Dark current measurement for InGaAs QPDs (OSI FCI-InGaAs-Q3000) has been done using Keithley 2450 and Frank's diode test kit. Frank's setup uses various custom instruments which are no longer exist, therefore the kit was used only for switching between the segments.
The diodes were serialized as 81, 82, 83, 84, continuing the numbering for the OMC QPDs. The numbers are engraved at the side and the back of the diode cans.
Overall, the QPDs nominally indicated the usual dark current level of <10nA.
SEG1 of #82 showed a lower voltage of reverse breakdown but this is not a critical level.
#83 showed variations between the segments compared to the uniform characteristics of #81 and #84.
To know any anomaly to the junction capacitance of the QPD segments, the RF impedances were tested with a hand-made impedance measurement.
All segments look almost identical in terms of capacitance.
The impedance of a device can be measured, for example, from the complex reflection coefficient (S11). To measure the reflection, a bidirectional coupler was brought from the 40m. Attachments 1 and 2 shows the connection. The quantity A/R shows S11. The network analyzer can convert a raw transfer function to an impedance in Ohm.
Calibration and Measurement limit:
The network analyzer was calibrated with 1) a piece of wire to short the clips 2) 50ohm resistor 3) open clips. Then the setup was tested with these three conditions (again). Attachment 3 shows the result. Because of the impedance variation of the system (mainly from the Pomona clip, I guess), there looks the systematic measurement error of ~1pF or ~25nH. Above 100MHz, the effect of the stray impedance is large such that the measurement is not reliable.
The setup was tested with a 10pF ceramic capacitor and this indicated it is accurate at this level. The setup is sufficient for measuring the diode junction capacitance of 300~500pF.
Impedance of the QPD segments:
Then the impedances of the QPD segments were measured (Attachment 4). The segments showed the identical capacitance of 300~400pF level, except for the variation of the stray inductance at high freq, which we can ignore. Note that there is no bias voltage applied and the nominal capacitance in the datasheet is 225pF at 5V reverse bias. So I can conclude that the QPDs are quite nominal in terms of the junction capacitance.
(Ed: 11/23/2020 The RF components were returned to the 40m)
The dark noise levels of the four Q3000 QPDs were measured with FEMTO DLPCA200 low noise transimpedance amp.
The measurement has been done in the audio frequency band. The amp gain was 10^7 V/A. The reverse bias was set to be 5V and the DC output of the amplifier was ~40mV which corresponds to the dark current of 4nA. It is consistent with the dark current measurement.
The measured floor level of the dark current was below the shot noise level for the DC current of 0.1mA (i.e. 6pA/rtHz).
No anomalous behavior was found with the QPDs.
Note that there is a difference in the level of the power line noise between the QPDs. The large part of the line noises was due to the noise coupling from a soldering iron right next to the measurement setup, although the switch of the iron was off. I've noticed this noise during the measurement sets for QPD #83. Then the iron was disconnected from the AC tap.
I see that these measurements are done out to 100 kHz - I guess there is no reason to suspect anything at 55 MHz which is where this QPD will be reading out photocurrent given the low frequency behavior looks fine? The broad feature at ~80 kHz is the usual SR785 feature I guess, IIRC it's got to do with the display scanning rate.
The measured floor level of the dark current was below the shot noise level for the DC current of 0.1mA (i.e. 6pA/rtHz).
The amplifier BW was 400kHz at the gain of 1e7 V/A. And the max BW is 500kHz even at a lower gain. I have to setup something special to see the RF band dark noise.
With this situation, I stated "the RF dark noise should be characterized by the actual WFS head circuit." in the 40m ELOG.
OMC Unit 4 Build Machined Parts are currently located in Stephen's office. See image of large blue box from office, below.
Loaned item D1100855-V1-00-OMC08Q004 to Don Griffith for work in semi-clean HDS assy.
This includes mass mounting brackets, cable brackets, balance masses, etc. For full inventory, refer to ICS load Bake-9527 (mixed polymers) and Bake-9495 (mixed metals).
