40m QIL Cryo_Lab CTN SUS_Lab TCS_Lab OMC_Lab CRIME_Lab FEA ENG_Labs OptContFac Mariner WBEEShop
  ATF eLog, Page 1 of 57  Not logged in ELOG logo
ID Date Author Type Category Subject
  2830   Mon Jan 23 13:59:20 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationBonding alumina to Si wafer with silver epoxy

On Friday 1/20 we prepared a 40um alumina sample bonded to a Si wafer, using silver epoxy. We mixed 2.7g of substance A with 2.6g of substance B (using tools from B - adding about a gram). Out of this mixture, 1.7g was deposited onto the wafer to form the bond. (This amount should be safely within the recommended bond thickness range of 1-4 mils.) We used a much heavier weight on the sample this time, to help the epoxy distribute evenly.

Attachments 1 and 2 show the bond area after application and a few minutes of weighting, and after 3 days of curing with the weight. The epoxy spread significantly more than on the last sample, although it still didn't quite make it to the wafer edge. Note that a corner of the thin alumina strip snapped at some point in the process, as seen in Attachment 3. The approximate area lost is 52.79 mm^2, or ~1% of the alumina strip area.

We also prepared an epoxy-only sample by dispensing 1.3g onto a Si wafer. I used the dull edge of a razor to spread out the epoxy into an even layer [Attachment 4].

Today I varnished the previously prepared RTD (L) to the prepared sample [Attachment 5]. I prepared a new RTD (I) for the epoxy-only sample, to be used in a future cooldown.

I started venting the chamber today, and tomorrow we can proceed with swapping out the samples and closing up again.

Attachment 1: IMG_4212.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_4223.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_4224.jpg
Attachment 4: IMG_4228.jpg
Attachment 5: IMG_4227.jpg
  2829   Fri Jan 20 13:46:31 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationBonding alumina to Si wafer with silver epoxy

I realized our original calculation for epoxy mass was overestimated by a factor of 4 (we used the wafer diameter instead of radius in the volume calculation). This means that for the max epoxy layer thickness, we would need only 1.55 g. We applied a 2.3g blob to this sample, which should have been more than enough. My guess is the mixed epoxy was sitting out for a while before application, and it started to cure before it could fully spread out. We will take care to mix and apply the epoxy as quickly as possible to avoid this. Also we can use a larger weight that covers the entire wafer area. I'll stick to mixing 5 g of epoxy moving forward, accounting for the amount irretrievable from the cup.

Note that this epoxy does seem to contain filler that would set a minimum layer thickness. The manual does not indicate this minimum, but we can plan to measure the bond thickness of our samples.

  2828   Thu Jan 19 13:27:40 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAlumina epoxy cooldown

On Tuesday we checked on the previously epoxied sample (Si wafer + 120um alumina strip - Attachment 1). The bond area did not spread much more since we last checked on it on Friday. For the next bonding attempt, we will increase the amount of epoxy to 8g and aim for better centering of the bond area.

We prepared and installed a new resistive heater to aid in warming up the chamber [Attachment 2]. The heater was clamped down to the coldplate with an indium gasket in between the surfaces [Attachment 3]. Then we re-covered the heater with the pulled-back aquadag foil [Attachment 4] and left for the day.

On Wednesday we soldered a new RTD (PT1000 - J) for the sample. We added crimp pins to the RTD leads to plug-and-play into the existing connections, and then soldered the RTD to the top of the alumina surface [Attachment 5]. We mounted the sample and closed up [Attachment 6]. 

The vacuum pump was turned on at 3pm on 1/18; cryocooler switched on at 3:30pm.

Attachment 1: IMG_4179.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_4192.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_4194.jpg
Attachment 4: IMG_4196.jpg
Attachment 5: IMG_4199.jpg
Attachment 6: IMG_4198.jpg
  2827   Fri Jan 13 18:00:56 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationBonding alumina to Si wafer with silver epoxy

[Stephen, Radhika] 

[pics to come]

Today we bonded a 120-um alumina strip to an undoped silicon wafer, using EP21TDCS-LO silver epoxy [Attachment 1]. The user guide specified an optimal layer thickness between 1-4 mils (0.0254-0.1016 mm). The max thickness called for ~5 grams of epoxy, factoring in the wafer area and epoxy density. We used a scale to measure out 2.5 grams each of parts A and B in a cup (we had ordered 10 g each).

We mixed the paste and applied it as a blob to the center of the Si wafer. (In reality, we managed to scoop out 2.3 g from the cup.) We placed the alumina strip on top and put weights on the sample. Attachments 2-4 show the dispersion of the epoxy immediately after applying, and after 2 increments of 5-10 minutes. We are leaving the sample to cure over the weekend, as per the room-temperature curing schedule found in Attachment 1.

On Monday we plan to mount the sample in the chamber and start a cooldown.


Attachment 1: IMG_4168.jpg
  2826   Thu Jan 12 11:50:20 2023 KojiHowtoGeneralHow to move the large engine hoist through the narrow door

How to move the large engine hoist through the narrow door

See http://nodus.ligo.caltech.edu:8080/Mariner/122

  2825   Tue Jan 10 13:39:11 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberAlumina strip cooldown

Cryocooler turned off at 1:30pm.

  2824   Tue Jan 10 10:27:16 2023 AidanLab InfrastructureCleanlinessWater and ANTS!

With the heavy rain and flooding basement level, there was a small amount of water instrusion into QIL around the base of the desk - seems like only the floor was affected. I mopped that up.

Also, there are a lot of ants in the lab. The trails loop through the entire lab. They're also in the ... wait for it ... antechamber. I put down some ant bait in a couple of places. 


