||Fri Jun 2 11:31:29 2023
||Radhika||General||Heat Load||Mariner TM Cooldown model|
Summarizing the current Mariner ITM cooldown model assumptions:
- Inner shield and outer shield have snouts of equal length (1 m end-to-end)
- Laser off during cooldown
- Inner shield cooled by DS30; outer shield cooled by LN2 tank
- ITM barrel emissivity = 0.9
1) Time to cool to 123 K: ~30 h (radiative cooling limit: 20 h). See Attachment 1
2) 1W cooling power delivered to ITM at 123 K [Attachment 2]
3) ~5W cooling power delivered to inner shield at steady state [Attachment 3]
4) ~28W cooling power delivered to outer shield at steady state [Attachment 3]
A simplified block diagram can be found in Attachment 4.
||Wed Apr 12 12:03:34 2023
||Radhika||General||Heat Load||Mariner TM Cooldown model|
Here we lay out the Mariner cryocooler requirements and discuss the most recent cooldown model, which includes a cryocooler that cools down the inner shield and a separate LN2 dewar that cools the outer shield.
The chosen cryocooler must supply at least 2x the cooling power to the TM than the heat loads on the TM, at 123 K. Implicit in this requirement is that in the absense of temperature control, the cooling power must be enough to cool the TM to well below 123 K.
Attachment 1 is the latest Mariner ITM cooldown model. This updated model is pushed to
mariner40/CryoEngineering/MarinerCooldownEstimation.ipynb. Before running the notebook you can toggle between IS cooling sources: LN2, DS30, CH-104, or in the future any crycoolers we are considering. All attachments are generated using the cooling curve of the DS30.
Since the OS is no longer a heat load on the cryocooler, the IS gets cooled more efficiently and reaches within 5 K of the coldhead. The heat loads on the TM (snout, apertures, laser heating) make its temperature plateau just under 100 K. It reaches 123K in ~50 hours.
Attachment 2 is a power budget for the TM. We see that at 123K, the heat loads sum to ~0.4 W. The cooling power at this temperature is around 1 W. The DS30 satisfies our cryocooler cooling requirement; however vibration requirements / vacuum interface compatibility still need to be determined.
Lastly, Attachment 3 is an updated block diagram of the heat transfer couplings considered by the model. (The model also considers radiative links between the inner shield and cage, and inner shield and upper mass; these are omitted from the diagram for simplicity.)
||Fri Mar 24 20:27:46 2023
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Controlling hot plate and recording temperature with one Arduino|
Previously, we had one Arduino taking the two thermocouple readings and another, separate one controlling the PWM of the hot plate. I have since combined them together, which is better because now only one computer and one set of Arduino code is needed to do all of the work. This also gives us the potential to, in the future, use re-time temperature feedback to control the heating rate.
Everything was a success. The PWM of the hot plate works the same as it did when I was using the other Arduino, and adding the PWM Arduino code to the thermocouple Arduino code has not broken the handshake with the Python code. I plan to play around with the code for bit, and try to see if I can get some real-time temperature feedback working.
I also added fork spade U-type connectors (stud size 10, WIRE18-22 AWG, McMAST 69145L433) to the wires going to the thermocouple, to make them easier to plug into the thermocouple-reading Arduino component (MAX6675). I used a hammer and a little solder to make sure the connectors stay on. To securely attach the connectors to the component, you need to unscrew, insert, and re-screw, which gives a nice, tight connection. Red should be positive and green should be negative, but I need to double check.
||Mon Feb 6 15:36:39 2023
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Papers on making Q measurements of bonds|
Upper limits on the mechanical loss of silicate bonds in a silicon tuning fork oscillatorâ€‹ and
Temperature Dependence of Losses in Mechanical Resonator Fabricated via the Direct Bonding of Silicon Strips
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1063782620010200 (I don't have access, but I was given a PDF of this paper over the summer)
||Thu Feb 2 17:28:37 2023
||Sophia Adams||General||Optical Contacting||Test of Temperature Reading of One Plate|
The arduino was able to read temperature data and send it to a python program that graphed the data.
||Thu Jan 12 15:36:22 2023
||Koji||General||General||Crane configuration for the suspension test chamber|
I made a quick investigation of the crane configuration for the suspension test chamber.
- The table and the suspension test chamber need to be placed in the northwest corner of CAML where the ceiling height is 105"
- The engine hoist needs to be connected to the chamber with a shackle or something similar to avoid the interference of the chamber lid and the tilted crane jib.
This shackle needs to raise the hanging point by ~3".
CAML has three types of ceilings.
1) Low ceiling area (west side) the clearance height 75.5"
2) Mid ceiling area (most of the lab area) 85.5". This is limited by the height of the FL light cover.