Inventory includes all items except cables. Plasma sprayed components with slight chipping were deemed acceptable for Unit 4 use. Cable components (including flex circuit) are ready to advance to fabrication, with a bit more planning and ID of appropriate wiring.
Item loan: SRS LCR meter SRS720 borrowed from Downs. The unit is at the 40m right now for testing with an excelitas PD. Once it is done, the setup will be moved to the OMC lab for testing the high QE PDs
Attachment 1: System diagram. The reverse bias voltage is controlled by DS335. This can produce a voltage offset up to 10V. A G=+2 opamp circuit was inserted so that a bias of up to +15V can be produced. The capacitances of the photodiodes were measured with SR720 LCR meter with a probe. DS335 and SR720 were controlled from PC/Mac via serial connections.
Attachment 2: Overview
Attachment 3: How was the probe attached to the photodiode under the test
Attachment 4: The bias circuitry and the power supply
Attachment 5: G=+2 amp
The capacitance at no bias was 460~500pF. This goes down to below 300pF at 1.0~1.5V reverse bias. At maximum +15V, the capacitance goes down to 200~220pF.
On this opportunity, the capacitances of a couple of Excelitas C30665 photodiodes were measured. In Attachment 2, the result was compared with one of the results from the high QE PDs. In general the capacitance of C30665 is lower than the one from the high QE PDs.
More explicit insights into the inventory for the Unit 4 build. Image of inventory included below.
ref: E1900034 and other associated documents.
I've cleared the small optical table and wondered how to move it out of the room. Fortunately, the north side of the big table had wide enough clearance and let the 36" wide table go through. This was easy without moving other heavy stuff.
From here to the door, a bit of work is required. A possibility is to roll the laser blocking wall to the south side of the big table. This will require moving the shelving in the entrance area but it's not a lot of work compared to disassembling a part of the wall.
If this does not work somehow, we will consider removing the last panel of the wall and it will definitely allow the table to get out from the door.
The table width was an inch too large compared to the door width. We need to tilt the table and it seemed too much for us. Let's ask the transportation for handling.
Photo courtesy by Juan
- The lab is chilly (18degC)
- Cleaned the lab and the optical table a bit so that the delicate work can be done. The diode test rig (borrowed from Downs - see OMC ELOG 408 and OMC ELOG 409) was removed from the table and brought to the office (to return on Monday)
- The rack electronics were energized.
- The OMC mirrors in use were returned to the cases and stored in the plastic box.
- The optical table was also cleaned. Removed the old Al foils. The table was wiped with IPA
- The OMC #4 was moved to the other part of the table, and then OMC #2 was placed in the nominal place (Attachment 1). Note that the "legs" were migrated from #4 to #2. There are three poles that defines the location of the OMC Transportation
- The lid was removed and the OMC was inspected (Attachment 2). Immediately found some more delamination of the epoxy beneath the cable bracket (Attachment 3). This needs to be taken care of before shipment.
- The cavity was already flashing as usual, and a bit of alignment made the TEM00 flashing.
- The locking was a little tricky because the LB unit seemed to have a gain-dependent offset. After some adjustment, robust locks were achieved. The cavity was then finely adjusted. Attachment 4 shows the CCD image of the reflection. The core of the spot is more or less axisymmetric as usual. There is also a large helo around the spot. I was not aware of this before. I may need to wipe some of the mirrors of the input path.
- As the satisfactory lock was achieved, I called a day by taking a picture of the table (Attachment 5).