Attachment 1: IMG_3086.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_3085.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_3083.jpg
  2823   Fri Jan 6 16:44:02 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberAlumina strip cooldown

[Stephen, Radhika]

We opened up Megastat, and luckily there were no visible signs of water or ice in the chamber [Attachment 1]. See the Google photos dump for more detailed photo accounting.

However the contact between the Si wafer and alumina strip did not hold up during pumpdown/cooldown [Attachment 2, 3]. The varnish may not have been completely set prior to closing up, and the air pockets present in the initial contact were forced out when we pumped down. There were also cracks in the alumina. The thermally conductive epoxy has arrived, so at this point it may be worth going forward with an epoxy bond. Next week I'll apply it to a new Si wafer and give it the recommended room-temp time to cure.

Since preparing a new sample won't take place until next week, we decided to proceed with cooling down the existing sample. It will be interesting to see how much conduction we get to the alumina strip given the uneven contact area. Data will be collected over the weekend, and the chamber will be available for the new epoxied sample once cured.

Vacuum pump turned on at 4pm, cryocooler turned on at 4:40pm.

Attachment 1: IMG_4123.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_4116.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_4119.jpg
  2822   Fri Jan 6 16:34:29 2023 RadhikaSafetyLab MonitoringMinor flooding 11/7

[Stephen, Radhika]

We wiped/scraped the floor to clean up from the last flooding incident.

Attachment 1: IMG_4130.jpg
  2821   Fri Jan 6 00:41:16 2023 ranaSafetyCryo vacuum chamberNo QIL flooding; power outage effects

seems iffy to have a cryo-cooler running without vacuum. I guess we should make some kind of interlock to prevent this, otherwise we'll end up with a giant ice cube in Megastat. I am guessing at 3 Torr we probably already have ice build up on the cold surfaces.


  2820   Thu Jan 5 19:12:32 2023 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberNo QIL flooding; power outage effects

Today I checked and there is no flooding in QIL from recent rain.

The unexpected power outage turned off the vacuum pump for Megastat, and the pressure was back up to 3.9 torr. Meanwhile the cryocooler was still on; the steady-state temperature inside the chamber was ~220 K. This disrupted the current cooldown, so I'll have to restart it. I've switched off the cryocooler and once it's reached room temperature I'll restart the pumpdown/cooldown sequence.

  2819   Wed Dec 14 17:11:13 2022 RadhikaComputingCDSfb4 fixed

Thanks Chris! Did you run startc4iop in /opt/rtcds/caltech/c4/scripts/?

CW: Yes, that's right. Perhaps after this cooldown we can find some time to upgrade the system to the new RCG that starts things automatically on reboot (like at the 40m).

I think that's a good idea - I'll get started on it.


The framebuilder is now running again. It relies on the c4iop front end model for timing, and that was not running either. (Maybe there was a power outage and the system wasn't brought back up afterward.)

The cryo lab has a gitlab CI script that complains to us on mattermost when its DAQ stops working. The QIL can probably use something like that, too.


  2818   Wed Dec 14 17:02:24 2022 ChrisComputingCDSfb4 fixed

The framebuilder is now running again. It relies on the c4iop front end model for timing, and that was not running either. (Maybe there was a power outage and the system wasn't brought back up afterward.)

The cryo lab has a gitlab CI script that complains to us on mattermost when its DAQ stops working. The QIL can probably use something like that, too.

  2817   Wed Dec 14 13:45:11 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimation12/9 alumina strip cooldown


I realized on Sunday that the frame builder was not storing channel data. I turned off the cryocooler so that the cooldown could be restarted once the past temperature data could be extracted. 

In the meantime, I wrote a python script to query the EPICS channels associated with the temperatures of the workpiece, inner shield, outer shield, cold head, and the heater power. The script writes out the data to a .txt file. Once Megastat reaches room temperature, I'll have someone switch on the cryocooler to start the cooldown. Until then I'm working to debug the cds issue, but we can at least use the new script to record the data if it comes down to it.

  2816   Mon Dec 12 10:23:58 2022 JCSafetyLab MonitoringMinor flooding 11/7

The pipe is currently being replaced. Should be finished up by the end of the day.

Attachment 1: Screen_Shot_2022-12-12_at_10.29.09_AM.png
  2815   Fri Dec 9 21:41:11 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimation12/9 alumina strip cooldown

I re-attempted to bond a 120um alumina strip to a Si wafer. I applied a thicker layer of varnish to the wafer and spread it with the dull side of a razor blade. Attachment 1 shows the contact right after placing the alumina on top. I pressed down to try to spread the varnish and cracked the alumina in a few places - although the damage was minimal and the majority of the surface was intact. Attachment 2 shows the bonding after placing a weight on the sample for ~2 hours. There were still a few air bubbles remaining, but as a whole the contact area was well bonded.

I de-bonded the RTD element from the last undoped Si cooldown and varnished it to the bottom of the new sample - directly on the Si wafer [Attachment 3]. Next I soldered a new PT-1000 RTD element (label J - calibration) for the coldhead [Attachment 4], and updated the CTC100 settings with the new resistance-temperature calibration.

I placed the new sample on top of the ceramic ball bearings and connected the RTD pins and sockets (replaced a few in the process). Then I closed up.

Vacuum pump started at 9:35pm, cryocooler turned on at 10:05pm.

Attachment 1: IMG_3984.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_3989.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_3991.jpg
Attachment 4: IMG_3986.jpg
Attachment 5: IMG_3992.jpg
Attachment 6: IMG_3993.jpg
  2814   Thu Dec 8 15:24:10 2022 RadhikaMiscEmissivity testingHigh emissivity spray coating

Pasting this link here for easy access: https://www.thermalspray.com/application-spotlight-emissivity/. 

