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ID Date Author Type Categoryup Subject
  10666   Tue Nov 4 14:46:00 2014 manasaUpdateGreen LockingMissing beatnotes

Summary: Cannot find beatnotes between the arms and PSL.

I wanted to measure the ALS out of loop noise before putting stuff on the PSL table for frequency offset locking.

But I was not able to find the beat notes between the arms and PSL green. All I could find while scanning through the end laser temperatures is the beatnote between the X and Y green.

EricQ says that he spent some time yesterday and could not find the beatnotes as well.

Debugging and still could not find:

1. Checked the FSS slow actuator. This was close to zero ~0.003

2. Checked the green alignment on the PSL table. Everything seems fine.

3. Checked the actual PSL laser temperature. It was 31.28deg and not very far from when it was last set at 31.33deg elog.

4. Also checked the end laser temperatures. Both the lasers are ~40deg (where I could see the beatnote between the arms). Based on the plot here and  here , we are very much in the regime where there should be a beatnote between the PSL and the arms.

  11334   Thu May 28 21:10:46 2015 KojiUpdateGreen LockingALS-X noise hunting

I have been looking at the X-end ALS setup.
I was playing with the control bandwidth to see the effect to the phase tracker output (i.e. ALS err).
For this test the arm was locked with the IR and the green beat note was used as the monitor.

From the shape of the error signal, the UGF of the green PDH was ~10kHz. When I increased the gain
to make the servo peaky, actually the floor level of the ALS err became WORSE. I did not see any improvement
anywhere. So, high residual error RMS cause some broadband noise in the ALS??? This should be checked.
Then when the UGF was lowered to 3kHz, I could see some bump at 3kHz showed up in the ALS error.
I didn't see the change of the PSD below 1kHz. So, more supression of the green PDH does not help
to improve the ALS error?

Then, I started to play with the phase tracker. It seems that someone already added the LF booster
to the phase tracker servo. I checked the phase tracker error  and confirmed it is well supressed.
Further integrator does not help to reduce the phase tracker error.

For the next thing I started to change the offset of the phase tracker. This actually changes
the ALS error level!
The attached plot shows the dependence of the ALS error PSD on the phase tracker
output. At the time of this measurement, the offset of -10 exhibited the best noise level.
This was, indeed, factor of 3~5 improvement compared to the zero offset case below 100Hz.

I'm afraid that this offset changes the beat frequency as I had the best noise level at the offset of -5
with a different lock streatch. We should look at this more carefully. If the beat freq changes the offset,
this give us another reason to fix the beat frequency (i.e. we need the frequency control loop.

= Today's ALSX error would have not been the usual low noise state.
We should recover the nominal state of the ALS and make the same test =

Attachment 1: 150528_ALS.pdf
  11361   Mon Jun 15 22:36:40 2015 rana, kojiUpdateGreen LockingBeatBox Assay: not looking good

Because the ALS beatbox schematic is out-of-date and misleading, we pulled the box to photograph the current implementation and figure out how to proceed. The box is out on the EE bench right now. Schematic Doc added to 40m Document tree: https://dcc.ligo.org/LIGO-D1102241. Some notes:

  1. The soldering on this board is pretty messy and there are a lot of flying wire and flying component hacks. I wouldn't trust all of the connections.
  2. The GV-81 RF amps in the front end are both stuffed. The 1 dB compression point is 19 dBm, so we want to use them below 10 dBm output. They have a gain of +10.5 dB, so that means they should not be used with and input to the beatbox of more than -10 dBm. Otherwise there will be nonlinear noise generation.
  3. Not stuffed: U1-Comparator, A1-attenuator, U2-splitter.
  4. Why is the filter after the mixer only 2nd order?? That's not a valid filter choice in any RF world. How much do we want to cut off the 2f mixer output before sending into our low noise, audio frequency (and prone to downconversion) amplifier? The Mini-Circuits amplifiers would have given us >60 dB attenuation in the stop band. This one is only going to give us 20-30 dB when the beat frequency is low. Get rid of diplexer. The schematic claims that its just one pole?? Seems like a 2nd order LP filter to me.
  5. The modified schematic (see Koji elog 8855) shows that an OP27 is used for the whitening stage. The current noise of the OP27 with the 3k resistor makes the OP27 current noise dominate below 1 Hz. And what is going on with that filter capacitor choice? We never want to use these tiny things for sensitive filter applications. (cf. Sigg doc on resistor and capacitor choice, the noise reduction book by Ott, H&H, etc.). That's why we have the larger metal-poly, paper, mylar, etc. caps sitting around.

Probably we ought to install a little daughter board to avoid having to keep hacking this dead horse. Koji has some of Haixing'g maglev filter boards. Meanwhile Koji is going to make us a new beatbox circuit in Altium and we can start fresh later this summer.

Interesting link on new SMD cap technology.

Photos of circuit as found

  11363   Fri Jun 19 01:24:26 2015 rana, kojiUpdateGreen LockingBeatBox Assay: not looking good

We had decided a few days ago, to bypass the IF part of the BeatBox board and put some of the Haixing Maglev generic filter boards in there so that we could get more whitening and also have it be low noise.

Tonight we wondered if we can ditch the whole BeatBox and just use the quad aLIGO demod box (D0902745) that Rich gave us a few years ago. Seems like it can.

But, it has no whitening. Can we do the whitening part externally? Perhaps we can run the RF signals from the output of the beat RF Amps over to the LSC rack and then put the outputs into the LSC Whitening board and acquire the signals in the LSC ?

  11364   Fri Jun 19 01:55:35 2015 ericqUpdateGreen LockingBeatBox Assay: not looking good

But, it has no whitening. Can we do the whitening part externally? Perhaps we can run the RF signals from the output of the beat RF Amps over to the LSC rack and then put the outputs into the LSC Whitening board and acquire the signals in the LSC ?

I like this idea; it gives us more control over the whitening, and saves the IPC delay. We could use the currently vacant AS165 and POP55 channels. 

We'd only have to move the phase trackers to c1lsc, which means 12 more FMs total. This is really the only part of the c1als model our current system uses, the rest is from before the ALS->LSC integration. 

  11604   Wed Sep 16 03:37:06 2015 KojiSummaryGreen LockingWorkable delay line setup prepared

[Koji Gautam]

The variable delay line has been setup for practical use. The hardware and basic software are ready.

The delay time is given by [512-1-mod(C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET, 512)]*(1/16) ns

Giving 511 (LLLL LLLH HHHH HHHH) to C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET makes the delayline shortest (+0ns).
Giving 0 (LLLL LLLL LLLL LLLL) to C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET makes the delayline longest (~32ns).

The SR785 was removed from the rack for our access >> Eric

DO setup

- Three CONTEC DO-32L-PE cards are found in the Yarm digital cabinet. (I brought a card from WB, but will bring it back).
- The card was installed in the C1LSC chassis.

- The models for c1x04 and c1lsc were modified to include the card. Once they are restarted, the card was recognized without problem.
  The frame builder also needed to be restarted (Attachment 1&2). The changes were committed to the repository.

- MEDM screen "CDS_BO_STATUS.adl" has been modified to include the bit monitors for the new DO card. (Attachment 3)

Epics values "C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET" and "C1:LSC-BO_1_1_SET" are hooked up to the DO block.


- The DO board has DB37(F). I made a I/F cable with a DB37(M) crimp connector, DB25 breakout board, and a ribbon cable.
  Pin 1 is connected to pin 14 of the DB25 (GND of the delayline circuit).
  Pin 2~10 are connected to pin 1~9 of the DB25 (Switch 1~9 of the delayline circuit)
  Pin 18 is connected to X01 (external = spare) (Attachment 4)

- [CONFESSION] A bench +15V power supply was prepared to power the transisters of the DO (Attachment 6). The hot side is connected to X01 (not connected to the DB25),
  and the cold side is connected to pin 14 of the DB25. Once we find this is a useful setup we need to make a dedicated interface unit to convert DB37
  into DB25 (and provide more connectivities).

- A DB25 M-F cable was installed on the cable tray above the LSC racks.

Delay line unit

- The delay line box was mounted on 34H of the LSC analog rack (Attachment 5).

- The side cross connect power supply was not available (to be described later). Therefore we decided to use the same +15V supply as the one for the DO card.

- Checked the functionarity of the local switches using a function generator @30MHz and the front panel switches. The maximum (~32ns) delay was confirmed.
  (Just not enough to have 360 deg shift).

