40m QIL Cryo_Lab CTN SUS_Lab TCS_Lab OMC_Lab CRIME_Lab FEA ENG_Labs OptContFac Mariner WBEEShop
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9   Wed Mar 24 17:42:50 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsSilicon TM dichroic coatings for phase I

Yeah, the magnitudes are the inverse weighted scalar costs (so they lie on the appropriate relative scale) and indeed larger enclosed areas point to better optima. I would be careful though, because the lines connecting the scalar costs depend on the order of the vector elements (for the plot)... so I guess if I take the cost vector and shuffle the order I would get a different irregular polygon, but maybe the area is preserved regardless of the order in which the scalars are displayed...

 Quote: Cool starfish 🌟 . What is the interpretation of the area enclosed by the vertices? Is that the (reciprocal) cost? So the better solution maximizes the area enclosed?

Attached is a cartoon partial view into the heat load experienced by the Mariner assembly.

The omnigraffle file with more explicit arrow labelling in the 'layers' tab is available here. The dashed red lines along to top represent vacuum chamber radiation incident on all sides of the OS/IS, not just from the top. Off picture to the right is the BS, left is the beam tube/ETM chamber -- hence the lower absored laser power (solid line) absorbtion (PR power + no HR coating absorption).

Parameters:

• Emissivities are listed outside the cartoon.
• Shields consist of polished aluminum outer surfaces and high emissivity inner surfaces.
• 1 W input power, 50 W power recycling, 30 kW cavity power
• All shields held at 77K
• 20 ppm/cm bulk silicon absoprtion, 5 ppm coating absorption

Assumptions

• Steady state condition, where the shields are able to be cooled/held to 77K
• Holes punched into the inner shield for stops, magnets, etc are assumed to shine RT light onto 123K TM
• This is very conservative, MOS will stablize at some temp and the OS should block ~all vacuum chamber radiation not funneled through inner shield snout

Missing or wrong

• [M] Contribution of MOS conduction and emission on the outer shield heat budget
• [M] Inner shield
• [W] OS inner surface currently modelled as one surface seeing incident RT light, need to accomodate the view factor of each of the 5 high e sides to the open maw of the OS
• [M] Conduction through shield masses, how efficient is it to link them with straps
• [M] no AR coating absorption
• [M/W] Cold finger cooling power from room temp shield to 77K cryocooler ('wrong' label because 61W is only the heat load once shields are cooled):
• Worst case to reach: 1.5m connection between tank flange and shield (from flange at bottom of the tank)
• Phosphorous deoxidized copper:  5 cm diameter
• ETP copper:  3.5 cm diameter
• Best case: 0.5m connection, from flange at level of OS
• Phos deox Cu: 3 cm diameter
• ETP Cu: 2 cm diameter
• ​​​$q_{\text{conductive}} = \frac{A}{L} \left[\int_{4\, \text{K}}^{T_2} \lambda(T) dT - \int_{4\, \text{K}}^{T_1} \lambda(T)dT \right]$
73   Thu Aug 4 13:44:56 2022 Jennifer HritzGeneralOptical ContactingSuccess with slowly heating

Yesterday, I did two rounds of slowly heating 4 samples to the maximum hot plate temperature. This was to formally test if my success with a single sample earlier in the week was a fluke. Note that the hot plate takes about 10-15 minutes to reach a stable temperature when it is turned up one notch.

First round:
I bonded 4 samples by putting methanol in the gap between the glass slides and letting it dry to create a gap.
Starting at room temperature, I heated the slides on each setting for roughly 15 minutes, then let them cool down naturally over the course of an hour. 3 broke broke at medium heat, and 1 survived the whole process. I belive these broke because the bonds were weaker and I heated them slightly too quickly. In previous tests, I would manually switch the hot plate on and off, but I wanted to see if the hot plate could heat up slow enough on its own.