  2813   Mon Dec 5 12:49:44 2022 aaronMiscEquipment transfervacuum gauge to cryo lab

With Radhika's OK, I removed the Edwards WRG-S vacuum gauge from the megastat to borrow on the PSOMA cryostat until we receive our replacement gauge. The WRG-S uses a Pirani gauge at high pressure and inverted magnetron at UHV.

I garbed up in gloves, face mask, hood, and lab coat. I removed the gauge and replaced it with a DN40CF rotatable blank that was recently sonicated and baked at the 40m. I used a copper gasket from cryo lab, but used bolts from the QIL lab to close the flange. I couldn't find 12-point screws, so used hex screws, See attachment 1.

On removing the gauge, I found the same black, flaky material that I've seen around failed cold cathode (inverted magnetron) gauges. I wiped down the inside of the megastat flange with a lint free cloth before closing up. Remaining photos are of the black particulate.

Attachment 1: E00623CC-622E-44C6-B800-8B559334DF3C.jpeg
Attachment 2: 0747FCD4-B844-4DC4-A225-A22F8C9C5E74.jpeg
Attachment 3: C9637671-5104-448C-A6F2-425BD6065D10.jpeg
Attachment 4: 5EA84A7A-4201-41E5-819C-395B96249E9E.jpeg
  2812   Wed Nov 30 14:23:11 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAl2O3 strip cooldown + bonding

Today I decided to go ahead and bond a 120um strip of Al2O3 to an undoped Si wafer. I cleaned both samples and then applied varnish to the surface of the wafer [Attachment 1]. I pressed the alumina strip on top and covered it with a weight (with a dry cloth in between) to squeeze the contact and eliminate any bubbles [Attachment 2]. However, I noticed bubbles were not smoothing out, so I tried to undo the work and remove the alumina strip. In the process, the strip split in half and led to more shatters as I tried to remove the pieces [Attachment 3]. Sadly, we are down 1 alumina strip of 120um thickess (4 remaining). The Si wafer can be cleaned and reused as needed.

Looking back, the varnish application was definitely questionable and I can find a way to smooth out the layer before placing on the strip. I can also apply more varnish towards the edges (I assumed varnish from the middle would spread out). From modeling it looks like we can get away with applying a bit of a thicker layer without sacrificing too much on thermal conductance across the joint.

My goal is to perform a cooldown with this bonded wafer-strip sample in our existing Megastat setup, while we are waiting for the new aluminum plate. Our last measurement was of a bare undoped Si wafer, so seeing increased radiative coupling from the high-emissivity alumina would be informative. This measurement can be compared to the cooldown models in [2812].

Attachment 1: IMG_3943.jpg
Attachment 2: IMG_3944.jpg
Attachment 3: IMG_3946.jpeg
  2811   Wed Nov 30 11:14:28 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAl2O3 strip cooldown + bonding

In Attachments 1 and 2 I've modeled the cooldowns of an undoped Si wafer (no coating - assumed e=0.06), and of an alumina-coated Si wafer (bonded with existing cryo varnish). I've considered the 120um Al2O3 strip and used e=0.65 from the DielectricThinFilm model [Attachment 3].

[*Note that while the undoped Si wafer model shows that its temperature should not dip below 200K, in our last cooldown it reached ~75K. We believe this was due to some conductive shorting, which is still being investigated.*]

For the Al2O3 strip model, the cryo varnish has thermal conductivity of 0.22-0.44 W/(m*K) from 77-300K. Even with this value, there is overall high thermal conductance across the varnish joint (\kappa A/l = 2 W/K, assuming 1 mm varnish thickness - in practice, probably thinner). As a result, the modeled temperature difference between the Si wafer and the alumina strip does not exceed 0.5K at any point during the cooldown - the wafer follows the Al2O3 strip temperature almost indistinguishably. Given this I don't think we need purchase an epoxy with higher thermal conductivity, at least not until we try bonding with the varnish to confirm this experimentally. 

Otherwise the EP30TC looks good, but it's stated as serviceable above 200K. The benefit of EP21TCHT-1 is it's explicitly serviceable above 4K and is stated to widthstand thermal cycling.

Attachment 1: Si_wafer_cooldown.pdf
Attachment 2: Alumina_varnished_wafer_cooldown.pdf
Attachment 3: coating_e.png
  2810   Sun Nov 27 15:13:42 2022 ranaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAlumina samples

On their web page (https://www.masterbond.com/properties/thermally-conductive-epoxy-adhesives), they have one with Aluminum Nitride that's twice as conductive. Is that useful to get?

In order to get the strong cooling from the test mass, do we need a more conductive epoxy? (I found this related paper on low temp epoxies).


  2809   Tue Nov 22 13:33:05 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAlumina samples

I exchanged emails with someone at MasterBond about the thermal conductivity of this epoxy. They said they do not expect the thermal conductivity to drop significantly from its room temperature value (1.44 W/m*K) until about 30K. They were confident the value would stay above 1 W/m*K in the 77-123K range. However, they didn't provide any data or qualitative measure of this.

  2808   Thu Nov 10 09:29:30 2022 JCSafetyLab MonitoringMinor flooding 11/7

On Monday Nov 7, Koji found a puddle of water in the beside the lab’s toolbox. I contacted facilities to check this out and find the source of the issue. 