- Now the delay line function was tested with the front panel swicth at "ext". We confirmed that the delay time changes with the number given to C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET.

What we need further

- Implement delay time slider control (511 = 0ns, 0 = 31.94ns). The delay time is given by
  [512-1-mod(C1:LSC-BO_1_0_SET, 512)]*(1/16) ns

- Some independent RF issues I found. (Next entry)

Attachment 1: 21.png
Attachment 2: 51.png
Attachment 3: 46.png
Attachment 4: IMG_20150915_222236066.jpg
Attachment 5: IMG_20150915_234222349.jpg
Attachment 6: IMG_20150915_234323363.jpg
  11715   Mon Oct 26 19:10:59 2015 gautamUpdateGreen LockingAUX PDH loop characterization

I began my attempts to characterize the PDH loops at the X end today. My goal was to make the following measurements:

  • Dark noise and shot noise of the PD
  • Mixer noise
  • Servo electronics noise 

which I can then put into my simulink noise-budget scheme for the proposed IR beat setup.

I've made an Optickle model of a simple FP cavity and intend to match the measured PDH error signal from the X end to the simulated error signal to get the Hz/V calibration. I'll put the plots up for these shortly.

With regards to the other measurements, I was slowed down by remote data-acquisition from the SR785 - I've only managed to collect the analyzer noise floor data, and I plan to continue these measurements during the day tomorrow. 

  11865   Tue Dec 8 23:24:08 2015 gautamUpdateGreen LockingY end laser (Lightwave) PZT calibration


I measured the PZT actuator gain for the Lightwave NPRO at the Y-end to be 3.6 +/- 0.3 MHz/V. This is somewhat lower than the value of 5 MHz/V reported here, but I think is consistent with that measurement. 


In order to calibrate the Y-axis of my Aux PDH loop noise budget plots, I wanted a measurement of the end laser actuator gain. I proceeded to measure this as follows:

  1. Use a function generator to add a DC offset to the error point - I did this by taking the output of the RF mixer -> Input A of an SR560, output of the function generator -> input B of the SR560 (via a 20 Ohm attenuator, and with a 50ohm T-eed to the input for impedance matching), and setting the output to A-B, and feeding that to the "Servo Input" on the PDH box.
  2. I then locked the arm to IR, ran the dither to maximize the green transmission, and set up a beat note at ~39 MHz with the help of the analyzer in the control room.
  3. Set phase tracker UGF, clear phase history.
  4. Vary the DC offset to the error point by using the offset on the function generator. I varied the offset until the green TEM00 lock was lost, in steps of 0.1 V. At each step, I averaged the output of the phase tracker for 15 seconds.
  5. Convert the applied DC offset to the DC offset appearing at the servo output using the transfer function of the servo box (DC gain measured to be ~65 dB), taking into account the 20dB attenuator also.

The attached plot shows the measured data. The X-axis is shown after the conversion mentioned in the last bullet point. The error bars are the standard deviations of the averaging at each DC offset. 

To do:

  1. The value of the DC gain of the servo, 65 dB, is an approximate one based on a rough measurement I did earlier today. I'll take a TF measurement with an SR785 tomorrow, but I think this shouldn't change the number too much.
  2. Upload the noise budget measurements for the Y-end PDH loop.
Attachment 1: Ycalib_8Dec.pdf
  11877   Sun Dec 13 21:55:28 2015 gautamUpdateGreen LockingY end laser (Lightwave) PZT calibration


After the discussions at the Wednesday meeting, I redid this measurement using a sinusoidal excitation summed at the error-point of the PDH servo as opposed to a DC offset. From the data I collected, I measured the actuator gain to be 2.43 +/- 0.04 MHz/V. This is almost half the value we expect, I'm not sure if I'm missing something obvious.


  1. Attachment #1 is a sketch of the measurement setup and points at which signals are measured/calculated. Some important changes:
    • I am now using the channel C1:ALS-Y_ERR_MON_OUT to directly measure the input signal to the servo. In order to get the calibration constant for this channel from counts to volts, I simply hooked up the input to the channel to an oscilloscope and noted the amplitude of the signal seen on the scope in volts. The number I have used is 52uV/count (note that the signal to the ADC is amplified by a factor of 10 by an SR560).
    • I measured the transfer function from the input to the servo (marked "A" in the sketch) to the output of the Pomona box going to the laser PZT (marked "B" on the sketch) using an SR785 - see Attachment #2. This allowed me to convert the amplitude of excitation at A to an amplitude at B, which is what we need, as we want to measure C/B.
  2. The measurement itself was done by locking the arms to IR, running ASS to maximize IR transmission, setting up a green beat note, and then measuring the two channels of interest with the excitation to the error-point on. 
  3. I was initially trying to use time-series plots to measure these amplitudes - Koji suggested I use the Fourier domain instead, and so I took FFTs of the two channels we are interested in (using a flat-top window with 0.1 Hz BW) and estimated the RMS values at the frequency at which I had injected an excitation. Data+code used is in Attachment #3. In particular, I was integrating the PSD over 1Hz centered at the excitation frequency in order to calculate the RMS power at the excitation frequency - it could be that for C1:ALS-BEATY_FINE_PHASE_OUT_HZ, the spectral leakage into neighbouring bins is more significant than for C1:ALS-Y_ERR_MON_OUT (see Attachment #4)?
  4. With the amplitudes thus obtained, I took the ratio C/B (see sketch) to determine the MHz/V actuator gain. I had injected excitations at 5 frequencies (916Hz, 933Hz, 977Hz, 1030Hz and 1067Hz, choses in relatively "quiet" parts of the spectrum of C1:ALS-Y_ERR_MON_OUT with no excitations), and the result reported is the average from these five measurements, while the error is the standard deviation in the 5 measurements.
  5. Unrelated to this meaurement - while I had the SR560 hooked up to the input of the PDH box, I inverted the mixer output to the servo input, as I thought I could use this method to estimate the modulation depth. I did so by locking the Y arm green to the sideband TEM00 mode, and comparing the green transmission in this state to that when the Y arm is locked to a carrier TEM00 mode. I averaged C1:ALS-TRY_OUT for 10 seconds in 3 cases: (i) Carrier TEM00, (ii)sideband TEM00, and (iii) shutter closed - from this measurement, I estimate the modulation depth to be 0.209 +/- 0.006 (errors used to calculate the total error were the standard deviations of the measured transmission). 

Next steps:

  1. Check that I have not missed out anything obvious in estimating the actuator gain - particularly the spectral leakage bit I mentioned above.
  2. If this methodology and measurement is legitimate, repeat for the X end, and complete the noise budgeting for both AUX PDH loops.
Attachment 1: IMG_5972.JPG
Attachment 2: ServoY_TF_13Dec2015.pdf
Attachment 3: DatanCode.zip
Attachment 4: PSD_916Hz.pdf
  11879   Mon Dec 14 16:27:11 2015 gautamUpdateGreen LockingY-end AUX PDH noise breakdown


I've attached the results from my measurements of the noise characteristics of the Y-end auxiliary PDH system.


The following spectra were measured, in the range DC-1MHz:

  1. Analyzer noise floor (measured with input terminated)
  2. Green REFL PD dark noise (measured with the Y-end green shutter closed)
  3. Mixer noise (measured with input to mixer terminated - measured with an SR560 with a gain of 100)
  4. Servo noise (measured with input to servo terminated)
  5. In loop error signal (measured with green locked to Y-arm, LSC off - using monitor point on PDH box)
  6. In loop control signal (measured with green locked to Y-arm, LSC off - using monitor point on PDH box)

In order to have good spectral resolution, the frequency range was divided into 5 subsections: DC-200Hz, 200Hz-3.4kHz, 3.4kHz-16.2kHz, 10kHz-100kHz, 100kHz-1MHz. The first three are measured using the SR785, while the last two ranges are measured with the Agilent network analyzer. The spectrum of the mixer output with its input terminated was quite close to the analyzer noise floor - hence, this was measured with an S560 preamplifier set to a gain of 100, and subsequently dividing the ASD by 100. To convert the Y-axis from V/rtHz to Hz/rtHz, I used two conversion factors: for the analyzer noise floor, PD dark noise, mixer noise and in-loop error signal, I made an Optickle simulation of a simple FP cavity (all parameters taken from the wiki optics page, except that I put in Yutaro's measured values for the arm loss and a modulation depth of 0.21 which I estimated as detailed here), and played around with the demodulation phase until I got an error signal that had the same qualitative shape as what I observed on an oscilloscope with the arms freely swinging (feedback to the laser PZT disabled). The number I finally used is 45.648 kHz/V (the main horns were 800mV peak-to-peak on an oscilloscope trace, results of the Optickle FP cavity simulation shown in Attachment #2 used to calibrate the X-axis). For the servo noise spectrum and in-loop control signal, I used the value of 2.43 MHz/V as determined here

I'm not sure what to make of the strong peaks in the mixer noise spectrum between ~60Hz and 10kHz - some of the more prominent peaks are 60Hz harmonics, but there are several peaks in between as well (these have been confusing me for some time now, they were present even when I made the measurement in this frequency range using the Agilent network analyzer. My plan is to repeat these measurements for the Xend now. 