3) High ceiling area (northeast corner) 105". This is limited by the height of the FL light cover there.
Nominal closed state: The chamber top height is about 68". Even in the low ceiling area, there is 7.5" space and the crane can remove the lid when the chamber is empty.
Open chamber with suspension (direct connection): If the lid and the hook are directly connected, the corner of the chamber is going to be very close to the jib arm when the chamber is fully opened with ~1" clearance. This is not a safe condition, considering that the chamber can oscillate due to the lateral motion associated with raising the jib arm.
Open chamber with suspension (connection via a 3" shackle): When the lid and the hook are connected via a 3" shackle, we'll observe a safe amount of clearance between the chamber and the jib arm. And the crane height is still 96" which is lower than the ceiling height of the high ceiling area of the lab.
||Thu Jan 12 11:54:08 2023
||Koji||General||General||Heavy item transport|
Caltech transport came in this morning. They first went to the OMC lab and moved the 3ft x 4ft table out. They lifted the heavy objects only with human power.
Then the suspension chamber was moved with a hydraulic lifter. (Attachment 1)
The chamber bottom was sled on the table. We asked them to leave the chamber lid on the mylar + cardboard sheet (Attachment 2) so that we can carefully close the lid with a crane (Attachment 3).
JC and I continued to work on the chamber closure, but it wasn't so straightforward.
The nominally planned location of the table (seen in Attachment 3) has a low ceiling and was not a great place to open/close the lid. It is high enough just to close the lid but we can't do anything else.
We worked on the crane operation close to the lab entrance (Attachment 4). We found that the chamber needed to be offset from the center of the table because the legs of the hoist turned out to be too wide to get in between the table legs. This low ceiling had ~3" gap to the crane when the lid was closed (Attachment 5). Meaning, we can't put anything in the chamber if the lid gets stuck with the low ceiling.
Anyway, the chamber was closed and the table was rolled to the end of the lab (for storage) (Attachment 6).
BTW, the rolling of the table further destroyed the floor (Attachment 7)
So, how high the ceiling should be, so that we can put a tall suspension in the chamber? We probably need to use the northeast part of the lab where the ceiling is much higher. But the crane itself can be another limitation. It needs careful consideration.
||Thu Jan 12 11:38:26 2023
||Koji||General||General||How to move the large engine hoist through the narrow door|
See the attachments.
||Tue Jan 10 23:30:25 2023
||Koji||General||General||Heavy item transport - preparation|
[JC, Stephen, Paco, Gabriele, Aidan, Radhika, Koji]
We have successfully extracted the crackle suspension from the chamber at the DOPO lab. We ended up using the engine hoist brought from the cryo lab instead of the yellow Skyhook as Skyhook's arm was too short.
Attachment 1 shows how the hoist is inserted to the table and how the lid was lifted. The lid was placed on a cardboard box wrapped with a Mylar sheet. It could be slid on the floor.
Attachment 2 shows how the suspension was lifted and placed on a similar Mylar-wrapped cardboard box. Upon the removal of the suspension, the cables were disconnected from the suspension. A few OSEM wires needed to be cut so that the suspension to be free.
Attachment 3 We are ready for the chamber transportation.
||Mon Jan 9 21:03:53 2023
||Koji||General||General||Heavy item transport - preparation|
1) Paco cleared the path in the DOPO lab. We'll need a flat dolly or wooden bars (covered with a mylar sheet) to place the lid on it while we will remove the suspension. The suspension will be placed next to the wall and wrapped with mylar sheets.
(from the 40m) a dooly, mylar sheets, spare slings
(from Downs) heavy-duty inline scale
(from OMC lab) some tapes
2) The crane base is in CAML right now.
3) The yellow crane is in QIL right now. We'll dismount the top part and mount it on the base.
- Remove the lid. Place it on a clean safe platform.
- Remove the suspension, wrap it, and place it next the wall.
- Put the lid on.
- The chamber will be moved to CAML on Thu morning.
||Mon Jan 9 16:18:50 2023
||Sophia Adams||General||Optical Contacting|| |
I was able to get a USB adapter for my computer so I could test my code. The Arduino can read the temperature of the room and output the values with a tenth of a second time delay. Jupyter Notebook recognizes the Arduino and can receive temperature data from it.
||Sat Jan 7 17:08:47 2023
||Sophia Adams||General||Optical Contacting|| |
I am getting started on building the arduino circuit as well as setting up my computer so I can communicate between jupyter notebook and the arduino. I will need a USB adapter for my computer before I can make much more progress.
||Sat Jan 7 16:07:13 2023
|| ||General||General|| |
The bond quality measurements can be split into two categories: destructive and nondestructive. For destructive, we have measuring tensile and shear strength, and for nondestructive, we have gap distrance and mechanical quality. I am also currently searching for more ways to measure the strenght, but I am having a hard time finding any others.