Plumbing from facilities came today at 8:00 am. After moving the toolbox aside and checking the pipe, there is a very evident crack running down the side. This pipe is running from the first floor level. Steve from plumbing began to poke around to see if he could where the pipe was coming from and found that the source is a kitchen sink on the first floor. The sink has been labelled “Out of Order”, so the leaking should stop soon. 

Plumbing will contact the carpenters today to see if try to get this done next week. Radhika and I will cover electronics with tarps and use other tarps as curtains the block off the lab area while plumbing is fixing this issue. I will provide updates with the dates soon. 

Attachment 1: 0F498FED-37FF-4F95-9C94-89156AB628FC.jpg
  2807   Mon Nov 7 15:20:30 2022 RadhikaSafetyLab MonitoringMinor flooding 11/7

Today Koji noticed a water puddle along the south wall of QIL (265B). Photos attached. I lifted the cables from the main rack off the ground, and JC contacted Facilities.

Attachment 1: IMG_3875.jpeg
Attachment 2: IMG_3879.jpeg
Attachment 3: IMG_3876.jpeg
  2806   Mon Nov 7 14:36:19 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberMegastat upgrade

[Stephen, JC, Radhika] [WIP]

We met today to discuss the design of the aluminum insert for the cold plate. [Diagram to come]

For a setup with an elevated base plate (sample mount), Stephen suggested having an inner aluminum disk on standoffs and an outer ring that would extend to the wall of the inner shield. The raised outer ring would eliminate the need to align tapped holes with the coldplate, and it wouldn't interfere with any components currently bolted down to the cold plate (dog clamps, cold finger flange). The outer ring would also have a slit to fit around the copper bar/flexible strap. The inner disk would first be bolted down according to the base plate's position, and the outer ring's slit would be aligned with the copper bar/strap. Having 2 elements provides an extra degree of freedom for alignment. 

We took the following measurements inside the chamber:

- height from cold plate to copper flange: 35.7 mm (min height of outer ring)
- width of copper bar: 32 mm (min width of slit)
- length of copper bar within inner shield: 117.2 mm (min length of slit)
- dist from tip of copper bar to opposide inner shield wall: 333 mm
    - from above 2 measurements, max radius of inner disk [centered w.r.t inner shield]: 107.9 mm

*We forgot to take a measurement of the smallest inner shield diameter, to inform max diameter of outer ring. I'll add this soon.*

Attachment 1: Measurements_11_7_22.PNG
  2805   Fri Nov 4 18:08:27 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAlumina samples

Here is a promising epoxy for bonding an alumina strip to a Si wafer (full data sheet in Attachment 1): 

- High thermal conductivity: 1.4423 W/mK (at RT)
- Temperature range: 4K to +400F; withstands thermal cycling
- Low thermal expansion: ~20e-6 K-1
- Low outgassing
- Can cure at ambient temperatures

Ekin recommends silver-based epoxies for high thermal conductivity and high electrical conductivity [Attachment 2].

Attachment 1: EP21TCHT-1.pdf
EP21TCHT-1.pdf EP21TCHT-1.pdf EP21TCHT-1.pdf
Attachment 2: Screen_Shot_2022-11-04_at_17.59.16.png
  2804   Fri Oct 28 17:03:27 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberMegastat upgrade

[Stephen, Radhika]

We met today to regroup and plan out next steps for Megastat:

1. Design and machine/order aluminum sheet to cover cold plate. Thick enough to not bulge, thin enough to be somewhat maneuverable around cold strap.

2. Thoroughly clean Megastat.

3. Paint aluminum sheet with aquadag, install onto cold plate.

4. Replace cold head RTD with newly-ordered (calibrated) PT100.

5. Cool down with alumina strip, on existing mount w/ ceramic ball bearings.

  2803   Wed Oct 19 18:46:49 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationAlumina samples

I'm documenting new 75x75mm alumina strip samples brought to the QIL by Chris. We have 5 strips 120um thick [Attachments 1, 2] and another 5 strips 40um thick [Attachments 3,4].

I've modeled cooldowns in Megastat's current configuration for the two strip thicknesses [Attachments 1, 2]. For both, the strip is modeled sitting atop 3 ceramic ball bearings, as in the Si wafer setup.

An important note is that the emissivities of these strips is much lower (effectively transparent) than typically quoted for alumina ceramic, due to how thin they are (emissivity proportional to bulk absorption, dependant on bulk thickness). This means the 120um and 40um strips also likely have different effective emissivities. Bulk transmission decays exponentially as exp(-c*z) for some c, so the effective emissivity of the 40um strip is likely much much smaller than that of the 120um strip. The model doesn't consider this dependence analytically - I've made a guess for emissivity of 0.02 for the 120um strip, and 0.005 for the 40um strip. Despite these low values, the plots still show significant cooling of the samples because their mass is very tiny. 

This analysis could be improved by deriving an analytic model of alumina emissivity as a function of sample thickness.

Attachment 1: IMG_3813.jpeg
Attachment 2: IMG_3816.jpeg
Attachment 3: IMG_3814.jpeg
Attachment 4: IMG_3815.jpeg
Attachment 5: alumina_wafer_120um_cooldown.pdf
Attachment 6: alumina_wafer_40um_cooldown.pdf
  2802   Fri Sep 16 16:29:28 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberProgress - Heaters, RTDs, Maglite

I torqued down the toothed washer and bolt holding the ground wire to the Maglite body and locally flattened the aluminum, securing the electrical connection. With the Maglite wired up, I connected a Tenma power supply to a mini breadboard and attached the Maglite leads [Attachment 1]. At 3V, 0.38A flowed through the incandescent bulb [Attachment 2].

Next steps:

- I will wire a current-limiting circuit to protect the bulb.