Attachment 1: YAUX_NB_Dec2015.pdf
Attachment 2: PDH_errSig_Calib.pdf
  11887   Wed Dec 16 18:34:40 2015 gautamUpdateGreen LockingGreen beat channels temporarily set up as IR beat channels

Since there are a few hours to go before the locking efforts tonight, I've temporarily borrowed the channels used to read out the green beat frequency, and have hooked them up to the broadband IR PDs in the FOL box on the PSL table. I've used the network analyzer in the control room to roughly position the two beatnotes. I've also turned the green beat PDs back on (since the PSL shutter has to be open for the IR beat, and there is some green light falling on these PDs, but I've terminated the outputs).

So this needs to be switched back before locking efforts tonight...

  11888   Wed Dec 16 23:15:28 2015 ericqUpdateGreen LockingGreen beat channels temporarily set up as IR beat channels

With the IR beats going to the nominal ALS channels as Gautam left them, we're able to measure the free running frequency noise of the end AUX lasers. 

Specifically, the end shutters are closed, leaving the AUX lasers free running. The IR beats then consist of this free running light beating with the PSL light, and the ALS phase trackers give a calibrated frequency noise spectrum. I've stabilized the PSL light by locking the laser to the Y arm via MC2 acutation, so the free running AUX laser noise should dominate by a lot above the suspension resonances. This also has the benefit of giving me the use of the CAL'd Y arm displacement as a sanity check. 

At this point in time, it looks like the X laser is close to 10x noisier than the Y laser, though it does seem to be at the rule-of-thumb "10kHz/rtHz at 100Hz" level. 

Attachment 1: 2015-12-16_AUXfreerunning.pdf
  11906   Mon Jan 4 16:09:54 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingY end laser (Lightwave) PZT calibration


I redid this measurement and have now determined the actuator gain to be 4.61 +/- 0.10 MHz/V. This is now pretty consistent with the expected value of ~5MHz/V as reported here.


I made the following changes to the old methodology:

  1. Instead of integrating around the excitation frequency, I am now just taking the ratio of peak heights (phase tracker output / error signal monitor) to determine the actuator gain.
  2. I had wrongly assumed that the phase tracker output was calibrated to green Hz and not IR Hz, so I was dividing by two where this was not necessary. I think this explains why my previous measurement yielded an answer approximately half the expected value.

I also took spectra of the phase tracker output and error signal to make sure I was choosing my excitation frequencies in regions where there were no peaks already present (Attachment #1).

The scatter of measured actuator gains at various excitation frequencies is shown in Attachment #2.

Attachment 1: choosingExcFreqs.pdf
Attachment 2: laserPZTcalib.pdf
  11907   Mon Jan 4 16:45:11 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingY-end AUX PDH noise breakdown


I've re-measured the noise breakdown for the Y-end AUX PDH system. Spectra are attached. I've also measured the OLTF of the PDH loop, from which the UGF appears to be ~8.5kHz. 


As Eric and Koji pointed out, the spectra uploaded here were clearly wrong as there were breaks in the spectra between decades of frequency. I redid the measurements, this time being extra careful about impedance mismatch effects. All measurements were made from the monitor points on the PDH box, which according to the schematic found here, have an output impedance of 49.9 ohms. So for all measurements made using the SR785 which has an input impedance of 1Mohm, or those which had an SR560 in the measurement chain (also high input impedance), I terminated the input with a 50ohm terminator so as to be able to directly match up spectra measured using the two different analyzers. I'm also using my more recent measurement of the actuator gain of the AUX laser to convert the control signal from V/rtHz to Hz/rtHz in the plotted spectra. 

As a further check, I locked the IR to the Y-arm by actuating on MC2, and took the spectrum of the Y-arm mirror motion using the C1CAL model. We expect this to match up well with the in-loop control signal at low frequencies. However, though the shapes seem consistent in Attachment #2 (light orange and brown curves), I seem to be off by a factor of 5- not sure why. In converting the Y-arm mirror motion spectrum from m/rtHz to Hz/rtHz, I multiplied the measured spectrum by \frac{3.907*10^6}{0.5*532*10^{-9}}, which I think is the correct conversion factor (FSR/(0.5*wavelength))?

Attachment 1: ErrSigBreakdown.pdf
Attachment 2: controlSigBreakdown.pdf
Attachment 3: YEnd_PDH_OLTF.pdf
  11936   Tue Jan 19 17:27:58 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingAUX X power investigations

Last week, Eric and I noticed that the green transmission levels at the PSL table seem much lower now than they did a month or two ago. To investigate this, I attempted to reproduce a power budget for the X endtable setup - see the attached figure (IR powers measured with calorimeter, green powers measured with Ophir power meter). A summary of my observations:

  • The measurements were all made at an AUX-X laser diode current of 1.90A, and laser crystal temperature of 47.41 degrees. The current was chosen on the basis of the AUX-X frequency noise investigations. The temperature was chosen as this is the middle of three end-laser temperatures at wich a beat-note can be found now. Why should this temperature have changed by almost 5 degrees from the value reported here? I checked on the PSL laser controller that the PSL temperature is 33.43 degrees. Turning up the diode current to 2A does not change the situation significantly. Also, on the Innolight datasheet, the tuning geometry graphs' X-axes only runs to 45 degrees. Not sure of what to make of this. I tried looking at the trend of the offset to the slow temperature servo to see if there has been some sort of long-term drift, but was unable to do so...
  • The IR power from the laser seems to have halved, compared to the value in Feb 2014. Is this normal deterioration over two years? Changing the laser diode current to 2A and the laser crystal temperature to ~42 degrees (the conditions under which the Feb 2014 measurements were taken) do not alter these numbers radically.
  • The green power seems to have become 1/4 its value in Feb 2014, which seems to be consistent with the fact that the IR power has halved.

It is worth noting that two years ago, the IR power from the AUX-Y laser was ~280 mW, so we should still be getting "enough" green power for ALS?


  11944   Fri Jan 22 11:33:20 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingAUX-X AM/PM investigations

I was trying to characterize the AM/PM response of the X end laser. I tried to measure the AM response first, as follows:

  • I used the Thorlabs PDA 55, whose datasheet says it has 10MHz bandwidth - I chose it because it has a larger active area than the PDA 255, but has sufficient bandwidth for this measurement. 
  • My earlier measurement suggested the IR power coming out of the laser is ~300mW. As per the datasheet of the PDA 55, I expect its output to be (1.5 x 10^4 V/A) * (~0.25 A/W) ~ 4000 V/W => I expect the PD output (driving the 50ohm input of the Agilent NA) to saturate at ~1.3mW. So I decided to use a (non-absorptive) ND 3.0 filter in front of the PD (i.e. incident power on the PD ~0.3 mW).
  • I measured the AM response (inputA/inputR) by using the RF output from the Agilent analyzer (divided using a mini-circuits splitter half to input R and half to the laser PZT), and the PD output to input A. I set the power of the RF output on the analyzer to 0 dBm. 
  • Attachment #1 shows the measured AM response. It differs qualitatively in shape from the earlier measurements reported in this elog and on the wiki below the 100kHz region. 
  • I also took a measurement of the RIN with no drive to the laser PZT (terminated with a 50ohm terminator) - see Attachment #2. Qualitatively, this looks like the "free-running" RIN curve on the Innolight datasheet (see Attachment #3, the peak seems slightly shifted to the left though), even though the Noise Eater switch on the laser controller front panel is set to "ON". I neglected taking a spectrum with it OFF, I will update this elog once I do (actually I guess I have to take both spectra again as the laser diode and crystal temperatures have since been changed - this data was taken at T_diode = 28.5deg, I_diode = 1.90A, and T_crystal = 47.5 deg). But does this point to something being broken?
  • I was unable to lock the PLL yesterday to measure the PM response, I will try again today.
Attachment 1: AUX_X_AM.pdf
Attachment 2: AUX_X_RIN.pdf
Attachment 3: NE_Mephisto.png
  11945   Fri Jan 22 13:33:37 2016 ericqUpdateGreen LockingAUX-X AM/PM investigations

Attachment #1 shows the measured AM response. It differs qualitatively in shape from the earlier measurements reported in this elog and on the wiki below the 100kHz region. 