Second round:
I bonded 4 samples by scrubbing the slides with methanol, using a compressed air duster to blow off the fibers, rubbing them together with the pressure of my fingers, and repeating this whole procedure until they stuck (it took 2-4 repeats).
Starting at room temperature, I heated the slides on each setting for exactly 20 minutes, then let them cool down naturally over the course of an hour. All of them survived to the maximum temperature (the pictures show them at the start and end of the heating, note the temperature). I credit this to the stronger bonding proceedure and the extra 5 minutes for them to adjust to the temperature. I did not turn the hot plate on or off at any point, I just let it heat up at its own rate.

I cannot tell if the bonds are stronger. The size and shape of the Newtons rings did not change.

Attachment 1: PXL_20220803_232203193.jpg
Attachment 2: PXL_20220804_002433906.jpg
34   Fri Oct 1 12:01:24 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsTM Barrel coating emissivity

[Paco, Nina, Aidan]

We ran our stack emissivity calculation on different AR stacks to try and make a decision for the TM barrel coatings. This code has yet to be validated by cross checking against tmm as suggested by Chris. The proposed layer structures by Aidan and Nina are:

1. *| Air || SiO2 x 800 nm || Ta2O5 x 5 um || Silicon |*
2. *| Air || Ta2O5 x 10 um || Sio2 x 20 nm || Silicon |*
3. *| Air || SiO2 x 100 nm || TiO2 x 1 um || Silicon |*

Attachments # 1-3 show the emissivity curves for these simple dielectric stacks. Attachment #4 shows the extinction coefficient data used for the three different materials. The next step is to validate these results with tmm, but so far it looks like TiO2 might be a good absorbing film option.

Attachment 1: stack_1.pdf
Attachment 2: stack_2.pdf
Attachment 3: stack_3.pdf
Attachment 4: interpolated_n_k.pdf
35   Fri Oct 1 13:24:40 2021 AidanGeneralDesign specsTM Barrel coating emissivity

I have to question whether this passes a sanity test. Surely in the case of Stack 2, the 10um thick Ta2O5 will absorb the majority of the incident radiation before it reaches the SiO2 layer beneath. It should at least be similar to just absorption in Ta2O5 with some Fresnel reflection from the AIr-Ta2O5 interface.

For example, at around 18um, K~2, so the amplitude attenuation factor in a 10um thick layer is 160,000x or a gain of 6E-6. So whatever is under the Ta2O5 layer should be irrelevant - there is negligible reflection.

 Quote: [Paco, Nina, Aidan] We ran our stack emissivity calculation on different AR stacks to try and make a decision for the TM barrel coatings. This code has yet to be validated by cross checking against tmm as suggested by Chris. The proposed layer structures by Aidan and Nina are: *| Air || SiO2 x 800 nm || Ta2O5 x 5 um || Silicon |* *| Air || Ta2O5 x 10 um || Sio2 x 20 nm || Silicon |* *| Air || SiO2 x 100 nm || TiO2 x 1 um || Silicon |* Attachments # 1-3 show the emissivity curves for these simple dielectric stacks. Attachment #4 shows the extinction coefficient data used for the three different materials. The next step is to validate these results with tmm, but so far it looks like TiO2 might be a good absorbing film option.

36   Fri Oct 1 14:11:23 2021 PacoGeneralDesign specsTM Barrel coating emissivity

Agree with this. Quickly running tmm on the same "stacks" gave the Attachment #1-3. (Ignore the vertical axis units... will post corrected plots) and extend the wavelength range to 100 um.

Attachment 1: stack_1.pdf
Attachment 2: stack_2.pdf
Attachment 3: stack_3.pdf
53   Thu Jun 16 14:04:30 2022 JuanGeneralSuspensionTable for Mariner Suspension Cryo

Today we looked at possible locations for where we will be setting up Mariner Suspension and Cryo chamber. The first option was the far left table in the CAML lab but it seems that there is going to be an issue with height clearance, so we have come up with another solution which takes a table from Koji's lab which is 3'x4' ft and moving it into CAML lab in the back right of the lab. To move the table we may need to call facilities to help us because we will most likely need to take the table apart to get it out of the lab. The aisle space in Koji's lab is about 43 inches, but the doorway, which is the tightest space, is 35 inches.

