the PR3 optic @1064nm, I found that the performance of a coating in which the layers are repeating bilayers (so only 2 thicknesses + the cap and end are allowed to vary) was not that much worse than the one in which all 38 thicknesses were allowed to vary arbitrarily. Although you are aiming for T=50ppm at the second wavelength (which isn't the harmonic) which is different from the PR3 reqs. This kind of repetitive structure with fewer arbitrary thicknesses may be easier to manufacture (and the optimizer may also converge faster since the dimensionality of the space to be searched is smaller). 

Cool starfish 🌟 . What is the interpretation of the area enclosed by the vertices? Is that the (reciprocal) cost? So the better solution maximizes the area enclosed?

Quote:

Attachment 2 shows the stack. Surprisingly not as crazy (or maybe I have internalized the old "crazy" as "normal")

  31   Mon Sep 27 17:01:53 2021 ranaGeneralHeat LoadMariner cooldown model status + next steps

How about a diagram so that we can understand what this model includes?

  52   Tue May 10 18:29:11 2022 ranaGeneralSuspensionMariner Suspension Cryo shield Install / Removal steps

Transformers Optimus GIF - Transformers Optimus Prime - Discover & Share  GIFs

cool

 

  60   Thu Jul 7 15:20:04 2022 ranaGeneralOptical Contactingsome useful links

For our optical contacting, Jennifer and I are starting out with glass (microscope slides), with the setup in the EE shop next to the drill press (photos from Jennifer to follow).

Some interesting links:

  • https://www.laserfocusworld.com/optics/article/16546805/optical-fabrication-optical-contacting-grows-more-robust is a write up on contacting, and the link to Dan Shaddock's paper is also useful (need to sign up to get the acutal TSP writeup)
  • Thesis on Silicon Bonding (https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5bm8g42k)
  • https://youtu.be/qvBoGoh_-AE
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