It looks like some of the features may have shifted in frequency. The previous measurement results can be found in /users/OLD/mott/PZT/2NPRO, can you plot the two AM measurements together?

  11946   Fri Jan 22 17:22:06 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingAUX-X AM/PM investigations

There were a number of directories in /users/OLD/mott/PZT/2NPRO, I've used the data in Innolight_AM_New. Also, I am unsure as to what their "calibration" factor is to convert the measured data into RIN, so I've just used a value of 0.8, with which I got the plot to match up as close as possible to the plot in this elog. I also redid the measurement today, given that the laser parameters have changed. The main difference was that I used an excitation amplitude of +15dBm, and an "IF Bandwidth" of 30Hz in the parameter files for making these measurements, which I chose to match the parameters Mott used. There does seem to be a shift in some of the features, but the <100kHz area seems similar to the old measurement now. 

Having put the PD back in, I also took measurements of the RIN with the input to the laser PZT terminated. There is no difference with the Noise Eater On or OFF! 


Attachment #1 shows the measured AM response. It differs qualitatively in shape from the earlier measurements reported in this elog and on the wiki below the 100kHz region. 

It looks like some of the features may have shifted in frequency. The previous measurement results can be found in /users/OLD/mott/PZT/2NPRO, can you plot the two AM measurements together?


Attachment 1: AM_response.pdf
Attachment 2: NE_investigations.pdf
  11947   Fri Jan 22 18:46:03 2016 ranaUpdateGreen LockingAUX-X AM/PM investigations

The PDA photodetectors are DC coupled, so you cannot use them to go directly into the analyzer. Must use the DC block so that you can reduce the input attenuation on the B channel and then lower the drive amplitude.

Good policy for TF measurements: drive as softly as you can and still measure in a reasonable amount of time, but no softer than that.

  11951   Tue Jan 26 17:50:22 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave frequency noise measurement

I attempted to measure the frequency noise of the extra Lightwave NPRO we have that is currently sitting on the PSL table. I did the following:

  1. Turn the Lightwave NPRO back on.
  2. Disable MC autolocker and close the PSL shutter.
  3. Checked the alignment of the pick off from the PSL beam and the beam from the Lightwave NPRO onto the PDA10CF. These seemed okay, and I didn't really have to tweak any of the steering optics. I was getting a DC signal level of ~7V (the PD should drive a 1Mohm load up to 10V so it wasn't saturated).
  4. Swept the crystal temperature on the Lightwave using the dial on the front panel of the controller. I found beatnotes at 48.1831 degrees and 45.3002 degrees. However, the amplitude of the beatnote was pretty small (approx. -40dBm on the Agilent NA). I tried playing around with the beam alignment and laser power on the Lightwave NPRO to see if I could increase the beatnote amplitude, but was unsuccessful - turning up the laser power (from the nominal level of 55mW as per the front panel display) caused the PD to saturate at 10V, while as far as I could tell, the alignment of the two beams onto the PD is reasonably good. This seems inconsistent with the numbers Koji has reported in this elog, where he was able to get a beatnote of ~1Vpp for a DC of 2.5 V. 
  5. I tried locking the PLL (in roughly the same configuration as reported here) with this small amplitude beatnote but was unsuccessful. 

I've turned the Lightwave NPRO back to standby for now, in anticipation of further trials later today. I've also restored the IMC. 

  11953   Wed Jan 27 18:19:45 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave frequency noise measurement

After adjusting the alignment of the two beams onto the PD, I managed to recover a stronger beatnote of ~ -10dBm. I managed to take some measurements with the PLL locked, and will put up a more detailed post later in the evening. I turned the IMC autolocker off, turned the 11MHz Marconi output off, and closed the PSL shutter for the duration of my work, but have reverted these to their nominal state now. The are a few extra cables running from the PSL table to the area near the IOO rack where I was doing the measurements from, I've left these as is for now in case I need to take some more data later in the evening...

  11956   Thu Jan 28 00:29:30 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave frequency noise measurement

Summary of the work done today:

Alignment and other work on PSL table

As mentioned in a previous elog, the beatnote amplitude I obtained was tiny - so I checked the alignment of the two beams onto the PD. I did this as follows:

  • Checked the alignment of the two beams on the recombination BS. Moved the steering mirror for the PSL beam until the two were aligned, as verified by eye using an IR card
  • Turn the steering mirror just before the fast focusing lens and thorlabs PD (kept the fork fixed, just loosened the screw on the post to do this) such that the far-field alignment of the two beams could be checked. I used the BS to tweak this alignment as necessary
  • Iterate the previous two steps till I was happy with the alignment
  • Return steering mirror before the PD to its original position, tweak alignment until DC level on the PD was maximized (as verified using an oscilloscope) 
  • Adjust the HWP just after the lightwave laser such that the power arriving at the PD from the PSL beam and the lightwave beam were approximately equal - verified by blocking each beam and checking change in the DC level

After doing all of this, I found a beatnote at ~-10dBm at a temperature of 45.3002 degrees on the Lightwave. The DC level was ~8V (~4V contribution from each beam). 

PLL and frequency nosie measurements:

Pretty much the same procedure as that described in this elog was followed for setting up the PLL and taking the measurements, except that this time, I used the two SR560s in a better way to measure the open loop TF of the PLL. This measurement suggested a UGF of ~ 10kHz, which seems reasonable to me. I turned the 11MHz marconi off because some extra peaks were showing up in the beat signal spectrum. I judged that the beatnote was not large enough to require the use of an attenuator between the PD and the mixer. I was able to lock the PLL easily enough, and I've attached spectra of the control signal (both uncalibrated and calibrated). To calibrate the spectrum, I did a quick check to determine the actuator gain of the spare Lightwave laser, by sweeping the fast PZT with a low frequency (0.5Hz) 1Vpp sine wave, and looking at the peak in the beat signal spectrum move on the network analyzer. This admittedly rough calibration suggests that the coefficient is ~5MHz/V, consistent with the other Lightwave. Eric suggested a more accurate way to do this would be to match up spectra taken using this method and by locking the PLL by actuating on the FM input of the Marconi - I didn't try this, but given the relatively large low-frequency drifts of the beatnote that I was seeing, and that the control signal was regularly hitting ~2V (i.e shifting the frequency by ~10MHz), I don't think this is viable with a low MHz/V coefficient on the Marconi, which we found is desirable as described here

Bottom line:

The spare Lightwave frequency noise seems comparable to the other two measurements (see attachment #2). If anything, it is a factor of a few worse, though this could be due to an error in the calibration? I'm also not sure why the shapes of the spectra from today's measurement differ qualitatively from those in elog 11929 above ~7kHz. 


Some random notes:

  • Do we want to do an AM/PM characterization of the spare Lightwave laser as well? It might be easier to do the PM measurement while we have this measurement setup working
  • Yesterday, I noticed some peaks in the spectrum of the PD output while only the PSL beam was incident on it, at ~35MHz and ~70 MHz. They were pretty small (~-50dBm), but still clearly discernible over the analyzer noise floor. It is unclear to me what the source of these peaks are.
Attachment 1: PLL_OLG.pdf
Attachment 2: Freq_noise_comparison.pdf
  11961   Fri Jan 29 14:43:47 2016 SteveUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

After adjusting the alignment of the two beams onto the PD, I managed to recover a stronger beatnote of ~ -10dBm. I managed to take some measurements with the PLL locked, and will put up a more detailed post later in the evening. I turned the IMC autolocker off, turned the 11MHz Marconi output off, and closed the PSL shutter for the duration of my work, but have reverted these to their nominal state now. The are a few extra cables running from the PSL table to the area near the IOO rack where I was doing the measurements from, I've left these as is for now in case I need to take some more data later in the evening...I

Innolight 1W 1064nm, sn 1634 was purchased in 9-18-2006 at CIT. It came to the 40m around 2010

It's diodes should be replaced, based on it's age and performance.