== Initial Preparation ==
== Measurements ==
== Repair / Preparation ==
== Shipping ==
o Power Budget (2022/07/18)
NPRO ADJ -50 (min)
Fiber incident 62.8mW
Fiber output 45.1mW
Matching to the fiber 72%
DCPD T = 8.90 +/- 0.01 mW
REFPD = 3.760 +/- 0.001 V
DCPD R = 8.82 +/- 0.01 V
REFPD = 3.760 +/- 0.001 V
CM1 = 81.4 +/- 0.1 uW
REFPD = 3.767 +/- 0.001 V
CM2 = 86.6 +/- 0.1 uW
REFPD = 3.767 +/- 0.001 V
OFS = -6.214 +/- 0.001 mV (beam blocked)
LOCKED = 57.5 +/- 0.5 mV
REFPD = 3.970 +/- 0.003 V
UNLOCK = 2.816 +/- 0.003 V
REFPD = 3.943 +/- 0.001 V
P_Inc = 20.04 +/- 0.01 mW
REFPD = 3.946 +/- 0.001 V
- Cavity coupling 0.989 (1.1% junk&sidebands)
- Cavity R&T: R=756ppm, T=0.946
- OMC Throughput (Cavity T x First BS R): T=0.939
- Cavity loss per mirror 90 ppm / Round Trip Loss 432ppm
o Power Budget after FirstContact cleaning (2022/07/20)
NPRO ADJ -50 (min)
Fiber incident --.-mW
Fiber output --.-mW
Matching to the fiber ??%
DCPD T = 8.62 +/- 0.01 mW
REFPD = 3.549 +/- 0.001 V
DCPD R = 9.46 +/- 0.01 V
REFPD = 3.562 +/- 0.001 V
CM1 = 74.5 +/- 0.1 uW
REFPD = 3.585 +/- 0.001 V
CM2 = 81.7 +/- 0.1 uW
REFPD = 3.585 +/- 0.001 V
vOFS = -6.197 +/- 0.001 mV (beam blocked)
LOCKED = 47.6 +/- 0.2 mV
REFPD = 3.596 +/- 0.003 V
UNLOCK = 2.700 +/- 0.003 V
REFPD = 3.590 +/- 0.001 V
P_Inc = 19.36 +/- 0.001 mW
REFPD = 3.594 +/- 0.001 V
- Cavity coupling 0.980 (2.0% junk&sidebands)
- Cavity R&T: R=229ppm, T=0.970 (previous T=0.946, 2.4% UP!)
- OMC Throughput (Cavity T x First BS R): T=0.963
- Cavity loss per mirror 42.8 ppm / Round Trip Loss 238ppm
The Windows laptop for WincamD/Beam'R2 (DELL Vostro3300) was not functional.
- Windows 7 got stuck in the starting up process (Google "startup repair loop")
- The battery can't charge and the adapter connection is flaky
I decided to newly install Win10.
I made a new bootable Win10 DVD from the ISO downloaded from IMSS. The ISO file was converted to CDR using Disk Utility on Mac.
This deleted the past disk partitions. The installation process has no trouble and Win10 ran successfully. The machine is slow but still acceptable for our purpose.
Dataray Version 7.1H25Bk was downloaded from the vendor website https://dataray.com/blogs/software/downloads and installed successfully.
The devices ran as expected by connecting the heads and selecting the proper device in the software.
Then, the Win10 fell into "Hibernation Loop" and "Shutdown loop" (after disabling hibernation in the safe mode).
This is probably the combination of extremely slow windows update (feature update i.e. beta OS update) and the occasional shutdown due to the flakiness of the AC connection
Win10 was reinstalled and automatic Win update was disabled via windows policy manager or something like that. Still, it tries to download and update some of the updates (what's happening there!?
Here are my strong recommendations on how to use this laptop
Bond reinforcement blocks for the invar brackets:
The backscatter beam is supposed to appear in the backpropagation path. The transmission of the OMC has a couple of optics, it's not easy to access that beam.
To try to deflect the beam either horizontally or vertically, small optical pieces were made. (Attachment)
These are the combination of the optics
- Thorlabs PF05-03 Fused Silica Mirror Blank (dia12.7mm x t 6.0mm) + Thorlabs 1/2"sq BB Dielectric Mirror BBSQ05-E03
- Thorlabs PF05-03 Fused Silica Mirror Blank (dia12.7mm x t 6.0mm) + Thorlabs ME05-G01 Protected Al Mirror (dia12.7mm x t 3.2mm) + Thorlabs MRA10-K13 Right-Angle Prism Nd:YAG 10mm
Torr seal was used as the bonding epoxy. It uses a 1:2 volume mixture (not easy because of the viscosity) and is relatively fast to cure (in a couple of hours).