Proposed method: based off of the traditional razor test, a blade will be systematically inserted into the gap. For a prototype, I used optical bread board components to hold the razor while a knob was slowly turned to push the razor forward. The knob had markings on it, which could be used to estimate the amount of force applied to the gap. The prototype was made for the larger glass slides, so it is too big and forceful for the silicon and smaller, more fragile glass slides. However, the principles of the protoype had potential to be adapated to be gentler.
Proposed method: a cord will be adhered to the outer sides of the sample such that one side will be hung to the ceiling while the other will have weight hanging from it. Weight us added to the latter cord until the bond breaks. This could pontentially be a little dangerous as it could shatter when the bond finally breaks, so a protective barrier of some sort will have to be set up.
Alternative: affix one outer surface to the table so that it cannot move. Attach the other surface to something that can spun/twisted. The more twists it takes to break the bond corresponds to the shear strenght.
Proposed method: use ellipsometry to find how big the gap is between the two bonded surfaces. I think this would be great to combine with one of the destructive methods since, if you could relate the nm thickness of the gap to, say, the tensile strength, then you could estimate the tensile strength of future bonds without having to destroy them. I read a lot about ellipsometry over winter break, and I know what components are needed for it.
Proposed method: this would be based around the paper which measured the ring down of an optically contacted tuning fork. My focus would be on varying the parameters to find the most precise and accurate dimensions of the fork. Although it sounds interesting, I am not sure how practical it would be to pursue as it requires a lot of modeling and building. However, given the application of these measurements (specifically, for Voyager, (if my understanding is correct) the use of optical contacting will resolve the issue of messy noise caused by unpredictable thermal vibration of adhesives), knowing the mechanical quality of the bond seems valuble.
||Thu Oct 27 22:12:21 2022
||rana||General||Optical Contacting||plotting and PID|
The Arduino / AC PWM interface looks good. I recommend that you maintain the code in GitHub and post a link to the repo whenever you update the code. Use detailed commit messages so that it makes sense.
For the plotting, it would be good if you can use grid lines and markers for the data points. Then we can see the difference between the data and the fits, etc.
And to avoid the hysteresis, etc. you can record the temperature in your Arduino and use feedback to make the heater just go to whatever temperature you specify. So you would have a prescribed T(t) and the PID feedback loop would just make the heater take you there. Can your Arduino read the thermocouple?
||Thu Oct 27 19:54:20 2022
||Jennifer Hritz|| || || |
Somehow I never thought of this before, but instead of increasing the "on" time of the hot plate to account for the heating drop-off, I should keep that constant and instead decrease the "off" time. That feels more logical given that I am trying to keep the temperature of the two plates as close as possible.
||Wed Oct 26 21:27:23 2022
||Jennifer||General||Optical Contacting||PWM 3.1 (more) very slow heating|
[I'm (once again) behind on data processing, but I'm creating an entry on the day I actually run the tests]
||Tue Oct 25 18:55:38 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||PWM 3.1 very slow heating|
[I'm behind on data processing, but I'm creating an entry on the day I actually run the tests]
||Mon Oct 24 21:23:22 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||PWM 3.1 longer off times in cycle|
To combat the bottom plate heating up much faster than the top plate, I decided to try increasing the cycle period from 1000ms (1s) to 10000ms (10s). In other words, taking the test I today ran as an example, the hot plate will now be on for 1000ms then off for 9000ms then repeat. Hopefully this should give more time for the heat to transfer to the top plate, but even in this short test, it still appears to be a problem.
Due to the slower heating times, this will be a bit more challenging to test as each test could take hours to complete, but this is more in line with the final intended use anyways. Perhaps my cycle of 1000ms on is too much (e.g. I should do 100ms on then 9900ms off, although I think that might be so slow that it will never heat up; this also raising the question as to how I will deal with mantaining this slow heat up at the higher temperatures).
||Sun Oct 23 21:01:40 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||PWM 3.0 (+280°C in 5)|
I decided test how fast the plates would heat up if the heat was just on constantly on for 5 minutes. In general, these tests are raising a lot of questions in regards to controlling the temperature given the hysteresis in the system. It is also apparent that the bottom plate heats up signficantly faster than the top one, which means I need to heat the samples much longer than, say 10 minutes, if I want to avoid unevenly heating both parts of the optically contacted piece.