RIN and noise eater bad. I will get a quote on this job.

The Innolight Manual frequency noise plot is the same as Lightwave' elog 11956

Attachment 1: inno1W.pdf
  11962   Fri Jan 29 16:55:27 2016 ranaUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

I don't think there's any evidence that the noise eater is bad. That would change the behavior of the relaxation oscillation which is at 1 MHz ?

  11963   Sat Jan 30 00:12:22 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old



I don't think there's any evidence that the noise eater is bad. That would change the behavior of the relaxation oscillation which is at 1 MHz ?

While I was investigating the AM/PM ratio of the Innolight, I found that there was a pronounced peak in the RIN at ~400kHz, which did not change despite toggling the noise eater switch on the front panel (see plot attached). The plot in the manual suggests the relaxation oscillations should be around 600kHz, but given that the laser power has dropped by a factor of ~3, I think it's reasonable that the relaxation oscillations are now at ~400kHz? 

Attachment 1: RIN_comparison.pdf
  11964   Sat Jan 30 09:56:24 2016 KojiUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

It is strange that there is no difference between with and without NE, isn't it?

  11967   Mon Feb 1 15:16:28 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

The Innolight laser control unit has a 25 pin D-sub connector on the rear which is meant to serve as a diagnostics aid, and the voltages at the various pins should tell us the state of various things, like the diode power monitor, laser crystal TEC error temperature, NE status etc etc. Unfortunately, I am unable to locate a manual for this laser (online or physical copy in the filing cabinets), so the only thing I have to go on is a photocopied page that Steve had obtained sometime ago from the manual for the 2W NPRO. According to that, Pin 1 is "Diode laser 1, power monitor, 1V/W". The voltage I measured (with one of the 25 pin breakout boards and a DMM) is 1.038V. I didn't see any fast fluctuations in this value either. It may be that the coefficient indicating "normal" state of operation is different for the 1W model than the 2W model, but this measurement suggests the condition of the diode is alright after all?

I also measured the voltage at Pin 12, which is described in the manual as "Noise Eater, monitor". This value was fluctuating between ~20mV and ~40mV. Toggling the NE switch on the front of the control unit between ON and OFF did not change this behaviour. The one page of the manual that we have, however, doesnt provide any illumination on how we are supposed to interpret the voltage measured at this pin...

  11968   Mon Feb 1 15:43:18 2016 KojiUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

This is the same one as what you got from Steve. But you can find full pages.


  11969   Mon Feb 1 18:11:25 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave frequency noise measurement

Before distrubing the beat setup with the spare Lightwave laser, I wanted to see if I could resolve the apparent difference in behaviour between the measured free running noise of the spare Lightwave laser and my earlier measurements with the existing X and Y end lasers above ~5kHz. So I redid the measurement, but this time, on Eric's suggestion, while taking spectra on the SR785, I was careful to maintain the same "CH1 input range" while measuring the control signal spectrum and the measurement noise spectra. The level used was -20dBvpk. I think the measured spectrum shape now makes sense - above ~4kHz, the SR560 noise means that the SNR is poor and so we can only trust the spectra up to this value (the spectra for the end lasers are from earlier measurements where I did not take care to keep the input range constant). Anyways, I think the conclusion is that the spare Lightwave seems to have a free-running frequency noise that is approximately a factor of 3 worse than the Lightwave laser at the Y-end, though this may be because I didn't take the measurement at the optimal operating conditions (diode current, power etc). But I guess this is tolerable and that we can go ahead with the planned swapping out of the existing Innolight at the X-end with this laser. 

I will now move the Lightwave laser off the PSL table onto the SP table where I will do some beam characterization and see if I can come up with a satisfactory mode-matching solution for the swap. I've borrowed a beam profiler from the TCN lab for this purpose.

Attachment 1: Free_running_frequency_noise_comparison.pdf
  11970   Tue Feb 2 18:35:47 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave NPRO moved from PSL table to SP table

I've moved the following components that was a part of Koji's setup from the PSL table to the SP table so that I may measure the beam profile of the beam from the spare Lightwave NPRO and work on a mode-matching solution for the X-end.

  • Lightwave laser
  • Lightwave controller
  • Interlock switch (Newport)
  • HWP and PBS

I did some preliminary characterization of the beam from the Lightwave - in the power controlled mode, setting the "ADJ" parameter to 0 (which is the state recommended in the manual) gives an output power of ~240mW. I used the HWP and PBS to dump most of this into a "Black Hole" beam dump, but I was still getting about 300uW of power after this. This was saturating the CCD in the beam profiler (even though 300uW for a beam of ~1mm should be well within the recommended operating limits as per its manual - maybe the ND filter on the camera isn't really ND4.0), and so I further reduced the "ADJ" parameter on the laser controller to -20, such that I had no saturation of the CCD. I will try and take some data later today. The laser is presently in "Standby" mode, and the SP table is fully covered again.

  11971   Tue Feb 2 18:54:02 2016 KojiUpdateGreen LockingLightwave NPRO moved from PSL table to SP table

jiIn fact, it is one of the most difficult type mode profiling to measure a beam directly out from a laser source.

If you reduce the power by ADJ, this significantly changes the output mode as the pumping power varies temperature gradient of the laser crystal and thus thermal lensing in it. I'd recommend you to keep the nominal power.

If you use a PBS for power reduction, you should increase the transmission ~x10 from the minimum so that you are not dominated by possible junk polarization.

Any transmissive BK7 components where the beam is small can cause thermal lensing. In order to avoid this issue, I usually use two noncoated (or one AR coated) optical windows made of UV fused silica to pick off the beam. Once the beam power is reduced I suppose it is OK to use an additional ND filter in front of the CCD.

Another more reliable method is an old-good knife edge measurement.

  11973   Wed Feb 3 23:23:47 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave NPRO moved from PSL table to SP table

As Koji pointed out in the previous elog, the CCD beam profiler was ill suited for this measurement. Nevertheless, to get a rough idea of the beam profile, I made a few rearrangements to my earlier setup:

  • Kept the HWP at the same place it was, as this is roughly the configuration that is going to be used at the endtable anyways. It was ~7cm from the shutter housing on the laser head (unfortunately, I neglected to take a picture).
  • Moved the PBS downstream till it was ~40 cm away (so as to minimize the thermal lensing effect from the ~300mW beam) from the laser head. Rotated the HWP till I got about 6mW of transmitted power (dumped the rest into a black hole)
  • Installed a 95% reflecting BS to further attenuate the power to a level suitable for the CCD (dumped the reflected part onto a razor beam dump)
  • Installed the CCD beam profiler and captured an image, at ~60cm from laser head. In this configuration, I was able to get a clean image capture without the CCD saturating. Unfortunately, I could not transfer it off the laptop used to operate the beam profiler, I will upload a screen capture tomorrow once I get it. Anyways, the main observation was that the beam appeared quite elliptical (ellipticity ~0.6). It was also not clear to what extent thermal lensing at the PBS/BS was afftecting this measurement.

Following Koji's suggestion, I decided to do a knife-edge measurement as well. The measurement configuration was similar to the one described above, except the PBS/BS were removed, and a 1.0 neutral density filter was was installed ~80cm from the laser head (here the ~300 mW beam was >2mm in diameter, as judged by eye). I used the Ophir power meter, which was why I had to install an ND filter as it is rated for 100mW max power. I will put a picture up tomorrow. Thermal lensing shouldn't be of much consequence here, as we just need the whole beam to fall onto the power meter active area (verified by eye), and only the relative change in power levels as the knife edge cuts the beam matters. I took the cross-sectional profile of the beam by translating the knife in the x-direction (i.e. cut the beam "left to right" ).

Attachments 1 and 2 are the results from todays measurements. It remains to repeat by cutting the beam along the y direction, and see what ellipticity (if any) shows up. I also found some "nominal" numbers in page 4 of the Lightwave datasheet - it tells us to expect a waist 5cm from the shutter housing, with horizontal and vertical 1/e^2 diameters of 0.5mm and 0.38mm respectively. My measurement suggests a horizontal diameter of ~0.25mm (half the "nominal" value?!), and the waist location to be 8.22cm from the shutter housing. I wonder if this discrepancy is a red flag? Could it be due to the HWP? I'm reasonably sure of my calculations, and the fits have come out pretty nicely as well...

