To get around the problems between the pomona LPF and low CM board input impedance, I've placed the LPF at the CM board fast output. This won't work as a permanent solution, since we only want to lowpass the ALS signal, but it should be fine for a single arm test.
However, I kept getting blown out of lock when turning up the AO gain, but well before I really expect any real action from the fast path. Looking at the OLTF, I was seeing some large spike at ~36kHz nearing 0dB loop gain with unstable phase. This prompted me to look at the ALS error signal out to higher bandwidth with the SR785; before I only ever looked at it through the digital system.
So, with the X arm locked via POX11 I, and ITMY misaligned to use AS55 as an out of loop sensor, I measured the spectrum of the I ouput of the ALS X demod board (which was set to be near a zero crossing via the delay line), and the Q Mon of the AS55 demod board.
Both ALS and AS55 show a sharp line at around 36.5kHz, so something is really happening in the IFO at this frequency. Koji might have seen an indication of this back in March.
What's going on here? And what would be different about PRFPMI that wouldn't have made this a problem for locking?
I looked at REFL11 and REFL55 during PRMI lock - the line is there.
In fact, it is even visible in REFL11 I from a single bounce off of the PRM (ITMs misaligned).
This led me to look at the IMC error point (via the OUT2 on the servo board, no compensation for the input gain). Also there!
One the Wiki (https://wiki-40m.ligo.caltech.edu/40mHomePage), we have a Mech Resonance page for mechanical frequencies and a PEM page where we want to list the sources of all of our environmental lines. So please put in an entry when you find out what's at this frequency. This reminds me that I need to upload my MC2 COMSOL eigenmode analysis.
Fast ALS control continues to elude me.
I fixed my LPF to take the input impedance of the CM board input into account; this unfortunately results in about -12dB DC gain of the ALS signal due to voltage-divider-y things, but by my estimation, this still puts the DFD noise above the input-referred voltage noise of the input AD829 on the CM board, so it'll do for now. The 120Hz pole shows up as expected when comparing the usual digital channels and the CM_SLOW output, and is digitally compensated with a zero at 120Hz (with a digital pole at 5k so nothing blows up).
However, there seems to be some zero in the analog path somewhere that spoils the loop shape for the AO path. Here's a measurement of the X arm OLG from 10-100kHz, when the digital control is happening with ~100Hz UGF via ALS X I -> CM IN2 -> CM_SLOW -> LSC_CARM -> ETMX, and there is some AO action via ALS X I -> CM IN2 -> IMC IN2
The peak is recognizable as the gain peaking in the IMC servo (and changes predictably with changes to the IMC crossover and loop gains), which is expected. However, one can see that the magnitude is roughly flat before the peak, and the phase is around 0. With the 1/f LPF, we should see some downward slope and phase starting around -90.
Thus, there must be some zero in the fast or common path, maybe at a few kHz where the digital loop wouldn't really see its effect. I'm not sure what it could be at this point in time.
One thought I had is that I never really checked the TF of DFD response to frequency modulation of the RF beat. I used an SR785 to drive the external FM input of a Fluke 1061A synthesizer, and saw it to be totally flat from 1-100kHz with carriers from 30-100MHz, so that should be fine. (For a little while I was confused by what seemed to be some heavy high-passing going on, but it turns out that the Fluke just can't push much low frequency FM; the manual says -3dB at 20Hz.)
INCORRECT INFO IN THIS ELOG HAS BEEN REMOVED. SEE THIS ELOG FOR THE UPDATED INFO.
With the help of a tester board, I verified the mapping between fast BIO DB37 pins, and pins on the IDC50 connectors that are to be broken out to the whitening boards. I will enlist Chub to implement this mapping in hardware later today.
Update 2019 Sep 19 1730: The pin numbers of the IDC 50 connector are all off by 1. i.e. 3-->4 and so on. I will fix this shortly. The problem was because of me looking at the pinout for the wrong gender of IDC50 connectors.
[Paco, Anchal-remote-support, Yuta]
We added fast channels to BHD DC PDs.
C1:LSC-DCPD_(A|B)_IN1 are now available, but C1:HPC-DCPD_(A|B)_IN1 still gives us zero.
c1hpc situation -> not good
- We can see the slow signal at C1:X07-MADC1_EPICS_CH16 (DC PD A) and CH17 (DC PD B)
- C1:HPC-DCPD_(A|B)_IN1 is there, but zero.
- We have modified c1hpc model to add DCPD_(A|B) filters in front of the input matrix (see Attachment #1).
- After modifying the model, we run
rtcds make c1hpc
rtcds install c1hpc
sudo systemctl restart daqd_*
rtcds make c1hpc
rtcds install c1hpc
sudo systemctl restart daqd_*
- After this, we got 0x2000 error. So, we ran the following. This removed 0x2000 error, but DCPD signals are still zero. They are also not available in C1HPC-MONITOR_ADC1.adl screen (see Attachment #3).
rtcds restart c1hpc
rtcds restart c1hpc
c1lsc situation -> good
- We could see the slow signal at C1:X04-MADC1_EPICS_CH4 (DC PD A) and CH5 (DC PD B), and also C1:LSC-DCPD_(A|B)_NORM after making C1:LSC-DCPD_(A|B)_POW_NORM=1. The ADC channel and DCPD channel are exactly the same.