- Normally the Maglite batteries press up against an internal component to complete the flashlight circuit. Since we’ve cut off the body and of course have no batteries, I plan to use vacuum/cryo-safe epoxy to hold it in place (or use some spring mechanism to apply pressure to that component).

- The head of bolt used to connect the ground wire to the aluminum body sticks out and interferes with screwing on the flashlight's reflector. I will need to cut away some of the metal to allow the piece to screw in all the way.

Once these steps are complete, we need to address the feedthrough for the maglite leads into Megastat. Then it will be ready to be mounted inside the chamber and used for wafer heat actuation.

Attachment 1: IMG_3756.jpeg
Attachment 2: IMG_3759.jpeg
  2801   Fri Sep 9 12:10:29 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberProgress - Heaters, RTDs, Maglite

I acquired internal tooth lock washers to bolt down the ground wire to the aluminum maglite body, but I soon recognized that the curvature of the aluminum does not allow for flush contact of a washer or nut. Attachment 1 shows a 4-40 screw and nut relative to the maglite body. 

I am continuing to search for the best way to get electrical contact, given these constraints and the issues with soldering in the last ELOG

Attachment 1: IMG_3745.PNG
  2800   Tue Aug 23 22:23:06 2022 awadeUpdateWOPOInstalling 1811 PDs

I recall at one point we had one of these NF1811 with a broken power suply pin.  It was from a limited production run with the smaller micro 3-pin power connectors. Maybe check yours is not that one.  

Long story short it still responded with only the positive rail but DC will gave a bad photovoltaic mode response and the AC had a large unstable oscillation that was only viewable on a high speed scope (if I recall right higher than the 125 MHz nominal bandwidth).  I would check the power-in pins aren't bent/broken and also check the AC out on a higher speed scope (i.e. >=500 MHz).

  2799   Thu Aug 4 10:16:04 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationMegastat RTD calibration

[Clare, Radhika]

We performed a calibration procedure on the newly ordered RTDs for Megastat, in LN2 and ice water. We noted that these are 1kohm RTDs at 0C, as opposed to the 100ohm RTDs previously calibrated that are inside the chamber. We chose to calibrate 6 RTDs and labeled them alphabetically starting with G.

The first calibration point was taken at the boiling point of LN2. We dispensed the LN2 into a dewar and dipped each RTD just below the surface of the liquid. Since the temperature right below the surface is 77K with relatively high accuracy, we only took 1 measurement of each RTD resistance. The results are tabulated below:

RTD LN2 measurement 1 (ohms)
G 196.8
H 197.0
I 196.9
J 196.4
K 197.2
L 197.1

The second calibration point was the melting point of ice. We created an ice bath by filling a beaker with crushed ice and adding deionized water until 1/2" below the surface of the ice. We let this equilibriate for a few minutes and then proceeded to dip each RTD and record its resistance. When we started this process, we realized we had not let the system equilibriate for long enough, since the temperature of the water was dropping with every measurement. The water surrounding the ice had not yet been cooled sufficiently. We scrapped the first set of resistances, but the 2 rounds of valid measurements are tabulated below. The multimeter was overloaded when set to display the resistance in ohms, so we had to display kohms and thus lost a significant figure. 

RTD H2O measurement 1 (kohms) H2O measurement 2 (kohms)
G 0.990 0.990
H 0.992 0.989
I 0.991 0.992
J 0.992 0.993
K 0.992 0.993
L 0.992 0.991

RTD G was dropped and lost after calibration, but we calibrated more than we needed in anticipation of an accident like this. 

  2798   Tue Aug 2 11:37:19 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberProgress - Heaters, RTDs, Maglite

- RTD calibration with Clare scheduled for Wed 8/3 morning.

- A heater will be bolted down to the cold plate for the next cooldown (to aid in chamber warmup).

- For the maglite, I took the wire intended for ground and wrapped it through the drilled hole and around [Attachment 1]. When I applied solder, it bonded to the wire but made no contact with the Maglite aluminum surface. The near-instant oxidation of the aluminum still prevents the solder from bonding to it. Previously when we tried scratching the surface and immediately using mineral oil (vaseline) to prevent oxidation, the solder joint still did not form due to the layer of oil. So I am not convinced that applying vaseline will help this joint with the drilled hole - I am in favor of considering an alternative connection. In addition, the wrapped wire does not allow the maglite shaft to slide completely into the "head", and thus the bulb does not make it through the opening of the reflector. 



Update to QIL/2795:

  • RTDs (Digi-key P/N 615-1123-ND) brought to lab (see pic).
  • Heaters (Digi-key P/N A102128-ND) brought to lab (see pic).
  • Maglite hole drilled; remains to be seen whether than improves solderability, but we could also look at a lug / ring connector as an alternative connection.


Attachment 1: IMG_3704.jpeg
  2797   Fri Jul 29 14:27:43 2022 StephenDailyProgressCryo vacuum chamberProgress - Heaters, RTDs, Maglite

Update to QIL/2795:

  • RTDs (Digi-key P/N 615-1123-ND) brought to lab (see pic).
  • Heaters (Digi-key P/N A102128-ND) brought to lab (see pic).
  • Maglite hole drilled; remains to be seen whether than improves solderability, but we could also look at a lug / ring connector as an alternative connection.
  2796   Wed Jul 20 15:55:41 2022 YehonathanUpdateWOPOInstalling 1811 PDs

{Yehonathan, Paco}

We comfirmed that the DC ouput of one of the 1811s is bad. We set out to measure the AC response of the PDs.