The test piece showed some softness after 3~4 hours so I left the parts cured overnight at room temp (i.e. 18degC)
The profile of the beam incident on the fiber input
The fiber input was deflected by a 45deg mirror. The beam profile was measured with WincamD. The beam was too strong (~60mW) even at the smallest pump power (ADJ -50) of the NPRO. So the two ND20 filters were added to the lens right before the 45 deg mirror and the camera.
The measured profile had some deviation from the nice TEM00 particularly around the waist. This could be a problem of the too small beam on the ND filter and the CCD.
This is not an issue as we just want to know the approximate shape of the beam.
For the fiber coupling, if we have the beam waist radius of ~200um it is sufficient for decent coupling.
Measure the power ratio between the forward-propagating and reverse-propagating beams.
- To increase the incident laser power, NPRO Current ADJ was set to be 0 (increased from -50)
- 1st: Without the baffle 0.373 +/- 0.001 uW / With the baffle 0.318 +/- 0.001 uW
- 2nd: Without the baffle 0.370 +/- 0.001 uW / With the baffle 0.318 +/- 0.001 uW
- 3rd: Without the baffle 0.370 +/- 0.001 uW / With the baffle 0.317 +/- 0.001 uW
==> 53.3 +/- 0.6 nW
- The main transmission was 84.0mW
==> Backpropagation ratio was 0.634+/-0.007 ppm
- Direct measurement of the OMC was after BS 96.6mW
==> Backpropagation power from the cavity: 61.3 +/- 0.7 nW
- Cavity transmission for the matched beam is Tcav RinputBS = 0.963
==> Incident resonant TEM00 power 100.3mW
- Reflection 61.3+/-0.7 nW x RinputBS = 60.8+/-0.7 nW
-> The effective reflectivity for the mode-matched resonant TEM00 beam incident on the OMC (1st steering mirror) is 0.606+/-0.007 ppm
SRS LCR meter SRS720 was returned to Downs as before.
OMC Reinforcement blocks
1. P/N D1600316; Version v4; Type 01; Qty 30; Source Chemistry Machine Shop
2. P/N D1600316; Version v4; Type 02; Qty 15; Source Chemistry Machine Shop
3. P/N D1600316; Version v4; Type 01; Qty 40; Source Resource MFG PO S422806
4. P/N D1600316; Version v4; Type 02; Qty 40; Source Resource MFG PO S422806
Stephen asked Srinath for the ICS entry.
Stephen made the C&B request https://cleanandbake.ligo.caltech.edu/clean_and_bake/request/1708/
Madeline was asked to take care of the C&B.
Also, the Torr Seal box was returned to Madeline.
More epoxy delamination check:
DCPD R (Attachment 1): Found half delaminated
DCPD T (Attachment 2): Found half delaminated
QPD1/QPD2 (Attachment 3): Looks fine
In total we need to fix bonding of three invar bases (including the one for the cable bracket)
- Installed the High QE PDs to OMC #002
Upon the installation, the legs of the PDs were cut by 3mm. Also, the tab of the PD could not be embedded in the DCPD housing. Therefore, the tabs were cut.
The alignment looked just fine. The weak reflections are directed to the black glass beam dumps.
- After the installation, the QEs were measured.
It is so confusing. So I decided to make the QE test setup.
Ophir RM9 with chopper (+/-5%): 8.97mW
Thorlabs S140C integrating sphere (+/-7%): 9.11mW
Thorlabs S130C PD power meter (+/-7%): 9.15mW
Thorlabs S401C thermal power meter (+/-3%): 8.90mW
So there looks ~3% discrepancy between S130C and S401C
Then tried to measure the QE of C1-03@Cage B3 with Ophir RM9
- Initial state: QE=0.95
- First FirstContact application: QE went up to 0.973
- Second FirstContact application: QE = 0.974, basically no change
- Calibrate the trans-impedance amp with Keithley
- Apply FC to B1-22 and B1-23 to see if there is an improvement
- The power should be measured with S401C because the accuracy seems better (+/-3%).