I also have to be conscientious that I am already half way through the quarter and ideally should be devoting time to bond strength testing rather than continuing to fiddle with the hot plate.
||Sat Oct 22 21:18:56 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||PWM v3.0|
With v3.0, I took a couple steps backwards by getting rid of the feature that increases the heating rate so I can isolate the base heating rate for the two plates. In my experience, the best way to figure out how to modify the program is to try a bunch of different target temperatures and heating times and look for correlations. I started with (attempting) to increase the plates by 280°C in 10 minutes.
For a future release, I am thinking of radically (relatively speaking) changing the function parameters: the user only inputs the target heating rate and how long the plates should be heated at this rate. This is to address the hysteresis in this new set-up, which I will elaborate on if I make the change.
||Fri Oct 21 22:22:37 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||PWM v2.6 on new thermocouple set up|
I performed the same tests I have been doing prior (+180°C in 10 minutes) but now with the (correctly wired) thermocouples attached to the metal plates. The top plate is thermocouple #1 attached to the Fluke and the bottom plate is thermocouple #2 attached to the TPI (the lime green one).
The base heating rate for the new set up will require some tweaking to the code because the plates heat up much slower, but as I have mentioned previously, I do not think this will require a lot of extra work since I now know the tips and tricks to PWMing the hot plate. The only difficulty might come from the increase in hysteresis (i.e. the plates continue to increase in the temperature long after it turns off). For future tests, I need to remember to continue recording the temperature after program finishes its 10 min cycle.
On the positive, I think this test shows that taking the average of the two thermocouples to find the temperature in the center (where the optically contacted samples are) is a worthwhile endevor, considering how much the top plate lags behind the bottom plate in terms of heating speed.
||Thu Oct 20 22:43:05 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Wired the thermocouples backwards|
Since the two devices are giving different temperature readings, I would like to find out if this imprecision is linear (e.g. they are always 3°C off, so I just need to add/subtract 3°C after taking the measurements). If not, some sort of calibration is probably required. I decided to figure this out by running the heating tests I did before, but this time with the plates. This also serves as a test to see how the plates heat up.
Or rather, this is what I would have done, had I not realized that the thermometers were going down as the heat was increaing, meaning I had switched the polarity for both thermocouples. It turns out that this mix-up is a common mistake. I thought that I double checked that red was positive for thermocouples, but it is in fact not:
"red is the usual color for positive charges, whereas the red wire in thermocouple cables typically contains the negative signal. This coloration is ANSI standard for thermocouples, but it is not what most people expect."
||Wed Oct 19 21:51:10 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||The trials and tribulations of the thermocouples|
I intended to test the new thermocouple set up today, but when I plugged them in, both did not read a temperature. It took me a long time to figure out what went wrong: when installing the K Type thermocouple connector, the wires of the thermocouple need to be pushed in as far in as possible, otherwise the circuit would not be completed. It took a lot of trial and error to figure this out. I first created a test "circuit" with wire and a resistor to make sure that the connector itself was not broken. Then I carefully observed how moving the wires in different places affected the reading.
Once I did carefully reassemble the thermocouples, they worked perfectly, as indicated by the non-zero current. I ran tests with my three thermocouples and two devices to see how precise the temperature reading is. The results are below and pictures of the readings can be found in the zip file. I cannot explain why one of the adhered thermocouples is hotter than the other.
|Digital Thermometer 343
Plate #1 and 2 refers to the two different aluminum plates. T1 and T2 refers to the two ports on the Digital Thermometer 343. It cannot read two thermocouples simultaneously (as far as I can tell); it's so one can be used as a baseline/reference value for the other.
||Tue Oct 18 19:33:38 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Setting up thermocouples|
Firstly, last night's heating did not change the contacted surface area greatly, but there is too many factors to speculate as to why that is the case. I leave that for future testing.
I attached the thermocouples by adhering them to the two aluminum plates. I was careful to make sure that the thermocouple was in the dead center of the aluminum plate. The other end of the thermocouples—exposed positive and negative wires—were screwed into the K Type connector so they can be plugged into the thermometer/multimeter. Taking the average between the top and bottom plate will give a more precise estimate of the temperature of the samples.
||Mon Oct 17 23:17:25 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Testing PWM code with actual samples|
Now that I have (relatively) good PWM code, I wanted to do my first real test with actual samples. Since everything went smoothly, I will now work on building the original set up for the project, which included attaching thermocouples to two plates so we could precisely measure the heat between them.
As you can see in the pictures below, I am running an Arduino off of my laptop which controls an AC/DC control replay that turns the AC power to the hot plate on and off.
||Sun Oct 16 14:20:32 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Samples after 2 weeks under pressure|
Since I was focusing on the hot plate code and therefore did not need my weights, I decided to leave them on top of my samples for roughly 2 weeks.