For this, we decided to use the current modulation on the Diabolo laser which is rated to have 0.1 A/V and a bandwidth of 5kHz. We calibrated the current to optical power by swiping the current and measuring the power at the homodyne PDs using a power meter. The laser power before the 1064nm PZT mirror was measured to be 5mW.

Attachment shows the measurement and a linear fit with slope=0.97 mW/A.

We drove the current modulator using a sine wave from a function generator with 1kHz 0.5Vpp. When we looked on the PD AC signal port in the Oscilloscope we saw 2 Vpp 12Mhz signal. We passed the signal with a low pass filter but again we saw mostly noise.

We took the PDs to the 40m PD test stand but we accidently fried Jenne's laser.

Next, we should just use the Moku network analyzer instead of the scope to measure the response in the QIL using the Diabolo current modulator.

Attachment 1: Diabolo_Current_Power_at_PDs.png
  2795   Mon Jul 18 11:02:50 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationPlan for this week

[Stephen, Clare, Hiya, Radhika]

We started a cooldown on Thursday with an undoped Si wafer in Megastat [2794]. The chamber does not have the Maglite flashlight installed, due to struggles with soldering the ground wire to the aluminum surface of the flashlight. We decided to pivot to drilling a hole in the aluminum, wrapping the ground wire through and around, and then applying solder to the joint. This will be completed by next week.


  • Order new RTDs [done]
  • Order new heater to aid in chamber warmup (not for actuating on wafer) [Stephen]
  • Calibrate new RTDs in an ice bath and LN2 bath [Hiya, Clare]
  • Finalize aluminum sheet design [Stephen]
  • Finalize baseplate design [Stephen]
  • Drill hole in Maglite to solder ground wire [Stephen, if time]
  • Continue optimal excitation analysis [Hiya]
  • Finalize final report abstract [Hiya]
  • Continue MCMC model development [Clare]

These tasks will ideally lead up to a Si wafer cooldown next week with optimal heat excitation and with an RTD re-installed on the cold head, and potentially with the finalized baseplate and aquadag-coated Al sheet on the cold plate. It is with this cooldown that we can start to estimate the sample’s emissivity, first with least-squares fitting and eventually with MCMC analysis.

  2794   Thu Jul 14 18:15:41 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationUndoped Si wafer cooldown in Megastat

[Stephen, Clare, Hiya, Radhika]

On Thursday 7/14 we started a cooldown of an undoped Si wafer in Megastat. Our goals were to swap out the glass wafer from the previous cooldown for the new undoped Si wafer, to verify that there is sufficient radiative coupling between thin Si and the inner shield. This way we ensure that our cooldown data can be fit for the wafer's emissivity. 

When we opened up the chamber, we noticed some of the aquadag-coated foil was touching the bottom face of the glass wafer [bottom edge of wafer in Attachment 1]. This is a potential conductive short, and analyzing the cooldown data will reveal how significant the conduction was. We also noticed several aquadag flakes on the ceramic ball bearings/wafer [Attachment 1]. Stephen pointed out ways to improve the clamping of one end of the base plate to the cold plate, given that the hole spacings of the two did not line up (explained in 2792). We mapped out a new bolting/clamping approach for the baseplate using metal spacers instead of folded Al foil [Attachment 2]. We applied grease to the bottom surface of the baseplate and then bolted/clamped it down to the cold plate [Attachment 3].

We removed the glass wafer and debonded the varnish from the RTD. We then re-varnished this RTD to the undoped Si wafer [Attachment 4] and placed it on top of the ceramic ball bearings on the bolted/clamped baseplate [Attachment 5].

Lastly, we trimmed off excess aquadag-coated Al foil to ensure there would be no future shorting to the wafer. We then verified all RTDs were responsive and closed up the chamber.

The vacuum pump was turned on at 5:35pm, and the cryocooler was turned on at 6pm. 

Attachment 1: IMG_3665.jpeg
Attachment 2: IMG_3669.jpeg
Attachment 3: IMG_3673.jpeg
Attachment 4: IMG_3671.jpeg
Attachment 5: IMG_3676.jpeg
  2793   Tue Jul 5 17:40:14 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationGlass wafer cooldown with ceramic ball bearings

The cryocooler was switched off on Tue 7/5 at 11:45am.

  2792   Tue Jul 5 11:58:01 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationGlass wafer cooldown with ceramic ball bearings

[Radhika, Clare]

On Thursday 6/30 we worked towards a cooldown with a glass wafer rested on ceramic ball bearing supports. We used a glass wafer for this cooldown because it has a higher emissivity than a Si wafer, and therefore could be more easily validate our cryostat setup. 

The procedure went as follows:

1. RTD preparation [Attachments 1, 2]

  - Re-soldered the leads of the 3 RTDs we previously calibrated (2791)

  - Bonded RTDs to the inner shield, outer shield, and glass wafer with varnish

RTD C --> wafer
RTD E --> outer shield
RTD F --> inner shield

  *Note that we did not have any RTDs left to clamp to the coldhead

2. Wafer support structure [Attachments 3, 4]

  - Applied grease to the bottom of the baseplate and bolted it down to the cold plate using 2 screws and a dog clamp. The hole spacings on the cold plate and base plate did not align align along the longer axis of the baseplate, so we needed the dog clamp to hold down one end. To get the dog clamp elevated to the right height, we folded a piece of aluminum foil until it was tall enough to rest the dog clamp flush on top of the base plate.

  - Rested 3 ceramic ball bearings and wafer on top (*The ball bearings created enough clearance between the dog clamp and the wafer)

We closed up the chamber and started the vacuum pump [Attachments 5, 6], but soon after I realized the wafer RTD was glitching/shorting. I turned off the pump and re-opened the chamber, and upon inspection noticed that a few of the RTD lead pins were fraying. I replaced these pins and left for the day.