- Take photos of the PD FC process
General To Do:
- Backscatter test 2nd trial
- Start applying the first contact to the optical surfaces
- Beam dump cleaning
- Apply FC cap to the PDs
- Delamination repair (light side)
- Delamination repair (dark side)
- Cable bracket replace (dark side)
- 4 CLASS A wire clamp obtained from the OMC spare
- 4 more DIRTY wire clamp obtained from WB experiments (they no longer use these)
Once the later ones are C&Bed, we have enough.
- DLPCA-200 trans-impedance amplifier was calibrated.
Keithley source meter 2450 was connected to the amp. Provide current and read the output voltage with the precision digital voltage meter (Agilent/Keysight).
Gain: 999.7V/A@7mA, 999.6V/A@8mA
- From the power meter spec, Thorlabs S401C seemed the best (+/-3%). So the QEs of the 9 PDs were checked with this power meter again.
- All PDs exhibited the QE of 0.95~0.96. It's all relative as the power meter has a systematic error.
- Tried to clean B1-22 and B1-23 PDs. They didn't show significant improvement after the cleaning. To avoid the unnecessary risk of damaging the PDs, further cleaning was not performed. (Some photos were attached)
- What we can do is use this result as the relative measurements.
- For OMC#2, B1-22 is the DCPD(T) and B1-23 is the DCPD(R). C1-03 and C1-12 are the spares, according to this latest result.
- At LLO, we track down the source of the throughput reduction (-10%). The QEs of the PDs are going to be tested in the same setup at once to compare their PDs and our PDs.
The optical surfaces were coated with FirstContact to keep them clean / somewhat protected during the transportation.
The PD aperture was sealed with FirstContact "caps" (made by Kate in 2016?).
- D1300052-V3 SN001 is going to be used (Attachment 1)
- This is the PEEK version of the cable bracket (Attachment 2). The side thread holes have no Helicoils inserted. This needs to be done!
Connector arrangement check / cable routing check
Attachment 3: Connector Arrangement from the Northside
Attachment 4: Connector Arrangement from the South side
Attachment 5: Cable routing (Northside down)
At this point, the delamination of the V shape beam dumps was visible. This is the subject of bonding reinforcement.
- (Attachment 1) The connector nut rings were removed using an angled needle nose plier. The connector shell has a tight dimension relative to the hole on the bracket. But of course, they could be extracted.
- The 4 screws mounting the bracket to the invar blocks were successfully removed. No extra damage to the bonding.
- (Attachment 2) The plan was to remove the cable pegs by unfastening the button head 1/4-20 screws from the bracket and then just replace the bracket with the new one. However, these screws were really tight. The two were successfully removed without cutting the PEEK cable ties. Two cable ties were necessary to be cut to detach the bracket+pegs from the fragile OMC. Then one screw was removed. However, the final one could not be unfastened. This is not a problem as we are not going to recycle the metal cable bracket... as long as we have spare parts for the new bracket.
- (Attachment 3) Right now, the new bracket is waiting for the helicoils to be inserted. So the OMC lid was closed with the cables piled up. Just be careful when the lid is open.
Checking the spare parts
- Conclusion for OMC#2: need PEEK cable ties
- for more OMCs: need more BHCS / PEEK cable ties / Helicoils
Now we got the C&Bed parts to continue to work on the cable bracket replacement.
1) Helicoil insertion
1/4-20 Helicoils were inserted into the 6 thread holes of D1300052. It went mostly okay. We witnessed that the Helicoil insertion tool delaminated the plating of the Helicoils upon insertion (Attachment 1). Stephen mentioned that this is not usual, but we didn't find anything further such as increased friction, more debris, etc. So we decided to go forward.
