This is not a reply to comments given to the last post; Still working on incorporating those suggestions.
Rana suggested looking first at what needs to be suppressed and then create a filter suited for the noise from scratch. So I discarded all earlier poles and zeros and just kept the resonant gains in the digital filter. With that, I found that all we need is three poles at 1 Hz and a gain of 8.1e5 gives the lowest RMS noise value I could get.
Now there can be some practical reasons unknown to me because of which this filter is not possible, but I just wanted to put it here as I'll add the actual noise spectra into this model now.
## Cavity Pole
This ALS loop is not stable. Its one of those traps that comes from using only the Bode plot to estimate the loop stability. You have to also look at the time domain response - you can look at my feedback lecture for the SURF students for some functions.
Yes, that loop was unstable. I started using the time domain response to check for the stability of loops now. I have been able to improve the filter slightly with more suppression below 20 Hz but still poor phase margin as before. This removes the lower frequency region bump due to seismic noise. The RMS noise improved only slightly with the bump near UGF still the main contributor to the noise.
For inclusion of real spectra, time delays and the anti-aliasing filters, I still need some more information.
The code used to calculate the transfer functions and plot them is in the repo 40m/ALS/noiseBudget
Related Elog post with more details: 40m/15587
I used D1400293 to get the latest logged details about the universal PDH box used to lock the green laser at X end. The uPDH_X_boost.fil file present there was used to obtain the control model for this box. See attachment one for the code used. Since there is a variable gain stage in the box, I tuned the gain of the filter model F_AUX in ALS_controls.yml to get the maximum phase margin in the PDH lock of the green laser. Unity gain frequency of 8.3 kHz can be achieved in this loop and as Gautam pointed out earlier, it can't be increased much further without changes in the box.
The ALS control model remains stable with a reduction in total estimate noise because of the above update. There are few things to change though:
For all the loops where we drive the NPRO PZT, there is some notch/resonance feature due to the PZT mechanical resonance. In the IMC loop this limits the PZT/EOM crossove to be less than 25 kHz. I don't have a model for this, btu it should be included.
If you hunt through the elogs, people have measured the TF of ALS NPRO PZT to phase/frequency. Probably there's also a measured ALS PDH loop somewhere that you could use to verify your model.
The only two PZT Phase modulation transfer function measurements I could find are 40m/15206 and 40m/12077. Both these measurements were made to find a good modulation frequency and do not go below 50 kHz. So I don't think these will help us. We'll have to do a frequency transfer function measurement at lower frequencies.
I'm still looking for ALS PDH loop measurements to verify the model. I found this 40m/15059 but it is only near the UGF. The UGF measured here though looks very similar to the model prediction. A bit older measurement in 2017 was this 40m/13238 where I assume by ALS OLTF gautum meant the green laser PDH OLTF. It had similar UGF but the model I have has more phase lag, probably because of a 31.5 kHz pole which comes at U7 through the input low pass coupling through R28, C20 and R29 (See D1400293)
If the green laser is not being used, can I go and take some of these measurements myself?
Koji recommended that I can add whitening filters to suppress ADC noise easily. I added a filter before ADC in ALS loop with 4 zeros at 1.5 Hz and 4 poles at 100 Hz and added a reversed filter in the digital filter of ALS. This did not change the performance of the loop but significantly reduced the contribution of ADC noise above 1 Hz. One can see ALS_controls.yaml for the filter description. Please let me know if this does not make sense or there is something that I have overlooked.
Now, the dominant noise source is DFD noise below 100 Hz and green laser frequency noise above that. For DFD noise, I used data dating back to Kiwamu's paper. The noise contribution from DFD in the model is lower than the latest measured ALS noise budget post on elog. I'll look further into design details and noise of DFD.
Code, data, and schematics
I want to get back to locking the interferometer so I can test out the newly installed AS WFS. However, the ALS noise is far too high, at least the transition of arm length control from IR to ALS fails reliably with the same settings that worked so reliably previously. I worked on investigating it a bit today.