After we have set up the table in CAML we are planning on moving the Chamber in DOPO-lab to CAML. We plan to use skyhook with has a load limit of 500lbs/227kg this should be more than enough to move the chamber. We still need to get the wheeled base for skyhook we are in the works in doing so.

Also, We want to remove the previous setup from the chamber and leave it at DOPO-lab. Stephen is going to figure out how to keep it clean (sort of). Besides these transportation logistics, I am also working on the electronics as an immediate task and the electrical arrangement in the chamber.

to do list
- Check the table height
- Check the chamber height (base/cap)
- Check how much the chamber cap needs to be lifted (so that we can remove it)
- Is the weight capacity sufficient?

54   Thu Jun 16 19:43:36 2022 KojiGeneralSuspensionTable for Mariner Suspension Cryo

- B246/QIL Skyhook

• Find the base of Skyhook. It should be in the storage room (B246). Stephen contacted Chub for lab access. Done
• Assemble Skyhook with the base and check the stability/safety/capacity/height/etc

- DOPO

• Ask Paco to move the delicate instruments from the table. Done
• Bring Skyhook to DOPO. The chamber seems already vented.
• Find the way to place the cap on the floor safely and cleanly. => Stephen

• Open the cap and then remove the crackle interferometer. Wrap it with something and place it somewhere in the room. How? => Stephen

• Move the base to a dolly or something. Then put a cap on the base. => It'd be better to ask Caltech Transp for the chamber transportation.
• Do we have to temporarily remove the laser safety curtain?

- OMC Lab

• We probably need to separate the optical table and the base. Ask Caltech Transp to check how the work should be done.
• Do we have to temporarily move anything on the way?
• The table can be rolled out to the corridor and then rolled in to the CAML.

- CAML

• Remove the grey rack and push the desk to the East.
• Place the optical table.
• Place the rack close to the table.
55   Thu Jun 23 21:11:03 2022 KojiGeneralSuspensionTable for Mariner Suspension Cryo

Table moving effort in the OMC lab: See https://nodus.ligo.caltech.edu:8081/OMC_Lab/412

16   Tue Jun 22 22:28:09 2021 KojiGeneralDesign specsTest Mass wedge design

The ETM wedge of 0.5deg will allow us to separate the AR reflections. We will be OK with the ITM wedge of 0.5deg too. 0.36 deg for ITM is also OK, but not for the ETM.

- Attachment 1 shows the deflection of the 2128mn and 1418nm beams by the test mass wedge. Here, the wedge angle of 1deg was assumed as a reference. For the other wedge angle, simply multiply the new number (in deg) to the indicated values for the displacement and angle.

- Attachment 2 shows the simplified layout of the test masses for the calculation of the wedge angle. Here the ITM and ETM are supposed to be placed at the center of the in-vacuum tables. Considering the presence of the cryo baffles, we need to isolate the pick-off beam on the BS table. There we can place a black glass (or similar) beam dump to kill the AR reflection. For the ETM trans, the propagation length will be too short for in-vacuum dumping of the AR reflection. We will need to place a beam baffle on the transmon table.