It appears that an increased amount of time under pressure does not result in any noticable differences. A slight increase in surface area (SA) in two places, and a slight decrease in SA in another place, but overall no change. Note that "(initally)" in the picture below refers to http://nodus.ligo.caltech.edu:8081/Mariner/89.
||Sat Oct 15 21:59:13 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.6 Test #1, 2, 3|
I realized that, after changing so much from v2.3 to 6, I should check that my first two tests produce correct results with the latest version. This was good because all three tests turned out to be innaccurate, as they were all short roughly 10°C. However, they were very precise. For all three, the final temperature was 193.15±1.5°C.
||Fri Oct 14 21:36:52 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.6 Test #3|
The goal of "v2.X test #3" is to heat the hot plate to 200°C over the course of 20 minutes, and with v2.6, I have effectively succeeded. There will likely be more issues once I try, for example, to heat the hot plate to 300°C over the course of 60 minutes, but for now, I want to stick with lower temps and shorter times while I work out the kinks. Now that I understand the difficulties of PWMing a hot plate, adapting the code to combat future issues should be straightforward.
To summarize my code, I control the heating rate by cycling the hot plate's power on and off for some % of 1000ms. In other words, the hot plate is on 300ms then off 700ms then on 300ms etc., where the relation between target heating rate and hot plate on time is based on previously gathered data. This produces a nice, linear(ish) temperature increase up until a certain temperature, at which point it plateaus. In the previous versions, the way I compensated for this was by increasing the on time by 5ms for every cycle after 150°C. This did not work for slower heating rates, so the newer versions changed this by making the 5ms and 150°C varry depending on the target heating rate. The exact value is a linear extrapoliation from previous data. This is imperfect, but I do not think perfection will ever be possible with the current equipent, and I think I have reached something good enough that now I can finally apply it to my optically contacted samples.
Since I have finished this "stage" of work, for completeness, I am including all of the code, data*, and graphs involved so far.
*the .txt data files are in the cycle_vX_graphs folders; these folders also have the Jupyter notebooks I used for graphing the data
||Thu Oct 13 20:56:48 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.4,5 Test #3|
My two corrections ended up being huge overshoots. The drop off time (100°C) is correct, but the default rate increase that worked in the other cases is not working at all here.
||Wed Oct 12 23:26:48 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.3 Test #3|
I tried increasing the temperature by 180°C over 20 minutes. As suspected, it did not quite reach the target temperature because the temperature started to drop off around 100°C instead of 150°C, as the program expected. This should be an easy adjustment, since it is just a matter of increasing the duration of the cycle at an earlier time.
||Tue Oct 11 23:59:07 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.3 Test #1 and 2|
Here are the graphed results from yesterday's tests, both by themselves and overlayed with the previous tests. I am satisfied with my code; it has given me the (roughly) linear heat increase that I desired. The only last thing I would like to test is heating over a signficantly slower time.
||Mon Oct 10 15:34:13 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2.1,2,3 Test #1 and v2.3 Test #2|
Before trying the PWM on actual samples, I wanted to make one final attempt at improving my code (labled as v2.1). This change appears to have 1) broken the code regulating the basic heat cycling process 2) caused the hot plate to heat up far, far too quick. Since the thermometer strangely turned off halfway through, I only have two pictures as evidence that this test existed: a screenshot of the Arduino program telling me that the max cycle rate had been reached (which should have not happened) and a frame from the video filming the thermometer showing the peak temperature (which is 100°C high than expected). Somehow the hot plate reached over 300°C, which I thought was impossible because the hot plate's built-in heat cycle should have kicked in around 260°C. Unrelated, but I am performing this test in my dorm room because I was quarentined due to COVID exposure, and I like using my personal fan and the house's freezer to cool down the hot plate quicker.
I made some adjustments (labled as v2.2), and I had the same failure as v2.1, except I managed to capture it on camera.
Finally, with v2.3, I managed to fix all the issues. I ran out time today to transcribe the temperatures for graphing, but this itteration of the code managed to reach 200°C in 10 and 7 minutes for test #1 and #2, respectively. I also managed to fix the problem of the hot plate not turning off after the desired heating time. The real test will be trying a slower heating time, like 20 minutes, but I am glad I postponed using actual samples because this fix has given me code that appears to work exactly as I hoped.
||Sun Oct 9 21:55:53 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2 test #1 & 2|
For the following two graphs, I ram four tests: two using the the v1 of the PWM code and two using v2 of the PWM code. The graphs show the heating rate I was aiming for and the actual results. It turns out, my v2 does not work better than my v1. Before 150°C (which is where I believed that (assuming the rate is kept constantly) the heating rate shifted from linear to logarithmic), v1 is an overshoot and v2 is slightly less of an overshoot. The goal of v2 was to increase the rate after 150°C to compensate for this drop off, but it does not appear to have worked.