In the latter half of last year, I was focused on the air-BHD setup, so I wasn't checking in on the ALS noise as regularly.
All tests are done with the arm cavity length locked to the PSL frequency using POX. Then, the EX laser is locked to the arm cavity length using the AUX PDH servo. The fluctuations in the beatnote between the two lasers is what is monitored as a diagnostic. See Attachment #1. The reference traces in the top pane are from a known good time. The large excess noise between ~80-200 Hz is what I'm concerned about.
A separate issue that can improve the noise is to track down the noise in the 20-80 Hz band - probably some IMC frequency noise issue.
See Attachment #2.
So what could it be? The only things I can think of are (i) the beat mouth photodiode (NF1611) or (ii) excess noise in the fiber carrying the light from EX to the PSL table (but only on this fiber, and not on the EY fiber). Both seem remote to me - I'll test the former by switching the EX and EY fiber inputs to the beat mouth, but apart from this, I'm out of ideas...
To avoid this kind of issue, we should really have scripted locks of all the basic IFO configs and record the data to summary pages or something - maybe something to do once Guardian is installed, it'd be pretty hacky to do cleanly with shell scripts.
I'm also wondering why the error monitors for the X and Y loops report such wildly different spectra for the suppressed frequency noise of the AUX laser relative to the cavity length, see Attachment #1. The y-axis should be approximately Hz/rtHz. In both cases, the servo's error point monitor is connected to the DAQ system via a G=10 SR560. With the SR785, I measure for EX a nice bucket-shaped spectrum, bottoming out at ~10 uV/rtHz around 40 Hz, see Attachment #2. The SR560 should have an input-referred noise much less than this at the G=10 setting. The ADC noise level is only ~5 uV/rtHz, and indeed, the EY spectrum shows the expected shape. So what's up with the EX error mon? Tried swapping out the SR560 for a different unit, no change. And both the SR560 noise, and the ADC noise, check out when everything is checked individually. So some kind of interaction once everything is connected together, but it's only present at EX...
Today, I tried switching the EX and EY fibers going into the beat mouth, but I preserved the channel mapping after the beat mouth by switching the electrical outputs as well (the goal was to make sure that the beat photodiodes weren't the issue here, I think the electronics are already exonerated since driving the channel with a Marconi doesn't produce these noisy features). The EX spectrum remains noisy. I've switched everything back to the nominal configuration now to avoid further confusion. So it would appeat that this is real frequency noise that gets added in the EX fiber somehow. What can I do to fix this? The source of coupling isn't at the PSL table, else the EY channel would also show similar features. Visually, nothing seems wrong to me at EX either. So the problem is somehow in the cable tray along which the 40m of fiber is routed? This is already inside some nice foam/tubing setup, what can be done to improve it? Still doesn't explain why it suddenly became noisy...
How about resurrecting the PSL table green beat for the X arm to see if the non-fiber setup shows the same level of the freq noise (e.g. the PDH locking became super noisy due to misalignment etc).
I thought about it, but wouldn't that show up at the AUX PDH error point? Or because the loop gain is so high there we wouldn't see a small excess? I suppose there could be some clipping on the Faraday or something like that. But the GTRX level and the green REFL DC level when locked are nominal.
If the sensing noise level of the end PDH degraded for some reason, it'd make the out of loop stability worse without making the end pdh error level degraded.
It's just speculation.
I did this test today. The excess noise around 100 Hz doesn't show up in the green beat.
See Attachment #1. The setup was as usual:
So, this excess appears to truly be excess phase noise on the fiber (though I have no idea what the actual mechanicsm could be or what changed between Aug and Oct 2020 that could explain it. Maybe the HEPA?
For this work, I had to spend some time aligning the two green beams onto the beat photodiode. During this time, I shuttered the PSL, disabled feedback via the FSS servo, turned the HEPA high, and kept the EX green locked to the arm so as to have a somewhat stable beat signal I could maximize. Everything has been returned to nominal settings now (obviously, since I locked the arms to get the data).