- I've assumed the cavity parameter of L=38m and RoC(ETM)=57m (This yields the Rayleigh range zR=27m). The waist radii (i.e. beam radii at the ITM) for the 2128nm and 1418nm beams are 4.3mm and 3.5mm, while the beam radii at the ETM are 7.4mm and 6.0mm, respectively,

- Attachment 3: Our requirement is that the AR reflection of the ALS (1418nm) beam can be dumped without clipping the main beam.
If we assume the wedge angle of 0.5deg, the opening of the main and AR beams will be (2.462+4.462)*0.5 = 3.46 deg. Assuming the distance from the ETM to the in-air trans baffle is 45" (=1.14m), the separation of the beams will become 69mm. The attached figure shows how big the separation is compared with the beam sizes. I declare that the separation is quite comfortable. As the main and AR beams are distributed on both sides of the optic (i.e. left and right), I suppose that the beams are not clipped by the optical window of the chamber. But this should be checked.
Note that the 6w size for the 2128nm beam is 44mm. Therefore, the first lens for the beam shrinkage needs to be 3" in dia, and even 3" 45deg BS/mirrors are to be used after some amount of beam shrinkage.

- Attachment 4 (Lower): If we assume the same ITM wedge angle of 0.5deg as the ETM, both the POX/POY and the AR beams will have a separation of ~100mm. This is about the maximum acceptable separation to place the POX/POY optics without taking too much space on the BS chamber.

- Attachment 4 (Upper): Just as a trial, the minimum ITM wedge angle of 0.36deg was checked, this gives us the PO beam ~3" separated from the main beam. This is still comfortable to deal with these multiple beams from the ITM/

Attachment 1: wedge.pdf
Attachment 2: Layout.pdf
Attachment 3: ETM.pdf
Attachment 4: ITM.pdf
103   Mon Oct 17 23:17:25 2022 Jennifer HritzGeneralOptical ContactingTesting PWM code with actual samples

Now that I have (relatively) good PWM code, I wanted to do my first real test with actual samples. Since everything went smoothly, I will now work on building the original set up for the project, which included attaching thermocouples to two plates so we could precisely measure the heat between them.

As you can see in the pictures below, I am running an Arduino off of my laptop which controls an AC/DC control replay that turns the AC power to the hot plate on and off.

Attachment 1: first_real_PWM_test_samples_before_PXL_20221018_071840794.MP.jpg
Attachment 2: first_real_PWM_test_set_up_PXL_20221018_071943406.MP.jpg
Attachment 3: first_real_PWM_test_in_action_PXL_20221018_072832135.mp4
66   Thu Jul 14 14:55:01 2022 Jennifer HritzGeneralOptical ContactingTesting isopropanol and methanol

Note that I am just testing out different techniques, so I have not set up the thermocouples to precisely measure the temperatue.
On Tuesday, I developed a new method of putting water, isopropanol, or methanol on one slide then squishing the other slide on top of it to fill the gap with the afformentioned liquid. The slides are slippery at first, but as they dried, which took about 15 minutes, the bond forms. The bonds were strong enough that I could just barely push the slides appart by applying pressure to the side using my thumbs. I prepared 4 samples this way, 2 with iso and 2 with meth. I took one of each and heated them on Medium for 30 minutes under the brass hunk with the aluminum square on the bottom and copper foil on both sides of the samples. Earlier in the day, I tried heating them without the weight on top, but the heat just broke the bond. I took the remain two and set them aside as controls.
On Thursday, I returned to check the bonds. The heated samples had broken. I intented to check on Wednesday, but I was sick from food poisoning, so I do not know whether the bonds broke immediately after heating or due to sitting for an extra day. For the control samples, one also had a broken bond, but the other had become even stronger.
I noticed that, when the slides are successfully bonded, the shape and appearance of the Newton's rings change, which can be seen in the pictures. I speculate that the circles on the unbroken control are the bonded regions. Ideally, we want to see no Newton's rings.