Attachment 1: KnifeEdgeScans_x.pdf
Attachment 2: Beamscan_x.pdf
  11974   Thu Feb 4 09:16:46 2016 KojiUpdateGreen LockingLightwave NPRO moved from PSL table to SP table

I don't think the discrepancy is a serious issue as long as the mode is clean. The mode is determined by the NPRO crystal and is hard to change by anything except for the thermal lensing in the crystal.

And I never succeeded to reproduce the mode listed in the manual.

One thing you'd better to take care is that clipping of the beam produces diffraction. The diffracted beam spreads faster than the nominal TEM00 mode. Therefore the power meter should to be placed right after the razor blade. i.e. As you move the longitudinal position of the razor blade, you need to move the power meter.

  11977   Fri Feb 5 00:23:01 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLightwave NPRO moved from PSL table to SP table

I've repeated the measurement for the x-direction and also did the y-direction, taking into account Koji's suggestion of keeping the power meter as close as possible to the knife edge. Attachment #1 shows a picture of the setup used. Because an ND filter is required to use this particular power meter, the geometrical constraints mean that the closest the power meter can be to the knife edge is ~3cm. I think this is okay. 

The result from the re-measured X-scan (Attachments #2 and #4) is consistent with the result from yesterday. Unfortunately, in the y-direction (Attachments #3 and #4), I don't seem to have captured much of the 'curved' part of the profile, even though I've started from pretty much adjacent to the HWP. Nevertheless, the fits look reasonable, and I think I've captured sufficient number of datapoints to have confidence in these fits - although for the Y-scan, the error in the waist position is large. The ellipticity as measured using this method is also significantly smaller than what the CCD beam profiler was telling us. 

If we are happy with this measurement, I can go ahead and work on seeing if we can arrive at a minimally invasive mode-matching solution for the X-end table once we switch the lasers out...


Attachment 1: Beamscan_setup.pdf
Attachment 2: Beamscan_x.pdf
Attachment 3: Beamscan_y.pdf
Attachment 4: Zscan.pdf
  11978   Fri Feb 5 15:02:13 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingX-end NE cable

[Steve, gautam]

Steve thinks that the X-end Innolight does not come with the noise-eater option (it is an add-on and not a standard feature, and the purchase order for the PSL Innolight explicitly mentions that it comes with the NE option, but the X-end Innolight has no such remarks), which would explain why there is no difference with the noise eater ON/OFF. During earlier investigations however, I had found that there was a cable labelled "Noise-Eater" connected to one of the Modulation Inputs on the rear of the Innolight controller. Today, we traced this down. The modulation input on the rear says "Current Laser Diode 0.1A/V". To this input, a Tee is connected, one end of which is terminated with a 50ohm terminator. The other end of the Tee is connected to a BNC cable labelled "Nosie-Eater", which we traced all the way to the PSL table, where it is just hanging (also labelled "X end green noise eater"), unterminated, at the southeast corner of the PSL table. It is unlikely that this is of any consequence given the indicated coefficient of 0.1A/V, but could this somehow be introducing some junk into the laser diode current which is then showing up as intensity fluctuations in the output? Unfortunately, during the PLL measurements, I did not think to disconnect this BNC and take a spectrum. It would also seem that the noise-eater feedback to the laser diode current is implemented internally, and not via this external modulation input jack (the PSL, which I believe has the noise-eater enabled, has nothing connected to this rear input)...


  11979   Fri Feb 5 16:50:24 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingFirst pass at mode-matching

I've done a first pass at trying to arrive at a mode-matching solution for the X-end table once we swtich the lasers out. For this rough calculation, I used a la mode to match my seed beam (with z = 0 being defined as the shutter housing on the current position of the Innolight laser head, and the waist of the beam from the NPRO being taken as the square-root of the X and Y waists as calculated here), to a target beam which has a waist of 35um at the center of the doubling oven (a number I got from this elog). I also ignored the optical path length changes introduced by the 3 half-wave plates between the NPRO and the doubling oven, and also the Faraday isolator. The best a la mode was able to give me, with the only degrees of freedom being the position of the two lenses, was a waist of 41um at the doubling oven. I suppose this number will change once we take into account the effects of the HWPs and the Faraday. Moreover, the optimized solution involves the first lens after the NPRO, L1, being rather close to the second steering mirror, SM2 (see labels in Attachment #2, in cyan), but I believe this arrangement is possible without clipping the beam. Moreover, we have a little room to play with as far as the absolute physical position of the z=0 coordinate is - i.e. the Lightwave NPRO head can be moved ~2cm forward relative to where the Innolight laser head is presently, giving a slightly better match to the target waist (see attachment #3). I will check the lenses we have available at the 40m to see if a more optimal solution can be found, but I'm not sure how much we want to be changing optics considering all this is going to have to be re-done for the new end table... Mode-matching code in Attachment #4...

Attachment 1: Modematch_AUXx.pdf
Attachment 2: NewSetUp.png
Attachment 3: Modematch_AUXx_2.pdf
Attachment 4: XendModeMatch.m.zip
  11981   Mon Feb 8 15:36:37 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingAlternative mode-matching scheme

I looked in the optics cabinet to see what lenses we have available, and re-ran the mode-matching calculation to see if we could find a better solution - I'm attaching a plot for what looks like a good candidate (optimized mode-matching efficiency for the X mode is 100%, and for the Y mode, it is 97.98%), though it does involve switching "L1", which is currently a 175mm efl lens, for a 125mm efl lens. I've also indicated on the plot where the various other components are relative to the optimized positions of the lens, and it doesn't look like anything is stacked on top of each other. Also, the beam width throughout is well below 4.7mm, which is the maximum cited width the Faraday can handle, as per its datasheet. "L1" doesn't quite get the waist of the beam to coincide with the geometrical center of the Faraday, but I don't think this is requried? Also, I've optimized the mode matching using the measured X width of the beam (red curve in Attachment #1), and have overlaid the calculated Y width of the beam for the optimized position of the lenses (red curve in Attachment #1). The target waist was 35um at the center of the doubling oven, which the X profile achieves, but the Y profile has a width of 32 um at the same point.

In all the calculations, I've not accounted for possible effects of the HWPs and the Faraday on the beam profile....

Attachment 1: Modematch_alternative.pdf
  11982   Tue Feb 9 04:37:10 2016 ericqUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap initiated

[ericq, Gautam]

Tonight we embarked on the laser swap. In short, we have gotten ~210mW through the faraday doubler, but no green light is apparent. The laser outputs ~300mW, so it's not exactly a work of art, but I still expected some green. More work remains to be done...

Gautam took numerous photos of the table before anything was touched. One lens was swapped, as per Gautam's plan. The innolight laser and controller are on the work bench by the end table. The lightwave is on the table and on standby, and is not hooked up to the interlock mounted on the table frame, but instead one below the table directly next to the controller. The ETMX oplev laser is turned off. 

  11983   Tue Feb 9 11:49:47 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap initiated

Steve pointed me to an old elog by Zach where he had measured the waist of the 1W Innolight NPRO. I ran a la mode with these parameters (and the original optics in their original positions prior to last night's activities), and the result is in reasonably good agreement (see Attachment #1) with my initial target waist of 35 um at the center of the doubling oven (which I presume coincides with the center of the doubling crystal). The small discrepancy could be due to errors in position measurement (which I did by eye with a tape measure) or because I did not consider the Faraday in the a la mode calculation. However, I wonder why this value of 35 um was chosen? In this elog, Kiwamu has determined the optimal waist size to be 50um at the center of the doubling crystal. Nevertheless, as per his calculations, the doubling efficiency should be non-zero (about 1% lower than the optimum conversion efficiency) at 35um or 70um, so we should be able to see some green light as long as we are in this fairly large range. So perhaps the fact that we aren't seeing any green light is down to sub-optimal alignment? I don't think there is a threshold power for SHG as such, its just that with lower input power we expect less green light - in any case, 200mW should be producing some green light... From what I could gather from a bunch of old elogs by Aidan, the Raicol PPKPT crystals have dimension 1mm x 1mm x 30mm (long axis along beam propagation), so there isn't a whole lot of room for error perpendicular to the direction of propagation... I wonder if it is possible, for the initial alignment, to have the top cover of the doubling oven open so that we can be sure we are hitting the crystal?