You may ask, why do we care. In terms of RMS frequency noise, it would appear that this excess shouldn't matter. But in all my trials so far, I've been unable to transition control of the arm cavity lengths from POX/POY to ALS. I suppose we could try using the green beat, but that has excess low frequency noise (which was the whole point of the fiber coupled setup).
I see no evidence of anything radically different from my PSL table optical characterization in the IMC transmitted beam, see Attachment #1. The lines are just a quick indicator of what's what and no sophisticated peak fitting has been done yet (so the apparent offset between the transmission peaks and some of the vertical lines are just artefacts of my rough calibration I believe). The modulation depths recovered from this scan are in good agreement with what I report in the linked elog, ~0.19 for f1 and ~0.24 for f2. On the bright side, the ALS just worked and didn't require any electronics fudgery from me. So the mystery continues.
Here is our first attempt at a single-arm noise budget for ALS.
Attachment 1 shows the loop diagram we used to calculate the contribution of different noises.
Attachment 2 shows the measured noise at C1:ALS-BEATX_PHASE_FINE_OUT_HZ when XARM was locked to the main laser and Xend Green laser was locked to XARM.
Here's an updated X ARM ALS noise budget.
I attempted a single arm actuation calibration using IR beatnote (in the directions of soCal idea for DARM calibration)
Rana suggested in today's meeting to put in a notch filter in the XARM IR PDH loop to avoid suppressing the excitation line. We tried this today first with just one notch at 1069 Hz and then with an additional notch at 619 Hz and sent two simultaneous excitations.
We attempted to simulate "oscillator based realtime calibration noise monitoring" in offline analysis with python. This helped us in finding about a factor of sqrt(2) that we were missing earlier in 16171. we measured C1:ALS-BEATX_FINE_PHASE_OUT_HZ_DQ when X-ARM was locked to main laser and Xend green laser was locked to XARM. An excitation signal of amplitude 600 was setn at 619 hz at C1:ITMX_LSC_EXC.
We got a value of . The calibration factor in use is from nm/cts from 13984.
Next steps could be to budget this noise while we setup some way of having this calibration factor generated in realitime using oscillators on a FE model. Calibrating actuation of a single optic in a single arm is easy, so this is a good test setup for getting a noise budget of this calibration method.
We did a quick check to make sure there is no saturation in the C1:SUS-ITMX_LSC_EXC analog path. For this, we looked at the SOS driver output monitors from the 1X4 chassis near MC2 on a scope. We found that even with 600 x 10 = 6000 counts of our 619 Hz excitation these outputs in particular are not saturating (highest mon signal was UL coil with 5.2 Vpp). In comparison, the calibration trials we have done before had 600 counts of amplitude, so we can safely increase our oscillator strength by that much
Things that remain to be investigated -->
I did this analysis again by just doing demodulation go 5s time segments of the 60s excitation signal. The major difference is that I was not summing up the sine-cosine multiplied signals, so the error associated was a lot more. If I simply multpy the whole beatnote signal with digital LO created at excitation frequency, divide it up in 12 segments of 5 s each, sum them up individually, then take the mean and standard deviation, I get the answer as:
as opposed to that was calculated using MICH signal earlier by gautum in 13984.
Attachment 1 shows the scatter plot for the complex calibration factors found for the 12 segments.
My aim in the previous post was however to get a time series of the complex calibration factor from which I can take a noise spectral density measurement of the calibration. I'll still look into how I can do that. I'll have to add a low pass filter to integrate the signal. Then the noise spectrum up to the low pass pole frequency would be available. But what would this noise spectrum really mean? I still have to think a bit about it. I'll put another post soon.
It was known that the Y end ALS PZTs are not working. But Anchal reported in the meeting that the X end PZTs are not working too.