While I would still like to refine my code, I think it will be good enough to try using it to actually heat the samples.
||Sat Oct 8 23:22:25 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2 test #1|
I had some trouble with the code not working as intended (partially because it has been I while since I coded in C++). However, I was able to run two tests with the new code, although I ran out of time to type up the data for the 2nd. Graphing the 1st test's data, it appears that my improved code is an improvement, but the heating is still slowing down as it approaches 200°C. I need to re-run this test, but with v1 of the code, for better comparison.
The hot plate was supposed to increase 180°C in 10 minutes (so that I would reach 200°C), but due to an inscrutable bug, it did not exit the while loop, so it continued past 10 minutes.
||Fri Oct 7 21:20:08 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM v2 progress|
I had a little set back regarding the non-linear portion of the heating. After about 150°C, if the heating rate is kept constant, the heating graph transitions from linear to logarithmic. I was able to show graphically that, yes, it is indeed logarithmic, but I could not think of an algorithmic way to translate this logarithmic curve into the increase in heating rate to maintain a linear heating rate. I do have some ideas which I will test tomorrow.
||Fri Oct 7 00:21:24 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM Test #3|
The previous test was cycled with 0.3s on follwed by 0.7s off*. This test was 0.7s on followed by 0.3s off. I intended to let it run longer, but I accidetly knocked the thermocouple over while trying to move the cable father from the hot plate so the plastic would not risk melting.
Like before, we see that it starts out relatively linear. I noticed the heating light kind of fluttering around 200°C which appeared in the data as a small decrease around 450s on the graph. I do not know the source of this issue, but I fear it may be the hot plate overriding my cycling with its own built-in cycle; something left for future testing. This is the last data I will gather using v1 of my Arduino code, as am I now working on implementing what I have learned in a smarter v2 of the code. I included v1 of the code, and the txt files for the first three tests.
*I think. Could have been 0.1 on, 0.9 off. Note to self: double check this.
||Wed Oct 5 23:24:08 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM Test #2|
I repeated the first test, but let the hot plate run longer. It revealed that the linearity for the lower temperatures completely falls apart at the higher temperatures. I think it should be fairly straightforward to modify the code to accommodate this.
||Tue Oct 4 22:15:23 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Hot plate PWM Test #1|
I wrote a program to control the heating rate of the hot plate using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), and it was a great success!
For roughly 6 minutes, the hot plate was power cycled with a rate of 100 ms on followed by 900 ms off. Based on my calculations, this should correspond to a 0.08°C/sec temperature increase. In other terms, we expect a 24°C increase in the span of 5 minutes. For comparision, without PWM, the hot plate heats up roughly 100°C in that same timespan. I recorded the temperature by filming a thermometer and transcribing that video into a text file, which could be analyzed and graphed. I only transcribed the first 5 minutes of the 17 minute video (I also filmed part of the cool down) because 5 minutes was enough to show clear results.
At t=0, the hot plate was 21.4°C, and at t=300, the hot plate was 49.7°C. That is a 28.3°C increase in the span of 5 minutes, only 4.3°C higher than the predicted value. The rate, 0.094°C/sec, is only slightly faster than the desired 0.08°C/sec. Further, as shown in the graph, the temperature increase was almost perfectly linear, which is ideal. Overall, using an Arduino to PWM the hot plate is looking very promising.
||Mon Oct 3 23:32:30 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Cause of improved bond: time or pressure (Update)|
I was unable to check the samples because I could not get access to Bridge, so they will be checked tomorrow and the results will be added as an edit to this log.
Given that I was unable to do work in the lab, I instead began a second attempt at writing code for the Arduino to use PWM to control the hot plate temperature.
As expected, the suface area of the bond only increased for the samples under the weights. I did notice something worrying: one of the non-weighted samples actually had its surface area decrease. It is unclear if this is a one-time thing or if all of the bonds deteriorate with time. Unrelated, but I also noticed that the bonded areas always have small dots that refuse to bond. It's unclear if that is due to imperfections or contamination (I suspect the latter).
I left all 4 samples under both weights out of curiosity to see if the bonded surface area would increase further (or possibly decrese further).
||Sun Oct 2 23:23:07 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Cause of improved bond: time or pressure|
Before jumping to conclusions based on my previous results, I wanted to check that it was indeed heat and pressure, not time, that led to the bonds improving.