Attachment 1: PXL_20220714_220953206.MP_2.jpg
Attachment 2: PXL_20220714_220940258.MP_2.jpg
Attachment 3: PXL_20220714_222105409.jpg
Attachment 4: PXL_20220713_003923957.jpg
105   Wed Oct 19 21:51:10 2022 Jennifer HritzGeneralOptical ContactingThe trials and tribulations of the thermocouples

I intended to test the new thermocouple set up today, but when I plugged them in, both did not read a temperature. It took me a long time to figure out what went wrong: when installing the K Type thermocouple connector, the wires of the thermocouple need to be pushed in as far in as possible, otherwise the circuit would not be completed. It took a lot of trial and error to figure this out. I first created a test "circuit" with wire and a resistor to make sure that the connector itself was not broken. Then I carefully observed how moving the wires in different places affected the reading.

Once I did carefully reassemble the thermocouples, they worked perfectly, as indicated by the non-zero current. I ran tests with my three thermocouples and two devices to see how precise the temperature reading is. The results are below and pictures of the readings can be found in the zip file. I cannot explain why one of the adhered thermocouples is hotter than the other.

 (°C) Fluke 17B+ Digital Multimeter Digital Thermometer 343 Thermocouples T1 T2 Adhered to Plate #1 23.1 27.4 26.1 Plate #2 26.6 28.8 28.5 Rod placed on Plate #1 21.7 24.5 24.0 Plate #2 21.3 24.1 24.0

Plate #1 and 2 refers to the two different aluminum plates. T1 and T2 refers to the two ports on the Digital Thermometer 343. It cannot read two thermocouples simultaneously (as far as I can tell); it's so one can be used as a baseline/reference value for the other.

Attachment 1: thermocouple_connector_test_ciruit_PXL_20221020_035719119.MP.jpg
Attachment 2: correct_assembly_PXL_20221020_042855181.MP.jpg
Attachment 3: resistance_through_broken_and_fixed_connector_PXL_20221020_035951538_20221020_041939698.MP.jpg
Attachment 4: broken_and_fixed_thermocouple_PXL_20221020_042242792_20221020_042201775.MP.jpg
Attachment 5: thermocouples_and_thermometers_room_temp.zip
20   Fri Aug 6 04:34:43 2021 KojiGeneralGeneralTheoretical Cooling Time Limit

I was thinking about how fast we can cool the test mass. No matter how we improve the emissivity of the test mass and the cryostat, there is a theoretical limitation. I wanted to calculate it as a reference to know how good the cooling is in an experiment.

We have a Si test mass of 300K in a blackbody cryostat with a 0K shield. How fast can we cool the test mass?

$m\,C_p(t)\,T'(t) = -\epsilon\,\sigma A\,[T(t)^4 - 0^4]$

$T(0) = T_0$

Then assume the specific heat is linear as

$C_p(t) = c_{p0} T(t)$

The actual Cp follows a nonlinear function (cf Debye model), but this is not a too bad assumption down to ~100K.

Then the differential equation can be analytically solved:

$T(t) = T_0 \left( 1 + t/t_0 \right )^{-1/2}$,

where the characteristic time of t0 is

$t_0 = \frac{m c_{p0}}{2\,\epsilon\,\sigma A\,T_0^2 }$.

Here T_0 is the initial temperature, cp0 is the slope of the specific heat (Cp(T_0) = c_p0 T_0). epsilon is the emissivity of the test mass, sigma is Stefan Boltzmann constant, A is the radiating surface area, and m is the mass of the test mass.

Up to the characteristic time, the cooling is slow. Then the temperature falls sqrt(t) after that.

As the surface-volume ratio m/A becomes bigger for a larger mass, in general, the cooling of the bigger mass requires more time.

For the QIL 4" mass, Mariner 150mm mass, and the Voyager 450mm mass, t0 is 3.8hr, 5.6hr, and 33.7hr respectively.

• If the emissivity is not 1, just the cooling time is expanded by that factor. (i.e. The emissivity of 0.5 takes x2 more time to cool)
• And if the shields are not cooled fast or have a finite temperature in the end, of course, the cooling will require more time.
• 1.25 t0 and 8 t0 tell us how long it takes to reach 200K and 100K.