We went down to the X arm in the afternoon and checked the status. The HV (KEPCO) was off from the mechanical switch. I don't know this KEPCO has the function to shutdown the switch at the power glitch or not.
But anyway the power switch was engaged. We also saw a large amount of misalignment of the X end green. The alignment was manually adjusted. Anchal was able to reach ~0.4 Green TRX, but no more. He claimed that it was ~0.8.
We tried to tweak the SHG temp from 36.4. We found that the TRX had the (local) maximum of ~0.48 at 37.1 degC. This is the new setpoint right now.
We replaced a shutter driver for GRY since it stopped working this morning.
We replaced it with a free driver which was sitting on the ITMY table.
The reverse polarity issue of C1:AUX-GREEN_Y_Shutter was fixed by switching one of the switches of the driver from N.O. to N.C.
Also, "Toggle" button was added to IFO_ALIGN.adl so that we can toggle shutters easily to find TEM00. It runs /home/controls/Git/40m/scripts/ALS/ShutterToggler.py.
The green Y shutter now works but in reverese, meaning that sending 1 to C1:AUX-GREEN_Y_Shutter closes the shutter and vice versa. This needs to be fixed.
We took the long BNC cable that ran from ETMX to ETMY and ran it from ETMX into the control room instead. This way Cici and Deeksha can send small voltage signals to the AUX PZT and read back using the beatnote pickoff that is usually connected to the spectrum analyzer.
I took ~ 7 minutes of XALS beatnote data with the XAUX laser locked to the XARM cavity, and the XARM locked to PSL to develop an allan deviation estimator. The resulting timeseries for the channel C1:ALS-BEATX_FINE_PHASE_OUT_HZ_DQ (decimated timeseries in Attachment #1) was turned into an allan variance using the "overlapped variable tau estimator":
Where represents the k-th data point in the raw timeseries, and are the variable integration intervals under which two point variances are computed (the allan variance is a special case of M-point variance, where M=2). Then, the allan deviation is just the square root of that. Attachment #2 shows the fractional deviation (normalized by the mean beat frequency ~ 3 MHz for this measurement) for 100 integration times spanning the full duration (~ 7 min = 420 s).
The code used for this lives in Git/40m/labutils/measuremens/ALS/
If this estimate is any good, wherever the fractional beatnote deviation reaches a minimum value can be used as a proxy for the longest averaging time that give a statistical increase in SNR. After this timescale, the frequency comparison is usually taken over by "environmental instabilities" which I don't think I can comment further on. In our particular estimate, the 100 second integration gives a fractional deviation of ~ 0.44 %, or absolute deviation of 12.925 kHz.
what's the reasoning behind using df/f_beat instead of df/f_laser ?
I took ~ 7 minutes of XALS beatnote data with the XAUX laser locked to the XARM cavity, and the XARM locked to PSL to develop an allan deviation estimator.
I guess it didn't make sense since f_beat can be arbitrarily moved, but the beat is taken around the PSL freq ~ 281.73 THz. Attachment #1 shows the overlapping tau allan deviation for the exact same dataset but using the python package allantools, where this time I used the PSL freq as the base frequency. This time, I can see the minimum fractional deviation of 1.33e-13 happening at ~ 20 seconds.
The allan variance is related to the beatnote spectral density as a mean-square integral (the deviation is then like the rms) with a sinc window.
In the morning I took some time to align the AUX beams in the XEND table. Later in the afternoon, I did the same on the YEND table. I then locked the AUX beams to the arm cavities while they were stabilized using POX/POY and turned off the PSL hepa off temporarily (this should be turned on after today's work).
After checking the the temperature slider sign on the spectrum analyzer of the control room I took some out-of-loop measurements of both ALS beatnotes (Attachment #1) by running diaggui /users/Templates/ALS/ALS_outOfLoop_Ref_DQ.xml and by comparing them against their old references (red vs magenta and blue vs cyan); it seems that YAUX is not doing too bad, but XAUX has increased residual noise around and above 100 Hz; perhaps as a result of the ongoing ALS SURF loop investigations? It does look like the OLTF UGF has dropped by half from ~ 11 kHz to ~ 5.5 kHz.