On Friday I verified that all RTDs were operating properly and closed up the chamber. The vacuum pump was started at 3:10pm and the cryocooler was switched on at 4:10pm on 7/1.

Attachment 1: IMG_3622.jpeg
Attachment 2: IMG_3626.jpeg
Attachment 3: IMG_3614.jpeg
Attachment 4: IMG_3624.jpeg
Attachment 5: IMG_3623.jpeg
Attachment 6: IMG_3629.jpeg
  2791   Wed Jun 29 09:39:01 2022 Clare NelleDailyProgressEmissivity testingRTD Calibration Day 2

[Radhika, Hiya, and Clare]

We debonded the RTDs from the chamber using isopropanol and acetone, then soaked the RTDs in isopropanol for about 15 minutes to remove residue. We then took resistance measurements in ice water detailed below:

Ice Water Calibration Measurements (completed 28-06-2022):

1) Prepared ice water bath by filling beaker with crushed ice and then water to one half inch below the ice surface. Let the ice bath sit for about 1 minute. 

2) All six RTDs were measured (labeled A-F). For each RTD, the resistance in the ice water bath was measured by swirling the RTD held by the DMM leads in the water until the DMM readout stabilized. 

3) These measurements were repeated in the reverse direction (Started with RTD F).

*Note: in the process of ice bath calibration, RTD D broke. 

RTD Trial 1 (\Omega) Trial 2 (\Omega)
A 100.2 100.15
B 100.15 100.3
C 100.1 100.1
E 100.1 100.1
F 100.1 100.1

Liquid Nitrogen Calibration Measurements (completed 30-06-2022):

Procedure: We clipped the DMM leads to the RTDs and taped the two clips together. This is very secure - good method for the future. We dipped the taped clips with the RTD into the LN2, and swirled under the liquid surface until the DMM readout stabilized. We only took one set of measurements because we are very confident of the boiling point of N2. 

*Note: RTD A broke. This is because we spread the RTD wires out to put into the aligator clips, making them very prone to snapping when we move them. This means that we do not have an RTD on the cold head.

Results (ohms):

A: X

B: 19.8




Attachment 1: ice_bath_calibration.xlsx
  Draft   Mon Jun 27 10:59:04 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationSi wafer emissivity testing

Here I analyze potential gains from using LN2 to kick off a Megastat cooldown, and transition to a cryocooler to cool under 77K. I've removed the heat loads in the system by modeling an empty chamber (no wafer) and no exposed apertures in the inner shield. I've also modeled the flexible strap is a solid copper element, for an ideal cooldown scenario.

Attachment 1 is a reminder of the cooldown of the cold head of the cryocooler. The cooling power of the cryocooler is a function of the temperature at the cold head, and this is tabulated in its manual. The cold head reaches 77K at ~3.8 hours from past data. This provides an upper limit on gains from using LN2 - if the cold head is cooled to 77K instantly, its cooldown curve will be shifted to the left by 3.8 hours, and thus the system will reach steady state 3.8 hours faster. In reality, there would be a time constant for the cold head to reach 77K due to the LN2-copper interaction, and the mass/heat capacity of the cold head. 

Attachment 2 is a plot from Ekin which shows the heat transfer rate (Qdot) per m^2, for the boundary between LN2 and a solid. The different curves correspond for different \Delta T between the LN2 and cold head, and for a majority of the cooling from RT, we will use the curves for \Delta T ~ 100K. These have lower heat transfer because film boiling is occurring, and a layer of film "insulates" the surface of the solid from the 77K bath. These curves vary in the diameter of the contact area, and we use the bottom curve corresponding to D >= 1.0 cm. Once \Delta T reaches 10K, the heat transfer rate jumps up to the nucleate boiling curves. We use the one corresponding to 1atm of pressure. 


Attachment 1: coldhead_vs_LN2.pdf
Attachment 2: thermal_transfer_rate_LN2.png
  Draft   Mon Jun 27 10:56:23 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationSi wafer emissivity testing

Here I analyze potential gains from using LN2 to kick off a Megastat cooldown, and transition to a cryocooler to cool under 77K. 


  2788   Thu Jun 23 11:56:21 2022 JCElectronicsGeneralEquipment

[JC, Paco]

I took the Moku and iPad from QIL over to 40m for PLL Measurement at the 40m. (SURF)

  2787   Tue Jun 21 11:00:57 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationThermal conduction through ceramic ball bearings

Here I summarize the analysis of thermal conduction through 3 ceramic ball bearings supporting a test wafer in Megastat. I considered a baseplate or housing for the ceramic ball bearings at the temperature of the cold plate, the 3 ceramic ball bearings themselves, and the wafer seated on top. This pathway can be broken down into the following components:

1. Thermal resistance across joint from Al baseplate to ball bearing

2. Thermal resistance of bulk of ball bearing

3. Thermal resistance across joint from ball bearing to wafer

These resistances in series can be summed, and there exist 3 of these pathways in parallel (1 for each bearing) and the net resistance can then be found using the corresponding formula.

Attachment 1 is a plot of the thermal conductance of alumina ceramic (Al2O3), and it was taken from from this paper. The peak value of 99% Al2O3 agrees with what is listed in the ceramic ball bearing spec sheet: 28 W/mK. I've used these tabulated values to obtain component 2 above. 