I prepared 4 samples, all with my standard pressing technique (which still leaves room for improvement). 2 samples will simply be left to sit undisturbed, and the other 2 will be left under both (rectangular and cylindrical) weights. I will check these in roughly 24 hours, just like the last test.
The 2 slides on the right are the ones under the weights.
||Sat Oct 1 23:00:03 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||(RESULTS!) Quick test heat and pressure test|
These are the results from the previous log.
At long last, there was an improvement with pressure and heat! Pressure without heat and pressure with heat both showed a small improvement. Although the improvement was not major, it does show that pursuing this method of adding weight and heat are viable. Since this was a test, I put less weight on and heated it fast than intended, but now I feel confident to add more weight and slower/greater amounts of heat.
||Fri Sep 30 21:51:31 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Quick test heat and pressure test|
Given that these glass slides are much thinner than the ones I worked with prior, I suspected they would be more receptive to pressure. I decided to replicate the tests I performed with the larger slides: I prepared 8 samples, 4 by smushing the slides together with methanol in the middle and another 4 by cleaning the slides with methanol before pressing them together with my fingers. I put 2 of each type under the cylindrical weight, and 2 of each type under the rectangular weight with the addition of heating. The heating consisted of switching the temperature from off --> low --> med --> high with 15 minutes on each setting.
I will check the results in the morning. I need to wait until the rectangular weight is completely cooled, otherwise I cannot remove it from the hot plate in manner that does not risk cracking the glass.
The first sample picture shows the pressed slides on the top and the smushed slides on the bottom.
For the second picture, this is reveresed. Correction: the order is the same for both samples.
||Thu Sep 29 18:36:40 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Looked at Thor Lab slides (continued)|
Continuining with my casual exploration of the Thor Lab slides, I heated them from off --> low --> med --> high, with 10 minutes on each setting. The only pressure I applied was 3 larger glass slides, and that was only to flatten out the copper that the smaller, bonded slides sat on top of (so the contact with the heating plate was even).
The heat made the bonded area smaller, but it did not break. As the slides cooled, the bond area increased slightly but not back to the original size. Next I will try this with slower heating and additional pressure.
||Wed Sep 28 22:11:31 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Looked at Thor Lab slides|
While finalizing my work plan for the quarter, I decided to look at the Thor Lab slides. This was instructive because they highlighted the troubles I will have with working with silicone. They are fragile and their small, thin sizes makes cleaning and manipulating them (without contamination) much more difficult compared to the glass sides from before.
I tried cleaning and bonding them the same way as the larger slides. Rubbing them together did not work like with the larger sides, but that may also be a function of being more careful, as not to break them. Once I cleaned them, it only took a tap from my finger to get the center to bond, but the bonded surface area still did not spread out like it did in the YouTube videos (http://youtu.be/se3K_MWR488?t=80). By pressing down around the bonded area, I could expand it slighty. Note that I did crack one slide in the process of doing this, as shown in the pictures.
Because the slides are so thin, I think they will benefit greatly from being left under a heavy object, although it may be difficult to put the weight on the slides without them breaking.
||Tue Sep 27 22:29:34 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Razor test apparatus disassembly pictures|
Pictures of the razor test apparatus before and after disassembly, to make future reassembly easier.
||Wed Sep 7 10:42:12 2022
||Radhika||General||Heat Load||Mariner TM Cooldown model|
The attached plot (upper) compares the heat load delivered to the test mass from various snout lengths (end to end), as a function of test mass temperature. (At steady state, our point of interest is 123K.) Note that these curves use the original CAD snout radius of 5.08cm (2").
The greatest marginal reduction in heat load comes from increasing the end-to-end snout length to 1m, as concluded in the prevous ELOG. This drops the heat load from just under 0.5W (from snout length 0.5m) to 0.15W. Further increase in snout length to 1.5m drops the heat load to well under 0.1W. After this point, we get diminishing marginal benefit for increase in snout length.
The effect on the TM cooldown curve can be seen in the lower plot. A snout length of 1m drops the steady-state TM temperature to under 100K. Then, like above, increasing the length to 1.5m makes the next non-negligible impact.
||Mon Aug 29 15:44:46 2022
||Radhika||General||Heat Load||Mariner TM Cooldown model|
Here is a more detailed analysis of varying the length and radius of the snout.
Attachment 1 plots the heat load (W) from the snout opening as a function of temperature, for different combinations of snout length and radius. The model using the CAD snout parameters (length=0.67m end-to-end; radius=5.08cm) results in ~0.3W of heat load at steady state. The plot shows that the largest marginal reduction in heat load is achieved by doubling the length of the snout (green curve), which cuts the heat load by over a factor of 2/3. This validates the choice in snout length used in the previous ELOG entry analysis. The bottom line is that the end-to-end snout length should be on the order of 1 meter, if physically possible.