Anyways let this be a reference measurement for current locking tasks, as well as for ongoing SURF projects.
[Paco, Deeksha, rana]
Quick elog for this evening:
The PZT sweeps that we've been making to characterize the ALS-X laser should probably be discarded - the DFD was not setup correctly for this during the past few months.
Since the DFD only had a peak-peak range of ~5 MHz, whenever the beat frequency drifts out of the linear range (~2-3 MHz), the data would have an arbitrary gain. Since the drift was actually more like 50 MHz, it meant that the different parts of a single sweep could have some arbitrary gain and sign !!! This is not a good way to measure things.
I used an ezcaservo to keep the beat frequency fixed. The attacehed screenshot shows the command line. We read back the unwrapped beat frequency from the phase tracker, and feedback on the PSL's NPRO temperature. During this the lasers were not locked to any cavities (shutters closed, but servos not disabled).
For the purposes of this measurement, I reduced the CAL factor in the phase tracker screen so that the reported FINE_PHASE_OUT is actually in kHz, rather than Hz on this plot. So the green plot is moving by 10's of MHz. When the servo is engaged, you can see the SLOWDC doing some action. We think the calibration of that channel is ~1 GHz/V, so 0.1 SLOWDC Volts should be ~100 MHz. I think there's a factor of 2 missing here, but its close.
As you can see in the top plot, even with the frequency stabilized by this slow feedback (-1000 to -600 seconds), the I & Q outputs are going through multiple cycles, and so they are unusable for even a non serious measurement.
The only way forward is to use less of a delay in the DFD: I think Anchal has been busily installing this shorter cable (hopefully, its ~3-5 m long so that the linear range is more. I think a 10 m cable is too long.), and the sweeps taken later today should be more useful.
I laid down another temporary cable from Xend to 1Y2 (LSC rack) for also measuring the Q output of the DFD box. Then to get a quick measurement of these long cable delays, we used Moku:GO in oscillator mode, sent 100 ns pulses at a 100 kHz rate from one end, and measured the difference between reflected pulses to get an estimate of time delay. The other end of long cables was shorted and left open for 2 sets of measurements.
I-Mon Cable delay: (955+/- 6) ns / 2 = 477 +/- 3 ns
Q-Mon Cable delay: (535 +/- 6) ns / 2 = 267 +/- 3 ns
Note: We were underestimating the delay in I-Mon cable by about a factor of 2.
I also took the opportunity to take a delay time measurement of DFD delayline. Since both ends of cable were present locally, it made more sense to simply take a transfer function to get a clean delay measurement. This measurement resulted with value of 197.7 +/- 0.1 ns. See attached plot. Data and analysis here.
[Paco, Anchal, Radhika]
We tried to debug why the XARM green laser isn't catching lock with the arm cavity. First I tried to improve alignment:
- Aligned the arm cavity axes by maximizing IR transmission.
- Adjusted M1 and M2 steering mirrors to align the X green beam into the arm. GTRX reached ~0.3.
- At the vertex table, I adjusted the lens in the GTRX path to focus the beam onto the DCPD. This increased GTRX to ~0.7.
- Visually I confirmed that TEM00 of the green laser was flashing in the arm cavity, fairly centered. But it was not catching lock.
We suspected the XARM AUX PZT might be damaged/unresponsive. Paco, Anchal, and I fed several frequency signals to the PZT and looked for a peak in the AUX-PSL beatnote spectra at the expected frequency. We confirmed that the X-arm AUX PZT is responsive up to 12 kHz (limited by ADC samping rate). We have no reason to suspect the PZT wouldn't be responsive at the PDH modulation frequency of 231 kHz.
- Investigate PDH servo box / error signal.