2) EP30-2 Kit
The EP30-2 kit was transferred from the 40m clean room to the OMC lab. The EP30-2 kit tracking was updated via C1900343
3) D1300052 reinstallation -> FAIL
Now resumed to the installation of D1300052 bracket. However, the hole size of the bracket is just a bit too small compared with the size of the mighty mouse connectors. It was already quite tight with the metal version. However, this PEEK version seems to have 0.1 mm further small diameter, and then the connectors do not penetrate the holes. The plan could be
1) Use a razor blade to shave the hole inner circle.
2) Use a cleaned drill bit to make the hole size 0.2mm bigger.
- The hole size extension is going forwared now.
- Madeline and Chub are cleaning (sonicating) a drill (29/64=0.4531")
- The parts in a bag were brought to the 40m C&B lab.
- The hole is going to be 11mil=0.28mm larger than the recommendation (0.442").
It's not a D-hole. The connector has a rounded-rectangular flange that fits into the PEEK parts.
So I don't think it's an issue.
- Chub has a proper spanner to fasten the nuts. We want to use it here and LLO.
The cable bracket was successfully replaced.
New cable ties were installed on the cable pegs attached to the long sides of the cable bracket.
Checked the delamination status:
#1 The Invar bar on the cable bracket (DCPD side)
Added short (frosted) Al bars (Attachment 1) to the short sides of the invar bar. (Attachments 2/3). Some glue was sucked into the delamination gap by capillary action (=good) (Attachment 4)
#2 The Invar bar on the cable bracket (QPD side)
Added short (frosted) Al bars to the short sides of the invar bar. (Attachments 3/5). Maybe some glue was sucked into the delamination gap??? Not so clear. (Attachment 4)
#3 The Invar bar reinforced in 2016
Added a short (frosted) Al bars to a short side of the invar bar (Attachment 6). On both sides of the 2016 reinforcement, rectangular prisms are added (Attachment 6)
Some capillary action is visible beneath the invar bar (Attachment 7)
Leave it as it is for a day
Inspection of the bonding on the suspension interface side. All look good.
Inspection of the delaminations in the optics side
EP30-2 bonding setup
The OMC #002 is ready for shipment.
Attachment 1: Work done on Sept 19, 2022
Other attachments: Putting the OMC in the pelican case.
Inspected the past LLO add-on mass configuration.
There are unknown masses at the DCPD side. It looks like a small SS mass with an estimated mass of 5g. But the DCC number is unknown.
We are going to add 10g on each corner as well as the damping aterial. We should be able to figure out the fastener / mass configuration.
Here is the balance mass info for the LLO OMC#001 analyzed from the photographs
If we attach the additional mass, longer 1/4-20 screws (1", 1" 1/8, 1" 1/4) are going to be used.
Started July 15, 2022 and finished Aug 30. So it took ~1.5 months (with a couple weeks of break)
Class B special tools
First Contact Kit
Bonding kit (excl EP30-2 bond)
Power meters (excl Power meter controller)
Cable bracket replacement kit
Optics / Optomechanics
=== Action done on Aug 30 ===
Fiber MM setup / Fiber coupler mount
Glass Beamdumps (for optical testing)
Thorlabs fiber coupler tool
General bent nose plier for fiber
Thorlabs collimator tiny allen
Spare High QE PDs
Spare OMC bags / Zip bags
Balance Mass 10g Qty 8 (Different Type D11*** 1.25" dia), 20g Qty 10 / Mass damper D1700301 -04 / Mass damper screws SHCS 1/4-20 x 1.25 Qty 25 / 1" screws and 1 1/8" screws
Shipping request: https://services1.ligo-la.caltech.edu/FRS/show_bug.cgi?id=25002
=== Low supply! ===
Upon the LLO work, the current PD arrangement in the cages are:
B1 OMC1 PDT (A1-23)
B2 OMC1 PDR (A1-25)
B3 original (C1-03)
B4 OMC2 PDT (B1-22)
C1 OMC2 PDR (B1-23)
C2 original (C1-08)
C3 original (C1-09)
C4 original (C1-10)