This is the fundamental limit for radiation cooling. Thus, we have to use conductive cooling if we want to accelerate the cooling further more than this curve.

Attachment 1: cooling_curves.pdf
69   Fri Jul 22 13:47:47 2022 JuanGeneralGeneralUpdate

Just a general update of what I have been up to deriving Lagrange for double pendulum system and also been looking at code that koji gave to me I've add comment to some of the code also working on my report.

59   Thu Jul 7 10:23:04 2022 JuanGeneralGeneralUpdate

Almost done with coil driver boards

Attachment 1: IMG-5378.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG-5379.jpg
75   Mon Aug 15 16:37:51 2022 Juan GeneralGeneralUpdate on Sat Amp and OSEMs

Sat Amp

- Changes to sat amp 15.8 k ohm resistors instead of 16k The change has been made on Sat Amp - S1103733 & S1103732 ONLY Channel 4 and 2 have been changed on both boards.

OSEM

- I developed a test bed for our OSEM to measure force

I will attach images of the setup and some of the results from 3 different OSEMs.

Future Work

- For the current test bed, we are using a clear plastic bin although not ideal it manages to get the job done and works for now there could be a better solution for this,
- Next step for OSEM we want to use 40 m single pendulum to test OSEM and measure the transfer function.

Attachment 1: IMG-6458.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG-6355.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG-6459.jpg
Attachment 4: IMG-6460.jpg
Attachment 5: OSEMdata.png
106   Thu Oct 20 22:43:05 2022 Jennifer HritzGeneralOptical ContactingWired the thermocouples backwards

Since the two devices are giving different temperature readings, I would like to find out if this imprecision is linear (e.g. they are always 3°C off, so I just need to add/subtract 3°C after taking the measurements). If not, some sort of calibration is probably required. I decided to figure this out by running the heating tests I did before, but this time with the plates. This also serves as a test to see how the plates heat up.

Or rather, this is what I would have done, had I not realized that the thermometers were going down as the heat was increaing, meaning I had switched the polarity for both thermocouples. It turns out that this mix-up is a common mistake. I thought that I double checked that red was positive for thermocouples, but it is in fact not:
"red is the usual color for positive charges, whereas the red wire in thermocouple cables typically contains the negative signal. This coloration is ANSI standard for thermocouples, but it is not what most people expect."

Attachment 1: wrong_correct_polarization_PXL_20221022_054250498_20221022_055117337.MP.jpg
58   Tue Jul 5 21:06:47 2022 JuanGeneralGeneralWork Update

Update of my current work I have finished one coil driver board and started on the last two that I need here is the progress and Ideally, I'll finish by tomorrow.

Attachment 1: IMG-5362.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG-5361.jpg
114   Thu Oct 27 22:12:21 2022 ranaGeneralOptical Contactingplotting and PID

The Arduino / AC PWM interface looks good. I recommend that you maintain the code in GitHub and post a link to the repo whenever you update the code. Use detailed commit messages so that it makes sense.

For the plotting, it would be good if you can use grid lines and markers for the data points. Then we can see the difference between the data and the fits, etc.

And to avoid the hysteresis, etc. you can record the temperature in your Arduino and use feedback to make the heater just go to whatever temperature you specify. So you would have a prescribed T(t) and the PID feedback loop would just make the heater take you there. Can your Arduino read the thermocouple?

60   Thu Jul 7 15:20:04 2022 ranaGeneralOptical Contactingsome useful links

For our optical contacting, Jennifer and I are starting out with glass (microscope slides), with the setup in the EE shop next to the drill press (photos from Jennifer to follow).

• https://www.laserfocusworld.com/optics/article/16546805/optical-fabrication-optical-contacting-grows-more-robust is a write up on contacting, and the link to Dan Shaddock's paper is also useful (need to sign up to get the acutal TSP writeup)
• Thesis on Silicon Bonding (https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5bm8g42k)
• https://youtu.be/qvBoGoh_-AE
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