I tested the mixer by feeding it a 300 kHz signal sourced from a Moku:Go. I kept the LO input the same - 231.25 kHz from the signal generator. The mixer output was a ~70 kHz waveform as expected, so demodulation is not the issue in green locking.
Next I'll align the arm cavities with IR and check to see if the green REFL signal looks as expected. If not, we'll have to invesitage the REFL PD. If the signal looks fine, and we now know it's being properly demodulated, the issue must lie further downstream.
I took a transfer function measurement of the XEND PDH servo box, from servo input to piezo output [Attachment 1]. The servo gain knob was set to 100. The swept sine input was 50 mVpp, as to not saturate the servo components. I toggled the local boost on/off for these measurements.
Atachment 2 is from a previous measurement of this PDH servo TF, found here. For this measurement, boost was off and the gain knob was set to 2.0. (If there is a more recent measurement than 2010, please point me to it.)
I've disabled the alarm for PEM_count_half, using the mask in the 40m.alhConfig file. We can't do anything about it, and it's just annoying.
I turned the StripTool and ALARMS and BLRMS back on on op540m. Looks like it has been rebooted 5 days ago and no one turned these back on. Also, there was a bunch of junk strewn around its keyboard which I restrained myself from throwing in the trash.
The BLRMS trends should be active now.
A small rat / large mouse just ran through the control room. Ugh.
Fire alarm went off several minutes ago. Talked to security and they said there was no fire. It beeped twice again just now. No one has been working on the IFO today.
The fire alarm came on around 15:05 for about 2-3 minutes. We all left the lab and counted heads. I called Paul Mackel x2646 (cell 626/ 890- 3259) at Fire Protection Services. He said that this alarm test was planned and we should of got an email notice. Perhaps I missed that notes.
It is posted at the 40m wiki with Gautam' help. Printed copies posted around doors also.
There was an alarm sound from the Smart-UPS 2200 sitting under the workstation. I see that the 'replace battery' light is red, and this elog tells me that these batteries are replaced every ~1-4 years; the last replacement was march 2016. Holding down the 'test' button for 2-3 seconds results in the alarm sound and does not clear the replace battery indicator.
In the revival of the experiement length measurement for the recycling cavities, I turned the auxiliary NPRO back on. The shutter is closed.
I also recollected all the equipment of the experiment after that during the summer it had been scattered around the lab to be used for other purposes (Joe and Zach's cameras and Stephanie and Koji's work with the new EOM).
I'm working on the PSL table to set up the PLL setup for the AbsL experiment.
I turned the auxialiary NPRO for the AbsL Experiment on. Its shutter stays closed.
Aligning the beam for the PLL of the AbsL Experiement I rotated the polarizer along the path of the MC Input pick off beam (= the pick off coming from the MC periscope).
I've been trying to lock the PLL for the AbsL Experiment but I can't see the beat (between the auxiliary NPRO and the PSL).
I believe the alignment of the PLL is not good. The Farady Isolator is definitely not perfectly aligned (you can see it from the beam spot after it) but still it should be enough to see something at the PLL PD.
it's probably just that the two beams don't overlap well enough on the photodiode. I'll work on that later on.
I'm leaving the lab now. I left the auxiliary NPRO on but I closed its shutter.
All the flipping mirrors are down.
I've opened the AP table and I'm working on it.
I re-aligned the Faraday on the AP table. I also aligned the beam to the periscope on the PSL and all the other optics along the beam path. Now I have a nice NPRO beam at the PLL which overlaps with the PSL beam. The alignment has to be further improved because I see no beat yet.
I wonder if the all the tinkering on the PSL laser done recently to revive the power has changed the PSL NPRO temperature and so its frequency. That could also explain why the beat doesn't show up at the same temperature of the NPRO as I used to operate it. Although I scanned the NPRO temperature +/- 2 deg and didn't see the beat. So maybe the misalignment is the casue.
Not feeling very well right now. I need to go home for a while.
AP table closed at the moment.
NPRO shutter closed