Attachment 2 is a plot of the thermal conductances across various joints, taken from Ekin. I could not find data for the conductance across Al--Al2O3 pressure joints or Al2O3--Si pressure joints, but I have used the value corresponding to a stainless steel--stainless steel pressure joint as a conservative upper bound. (*When I was calculating non-negligible conduction last Friday, I had forgotten to update the joint conductance value from an Al--Al pressure joint (orange box in Attachment 2). This greatly overestimated the joint conduction, and the ceramic joints should be a few orders of magnitude below this.) 

The results of this modeling show that the maximum cooling power delivered via conductive contact is below 7e-5 W. Compared to the 6e-3 W of radiative cooling power (~1%), this is negligible. Attachment 3 shows the nominal difference in wafer cooldown - the solid and dashed orange curves are barely distinguishable (T difference of ~0.2K at steady state - RTD uncertainty is +- 0.15K). We should proceed with this design plan for emissivity testing in Megastat. 

Attachment 1: 1-s2.0-S027288421100229X-gr4.jpg
Attachment 2: thermal_conductance_joints.png
Attachment 3: wafer_cooldown_model_ball_bearings.pdf
  2786   Tue Jun 21 10:35:15 2022 Clare NelleDailyProgressEmissivity estimationRTD Calibration

RTD Calibration Plan Developed on 16-06-2022:

  1. Prepare an ice bath and liquid nitrogen bath to calibrate the RTD.

    1. Ice bath: fill cup (?) with ice. Fill with water until 2 inches below the top of the ice. Let sit for 2 minutes before calibration. 

  2. We will use a DMM to measure the resistance across the leads. Right now, we are thinking that we will connect the leads to the resistor using alligator clips or solder them together.

  3. Use linear fit to calibrate the RTD value as a function of resistance using these two reference values. 

  4. Repeat for all three RTDs


  1. Q: What is the tolerance of the resistor?

    1. 100 ohm +/- .06%. Means that our calculation if done correctly will be between 99.4 → 100.6 ohms in the ice bath. Our RTD is class A, which has tolerance +/- .15 degrees. Pt-100 SHOULD be 100 ohms at 0C – the temp changes linearly.

  2785   Fri Jun 10 16:23:04 2022 ranaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationMegastat cooldown - repainted inner shield aquadag, added aquadag foil to cold plate

From the plot, it seems like the slop is ~50 Ohms / 120 K. So a difference of 5 K corresponds to ~2 Ohms.

It could be that your measurement of the resistance is off slightly due to the lead resistances, etc. Are you using a 3-wire or 4-wire probe?

You can get a higher accuracy relative calibration by dunking all the RTDs together in ice water and then in boiling water.



  2784   Fri Jun 10 09:47:07 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationMegastat cooldown - repainted inner shield aquadag, added aquadag foil to cold plate

I looked closer at the RTDs, and they are all PT100s with the same resistance-temperature curve [Attachment 1]. So we might need to re-calibrate them.

The chamber is currently warming up, and I plan to cool down again on Monday to a) obtain data for the entire cooldown and b) see if this inner shield behavior is repeated.

Attachment 1: hmfile_hash_88f68a98.png
  2783   Thu Jun 9 10:42:26 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationMegastat cooldown - repainted inner shield aquadag, added aquadag foil to cold plate

I encountered several puzzles in the data from this cooldown (Attachment 1):

1. Due to residual challenges with getting the Megastat SLOW channels recorded to frames (after flood), we've been using a USB to extract data form the CTC100. However, only ~48 hours of cooldown were recorded on the drive - we lost data from the rest of the cooldown. I'm hoping this is due to storage limits on the USB, and if so I will decrease the sampling rate of the CTC100 and/or source a USB with larger storage. Of course this is a temporary solution, and efforts would be better spent on getting data recorded in frames. For now, since every component had reached steady state (except the test mass), most parameters can theoretically still be inferred from the data we obtained. (Note that data logging started a bit after the cryocooler was switched on.)

2. The inner shield appears to have reached a steady-state temperature lower than that of the cold head. This is bizzare, and non-physical - the cold head should be the component supplying cooling power to the rest of the system. Our current Megastat model would not predict such behavior under any choice of parameters. I replaced the inner shield RTD before this cooldown, so I am hoping the new RTD has a different calibration curve than what the CTC100 was expecting. If this is the case, I should be able to use the data to undo the existing calibration and obtain correctly-calibrated temperature for the inner shield. It is worth noting that the new RTD accurately measured room temperature, so if this theory is correct then the calibration error only exists at low temperatures.

Attachment 1: MS_cooldown_2022-06-02_data.pdf
  2782   Thu Jun 9 10:27:01 2022 RadhikaDailyProgress2um PhotodiodesPD testing plan in CAML lab

[Aidan, Radhika]

On Tuesday 6/7 we met to discuss next steps for getting PD testing up and running in CAML (cryo auxiliary mariner lab). Here is a rough 2-month plan:

Step 0 [1 week]: Get CAML workstation running and confirm connection to EPICS/CDS. 

    - Organize BNC cables coming in from QIL and connect to the PD testing table. 

Step 1 [1 week]: Outline desired measurements and sketch diagram of electronics/components.

    - Decide how we want these component organized; i.e. how many boxes, number of inputs/outputs per box. 

Step 2 [2 weeks]: Implement desired setup.

Step 3 [2 weeks]: Replicate QE measurements on JPL PDs

    - Tweak setup as necessary

Step 4 [2 weeks]: Test MCT detectors


  2781   Wed Jun 8 12:15:06 2022 RadhikaDailyProgressEmissivity estimationMegastat cooldown - repainted inner shield aquadag, added aquadag foil to cold plate

The cryocooler was turned off 6/8 at 11am.

ELOG V3.1.3-