Attachment 1: Innolight_beamProfile.pdf
  11984   Tue Feb 9 19:15:36 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - updates

Some updates on the laser swap situation:

  1. Mode-matching calculation: 
  • I should have caught this earlier, but it was an oversight - the 35um waist that Andres used in his calculation is the waist size of the green beam. So I've been off by a factor of sqrt(2) all this while, and it works out that the desired waist size is indeed 50um, consistent with Kiwamu's elogs. Furthermore, as he has detailed in that elog, we actually want the free-space waist of the input beam to the doubling crystal to be ~6.7mm from the geometric center of the PPKPT crystal. 
  • I redid the calculation using these updated numbers. Attachment #1 shows the results (optimized for the X-waist, Y-profile plotted for comparison and to see what mode-matching efficiency we get). The way I've set up the code is for a la mode to rank the solutions in order of increasing sensitivity to the positions of the lenses. It turns out the least sensitive solution doesn't actually achieve the desired waist size of 50um - moreover, it requires us to change both lenses currently in the path. The next lease sensitive solution, however, achieves the desired waist (i.e. 100% theoretical mode-matching efficiency for the X mode) and only requires us to swap the 125mm lens we put in yesterday for a 150mm lens (and the positions of the lenses change slightly compared to what we had yesterday as well). The sensitivity in a la mode is parametrized by the amount of power remaining in the TEM00 mode while displacing one or more components. It turns out that this figure of merit is only ~1% smaller for the 2nd least sensitive solution compared to the first. So I've chosen to use that solution. Code used to calculate the mode matching is Attachment #2.
  • I've also plotted in Attachment #1 what the beam profile would have looked like before our modificatons last night, using the numbers from Zach's elog - as I have already mentioned in the previous elog, it suggests that the waist size would have been 39um, at a location 1.0821m in my coordinate system (desired position according to considerations in the previous 2 bullets is 1.0713). This seems to have been a sub-optimal configuration, but is also subject to errors I made in measuring the positions of the mirrors/lenses (I don't think I had 1cm resolution).

       2. Implementing the new solution:

  • I've switched out the 125mm efl lens for a 150mm efl lens from the same Thorlabs lens kit. I've also moved both the lenses to their new appropriate positions.
  • Unfortunately, I had put in some irides in the beampath before calculating this new (more appropriate solution). As a result, both the lenses are off from their optimal positions by a few mm because the irides get in the way. I guess we just have to live with this for now, and can adjust the positions of the lenses once we actually get some green light and are happy with all the other alignments...
  • As noted in the previous elog, I suspect that we saw no green light yesterday because we were missing the doubling crystal altogether (given that we have only a 1mm x 1mm area to aim for - the Faraday serves as a coarse constraint, though its aperture has ~25times this area!). I tried playing around with the two steering mirrors immediately after the NPRO to see if I could get some green light out, but have not been successful yet. I may make some further trials later in the evening/tomorrow...

As I check the manual of the Innolight (pg17) and the datasheet of the Lightwave, I wonder if the Quarter Wave Plate that was placed immediately after the Innolight laser head is even necessary now - I assume the purpose of the combination of QWP+HWP was to turn the elliptically polarized light from the Innolight into linearly polarized light before the Faraday. But the Lightwave already produces linearly polarized light. I will check out what is the configuration on the Y-end table...


Attachment 1: Modematch_X.pdf
Attachment 2: XendModeMatch.m.zip
  11985   Wed Feb 10 17:57:15 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - updates

After the discussion at the meeting, I decided to go ahead and open the top of the oven so that I could get a visual on where the crystal was located - this helped in the alignment, and I was able to get some green light out of the oven. I had to tweak the position of the Doubling oven a little (with the top open) in order to align the crystal to the beam axis. However - I was only able to get ~140uW of green light going into the Faraday. I had measured the power at various points along the beam path recently with the old setup. We used to have ~860uW of green going into the Faraday there. To see if I could improve the situation a little, I checked that the beam was reasonably centered on both apertures of the IR Faraday, and then removed the irides upstream of the doubling oven. These were preventing me from placing the lenses exactly as per the a la mode solution. Once the irides were removed, I moved the lenses to their optimal positions as best as I could with a tape measure to mark out distances. I then further tweaked the position of the doubling oven using the 4 axis stage, monitoring the green power while doing so. The best I could get was ~200uW. Perhaps the positions of the lenses need to be optimized further. I also checked the IR power before and after the IR Faraday - these numbers are ~260mW and ~230mW respectively (I maximized the transmitted power through the Faraday by rotating the HWP, the QWP that was in the beam path has now been removed as the Lightwave outputs linearly polarized light), and compare favourably to the numbers in the old setup. Doing a naive scaling accounting for the fact that we have less power going into the doubling crystal, I would expect ~700uW of green light coming out, so it looks like the mode matching into the doubling crystal is indeed sub-optimal. However, now that things are roughly aligned, I hope the optimization will go faster...

  11987   Fri Feb 12 11:10:49 2016 SteveUpdateGreen LockingInnolight laser is 10 years old

It shipped out for repair evaluation.

Arrived to Hayward,CA   2016Feb16


Attachment 1: inno1W.jpg
  11988   Fri Feb 12 17:05:40 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - green light recovered but no flashes in the arm

After carefully tweaking the mode-matching of the IR into the crystal and the four-axis translation stage on which the doubling oven is mounted, I managed to recover 800uW of green power going into the green Faraday. Considering we have ~225mW of IR power coming out of the IR faraday (and roughly that amount going into the SHG crystal), I'd say this is pretty consistent (if not slightly better) with a recent power budget I had made for the X end. The amount of green power we get out of the doubling crystal is very sensitive to the alignment of the crystal to the beam axis. I suspect we could improve the situation slightly if the mode-matching lenses were mounted on translational stages so we could tweak their position, but the current situation on the X endtable does not provide space for this. In any case, I'd say we are at least as good as we were before, and so this should be an adequate fix until the new end-table is installed (though I don't know why we aren't seeing the predicted SHG conversion efficiency of 3-4% as predicted by Kiwamu's calculations, we are getting more like .36% conversion efficiency)...

Because the alignment of the beam before the doubling oven had changed, I had to adjust the steering mirrors to make the green beam go into the green faraday. I had placed a couple of irides for the green beam as a reference of the old path into the arm, and I used these to adjust some of the green mirrors to center the green beam on these. However, I did not observe any flashes in the arm. I will check if we are still mode-matched to the arm, and if the lenses downstream of the doubling oven need to be moved....

  11989   Fri Feb 12 19:07:52 2016 KojiUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - green light recovered but no flashes in the arm

800e-6 / 0.225^2 = 0.016

=> 1.6%/W

I thought Kiwamu had roughtly 2%/W.


  11999   Fri Feb 19 00:42:19 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - beam ellipticity from laser?

Eric and I spent some time yesterday night trying to recover the green in the arm after the laser swap. The problem essentially was that though I was getting ~800uW of green out of the doubling oven, the mode wasn't clean, and hence, the beam profile looked really messed up just before entering the arm cavity.We got to a point where we thought we were getting a good mode out of the doubling oven (as judged by propagating this beam onto the wall with the help of a mirror). But we were only getting ~400uW of green power. I tried tweaking the alignment of the oven on the 4 axis stage for a while, but was not able to improve the situation much. So I decided to start from scratch:

  • First, I made sure that the IR beam from the laser was hitting the first steering mirror approximately at the center (see here for the optical layout). 
  • Then I used the two steering mirrors immediately after the laser to make sure that the IR beam was hitting the first lens and the HWP before the IR faraday roughly at their center. 
  • Next, I propagated the beam through the IR Faraday, again using SM1 and SM2 to do the steering - initial alignment through the Faraday was done by eye, and I did  some fine adjustment by maximizing the power coming out of the Faraday. We have 252mW of IR going into the IR Faraday, and 225mW coming out. I judged that these numbers were reasonable, and compared favourably to what we had with the Innolight.
  • Keeping the downstream alignment, I used SM1 and SM2 to hit the second lens roughly at its center. I then re-measured the distance from this lens to the center of the doubling oven, and tweaked this slightly to match my mode-matching calculation. 
  • I then tried to carefully play with this lens and the alignment of the doubling oven using the four axis stage. After (many) iterations, and with some luck, I managed to find what I judged to be a good alignment. Using the mirror-on-a-stick to reflect the green beam out of the doubler onto the wall nearby (see Attachment #1, all photos taken using my phone camera), the mode looks reasonably clean. I was also able to get 1mW of green power out of the doubler, an efficiency of ~2%/W. The doorknob should give some sense of scale, but at this point, the mode looks pretty clean (this was not the case previously).
  • I then aligned the post doubler optics to send the beam through the green Faraday (~0.85mW of green out of the green Faraday) and through the two irides I had put in before swapping the lasers. As the beam propagates, however, some ellipticity in it becomes more and more apparent - especially after the f=-100mm lens between the two piezo mirrors. Attachment #2 shows the beam immediately after this lens, while Attachment #3 shows the beam on the iris just before it is sent into the arm cavity. 