The next marginal improvement comes from reducing the radius of the snout. Attachment 1 considers reducing the radius by a half in addition to doubling the length (red curve). A snout radius of an inch is quite small and might not be feasible within system constraints, but it would reduce the snout heat load to only 25mW at steady state (along with length doubling).
The cooldown model resulting from optimizing parameters of the snout (length=1.33m, radius=2.54cm) is shown in Attachment 2. The test mass reaches 123K in ~57hrs - only 2 hours faster than the case where only the snout length is doubled (see previous ELOG entry) - and the test mass reaches steady state at 92K - only 6K colder than in the previous case. This could discourage efforts to reduce the radius of the snout at all, since increasing the length provides the most marginal gains.
||Fri Aug 26 14:24:57 2022
||Radhika||General||Heat Load||Mariner TM Cooldown model|
Here I describe the current radiative cooldown model for a Mariner test mass, using parameters from the most recent CAD model. A diagram of all conductive and radiative links can be seen in Attachment 1. Below are some distilled key points:
1. The source of cooling power is an infinite reservoir at 60K - realistically there will be finite cooling power and the system will be optimized within that constraint.
2. The outer shield surrounds the suspension system and some cooling power can be delivered conductively to the outer shield to hold it at an optimal temperature.
3. The suspension cage has 4 feet that insulate the cage from the table at RT.
4. The cage is composed of vertical beams and bottom and top lids. Radiative view factors from the cage to other components have been loosely estimated.
5. Suspension wires conduct heat from the cage to the upper mass, and from the upper mass to the test mass.
6. The inner shield and snout surround the test mass. Aperature openings in the inner shield (for wires) allow the test mass to radiatively "see" surroundings at ~outer shield T.
7. The snout openings and incident laser power are additional heat loads to the test mass.
All parameters have been taken from CAD, with the exception of:
1) snout length: originally 0.665m in CAD (end to end), but I doubled it to 1.33m following a discussion in group meeting
2) length of copper bar / conductive cooling pathway: set to the end-to-end length of snout. Though this is a conservative over-estimate
2) thermal conductivity of insulating feet: using 0.25 W/mK
3) radius of aperture in IS for suspension wires: using 1"
Attachment 2 contains the cooldown curves for the system components. With the above assumptions, the test mass takes ~59hrs to reach 123K, and the final steady-state temperature is 96K. (*This was edited - found a bug in previous iteration of code that underestimated the TM cooldown time constant and incorrectly concluded ~36hrs to reach 123K. The figures have been updated accordingly.)
Attachment 3-6 are power budgets for major components: TM, IS, Cage, OS (can produce for UM if there's interest). For each, the top plot shows the total heating and cooling power delivered to the component, and the bottom plot separates the heating into individual heat loads. I'll discuss these below:
- TM: The laser delivers 100mW of heating power to the test mass throughout the cooldown. The next most significant source of heating is snout - this warrants further optimization (see next ELOG).
- IS: Inevitably the test mass heats the inner shield, but the other heat loads are minimal. Note that the model does not consider radiation from the snout opening to the snout/inner shield walls, and this will be added in soon.
- Cage: The only significant heat load to the cage is conduction from the RT table through the feet. The feet can be made taller, or actively held at a colder temperature.
- OS: I've arbitrarily added conductive cooling to the OS which holds it around 175K. With the current model, adding more cooling power would only help, but in reality this will divert cooling power from going to the IS. This constraint needs to be added in before the optimal OS temperature can be determined. The most significant heat loads are from the chamber walls and the cage (see above).
The next post will describe optimization of the snout length/radius for cooldown.
||Tue Aug 23 17:10:50 2022
||Paco||General||Design specs||New corner plots|
Instead of varying individual layer thicknesses using the MC sampler, I made sure both the thickness and index of refractions are varied as a global systematic error to estimate the design sensitivity. The results for ITM/ETM respectively, with 1e5 samples this time, are in Attachments 1-2 below.
||Tue Aug 16 19:54:29 2022
||Jennifer Hritz||General||Optical Contacting||Razor blade test|
We succeeded in setting up an apparatus for quantifiying the razor blade test. After mounting the glass slides such that the razor edge rested against the gap, we slowly turned the knob to push the blade into the gap. We started with the knob at 0.111, and at 0.757, the bond between the glass slides failed. As we approached 0.757, the interference pattern in the glass shifted, foreshadowing the break.
(Edit by Koji. This 0.757 is 0.0757 I suppose...? And the unit is in inch)