I am beginning to wonder if this ellipticity is inherent from the IR beam from the laser? My beamscan results suggest that the beam is more divergent in the "P direction" as compared to the "S direction", which is borne out by these photographs. And if this is indeed the case, do we need to add cylindrical lenses to correct this?

Unrelated to this work: The ITMX Oplev seems to have wandered off so the X arm won't lock. I am not realigning the Oplev for now, but am turning the ITMX Oplev servo off for the night. 

Perhaps related to my work on the endtable: The ETMX oplev MEDM readings seemed to be frozen, though there was red light on the QPD on the endtable. Checking the CDS overview screen, I saw that all models on c1iscex had crashed. I sshed into c1iscex and restarted all the models, but the IOP block remained red. I checked the datetime, and found that this was wrong - so I followed the instructions here, but the "Diag Word" block remains red. I am shutting down the watchdog for ETMX and leaving this as is for now... This seems to have happened before...

Attachment 1: IMG_6287.JPG
Attachment 2: IMG_6288.JPG
Attachment 3: IMG_6286.JPG
  12002   Mon Feb 22 13:56:52 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap -reflected beam from ETM aligned

I tried aligning the green beam, elliptical as it is, to the arm by using the various steering mirrors after the doubling oven. The following was done:

  1. Eric and I aligned the beam through the green Faraday - we levelled the beam using an iris to check the beam height immediately after the Faraday and a little further along the beam propagation direction.
  2. We checked that the beam is reasonably centered on all the lenses. We changed the lens holder for one of the lenses from a Thorlabs model to a Newport model, so as to get the lens to the correct height such that the green beam was roughly centered on it. 
  3. I then tweaked the alignment of the steering mirrors until the reflected beam from the ETM roughly coincided with the input beam. The return beam is getting clipped slightly on the way back through the green Faraday, so some more alignment needs to be done. However, given the ITMX situation, I can't align the arm to IR, so I'm holding off on further alignment for now...
  12006   Tue Feb 23 23:01:16 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - Green PDH locking

Given that we were seeing green flashes in the arms, I tried to see if I could get the green locked to the arm in a nice mode. For a start, I tried hooking up the PDH box and LO using the same settings as was being used previously. However, this did not work. I suppose we will have to do the whole AM/PM measurement for the Lightwave as well before we can determine what would be a suitable frequency for the LO. The AM measurement was relatively straightforward, I just repeated the same steps as detailed here. The two attachments show the AM response (one from 10kHz to 5MHz, the other for a narrower range of 100kHz to 1MHz, both with an excitation amplitude of 0dBm). To see if I could guess some sweetspot for operation, I tried setting the LO frequency to the two marked notch frequencies but was unsuccessful in getting the PDH lock going. At the moment, the alignment for the optics that picks off the IR after the doubler and routes it to the fiber are ccompletely misaligned, I will align these and do the PM measurement tomorrow and then we should conclusively be able to say what the appropriate frequency is to actuate on the PZT.

Unrelated to this work: the KEPCO high voltage power supply that drives the green steering mirror PZTs was switched off - I suppose this has been the case since the power outage last week. I turned it back on and reset it to the nominal settings: Vout = 100V, and Imax_out = 10mA, the driver board is currently drawing ~7mA which I judged to be consistent with the values labelled on the unit.

Attachment 1: AM_scan.pdf
Attachment 2: AM_scan_zoomed.pdf
  12009   Wed Feb 24 19:29:13 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - Green PDH locked

After the discussion at the meeting today, I decided to try and lock the green by sweeping through PZT dither frequencies in the vicinity of 200kHz without worrying about the AM/PM ratio for now. I was able to lock the PDH loop relatively quickly, at an empirically determined PZT dither frequency of 213.873kHz, 2Vpp (the amplitude was copied from the value at the Y-end). For today's efforts, I borrowed the sum+HPF pomona box from the Y-end, I will make a replica given that we are using Lightwave lasers at both ends now. After adjusting the PZT sliders and lenses on the translational stages at the endtable to maximize the green transmission as best as I could, I was able to get GTRX up to about 0.07 - this is far off from the value of ~0.25-0.3 I seem to remember us having with the old setup, even though we have more green light into the arm cavity. I will take a measurement of the loop transfer function to see what sort of bandwidth we have...

  12012   Fri Feb 26 01:52:44 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - Green PDH OLTF

I spent some more time today trying to optimize the modulation frequency and amplitude for the X end PDH, and the alignment/mode-matching of the green to the arm. Some notes:

  1. After my best efforts to tweak the alignment and mode-matching into the arm by using the two lenses on translational stages, I was able to get the green TRX up to about 0.06. As mentioned in a previous elog, this is much lower than what we had with the old setup, even though we have more green power going into the arm now. However, the mode looks pretty bright and clean on the monitors. Could the large ellipticity in the beam is the limiting factor now?
  2. I measured the transfer function (attachment #1) of the PDH loop once I had settled on a modulation frequency and amplitude that I judged to be optimal (indicated on the plot). The UGF is ~7kHz. The PDH error signal as viewed on the oscilloscope is comparable to what we had with the Innolight. All this optimization was done empirically, I have yet to do the PM measurement. I can't seem to get more than 0.2 mW of IR arriving at the fiber coupler, the number I found in some older elogs is 2mW with the old setup.
  3. I did some alignment of the PSL green and the X arm green onto the beat PD on the PSL table. After the power glitches, the doubling ovens do not automatically turn on, I had turned on the end ovens earlier, and today I turned on the PSL oven. I noticed some strange behaviour initially - though the setpoint was 36.9 deg C, when I enabled the heater, there was a large overshoot (it went to almost 50deg C). I disabled the heating at this point, and re-enabled it once the oven had cooled down to ~35 deg C. I didn't observe anything like this while turning on the end ovens. But the PID parameters at the PSL table are very different, so perhaps this large overshoot and ringing is to be expected. In any case, I managed to get this working. But I was not able to find a beatnote tonight. 

To do:

  1. Verify that the two beams are aligned on the beat PD - I think I've done this carefully by checking the near and far-field, but I will double check.
  2. Find the beat note and look at the ALS noise performance with this new setup to see if it is usable even though GTRX is only 20% of what it used to be..
  3. Fix the coupling of the IR pickoff into the fiber at the endtable. Once this is done, I can do the PM measurement, and finding a beatnote may be easier given the IR beat PDs have a much wider bandwidth...
Attachment 1: X_PDH_OLTF_20160225.pdf
  12013   Mon Feb 29 17:17:26 2016 gautamUpdateGreen LockingLaser swap - still no green beatnote

I continued the hunt for a green beatnote today - I decided to take the output from the RF amplifiers sitting on the PSL table and directly connect it to the analyzer in the control room while I swept the temperature of the end laser 10,000 counts on either side of a temperature at which I had taken this measurement - so I expect the beatnote should be found somewhere in this neighbourhood. But I did not see any peaks throughout the sweep. I re-checked that the mode overlap onto the BBPD is reasonable. We have considerably less transmitted green power from the arm now than we did before the laser swap (by a factor of ~3) but I still expected to see some sort of beat signal.

It would be handy to have the IR beat set up as well for this process, but as mentioned in a previous elog, I was getting only ~0.1 mW of IR power incident on the coupler at the end table last week. As I had suspected, tweaking the alignment of the steering optics for the pick-off IR beam after the doubler improved the situation somewhat, and I am now getting about 1mW of IR power incident on the coupler at the end table. But I've not been able to adjust the alignment into the fiber at the end such that I get any IR light at the PSL table.  

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