- After confirming the above, we modified the c1lsc model to add DCPD_(A|B) filters in front of the input matrix (see Attachment #2).
- After modifying the model, we run
rtcds make c1lsc
rtcds install c1lsc
sudo systemctl restart daqd_*
rtcds make c1lsc
rtcds install c1lsc
sudo systemctl restart daqd_*
- After this, we also got 0x2000 error. We also noticed that, for example, C1:X04-MADC0_EPICS_CH31 and C1:LSC-ASDC_INMON are different, which used to be the same (ASDC_INMON was largely attenuated).
- In the end, we run the following to remove 0x2000 error, but it crashed c1lsc, as well as c1sus, c1ioo.
rtcds restart c1lsc
- So, we did rebootC1LSC.sh. This made c1lsc, c1ioo and c1sus as green as before, except for RFM issue in TRX/TRY, like we saw in June. We followed the steps in 40m/16887 to hard reboot c1iscex/c1iscey and ran rebootC1LSC.sh again. This made C1CDS_FE_STATUS.adl screen as green as before (see Attachment #3).
- Fast channels C1:LSC-DCPD_(A|B)_IN1 are now available. They are also available in C1LSC-MONITOR_ADC1.adl screen (see Attachment #3).
Rana and I now seem to have the fast front end computers (c1lsc, c1sus, c1ioo, c1iscex and c1iscey) up and running! Hooray!
It seemed that we needed to change the soft links back to hard links for rtcds and rtapps on the front end machines. On c1ioo, we did:
sudo rm -rf rtcds
sudo rm -rf rtapps
sudo mkdir rtcds
sudo mkdir rtapps
sudo chown controls:1001 rtcds
sudo chown controls:1001 rtapps
At this time, the front end fstab had several other options in addition to "nolock" for both rtcds and rtapps. They had rw,bg,user,nolock. This state still had some permissions problems. (Later, we have decided that perhaps our next step was unneccesary, since it still left us with (fewer) permissions problems. Taking out the rw,bg,user options from the front end fstab seems to have fixed all permissions issues, so maybe this next chmod step didn't need to be done. But it was done, so I record it for completeness).
On chiara, we did:
sudo chmod -R 777 *
Then on c1iscex, I didn't have to deal with the soft links, but I did need to mount the rtcds and rtapps directories so that I could see files in them. I just did the last 2 operations from the c1ioo list above (mount /opt/rtcds and mount /opt/rtapps).
Since we were still seeing some (fewer) permissions problems, we took out the extra options in the front ends' fstab that Rana had added. Rebooting c1iscex after this, everything came back as expected. Nice!
I think that, at this point, remotely rebooting (sudo shutdown -r now) the other front ends made everything come back nicely. Since we had gotten the fstab situation correct, we didn't have to by-hand mount any directories, and all of the models restarted on their own. Finally!
For posterity, here are things that we'll want to remember:
Frame builder's fstab, in /etc/fstab (only the uncommented lines, since there are lots of comments):
/dev/sdb1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
/swapfile none swap sw 0 0
shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
/dev/sda1 /frames ext3 noatime 0 0
192.168.113.104:/home/cds/ /cvs/cds nfs _netdev,auto,rw,bg,soft 0 0
192.168.113.104:/home/cds/rtcds /opt/rtcds nfs _netdev,auto,rw,bg,soft 0 0
192.168.113.104:/home/cds/rtapps /opt/rtapps nfs _netdev,auto,rw,bg,soft 0 0
Fast front end fstabs, which are on the framebuilder in /diskless/root/etc/fstab:
master:/diskless/root / nfs sync,hard,intr,rw,nolock,rsize=8192,wsize=8192 0 0
master:/usr /usr nfs sync,hard,intr,ro,nolock,rsize=8192,wsize=8192 0 0
master:/home /home nfs sync,hard,intr,rw,nolock,rsize=8192,wsize=8192 0 0
none /proc proc defaults 0 0
none /var/log tmpfs size=100m,rw 0 0
none /var/lib/init.d tmpfs size=100m,rw 0 0
none /dev/pts devpts rw,nosuid,noexec,relatime,gid=5,mode=620 0 0
none /sys sysfs defaults 0 0
master:/opt /opt nfs async,hard,intr,rw,nolock 0 0
192.168.113.104:/home/cds/rtcds /opt/rtcds nfs nolock 0 0
192.168.113.104:/home/cds/rtapps /opt/rtapps nfs nolock 0 0
We ran again this method but with the 'b' parameter as a matrix instead. This provides more gain on some off-diagonal terms than others. This gave us a better convergence with the code reaching to the tolerance level provided (0.01 distance of S matrix from identity) within 16 iterations (~17 mins).
Attachment 1 again shows how the off-diagonal terms go down and how the overall distance of sensing matrix from identity goes down. This is 'Cross coupling budget' of the coils as iterations move forward.
1.027604652272846142e+00 1.193175249772460367e+00 1.091939557371080394e+00
1.010054273887021292e+00 1.156057452309880551e+00 -8.392112351146234772e-01
9.895057930131009316e-01 -7.685799469766890768e-01 6.200896409311776880e-01
9.719554146272761930e-01 -8.056977444392685594e-01 -1.311061151554526294e+00
convergence is great.
Next we wanna get the F2A filters made since most of the IMC control happens at f < 3 Hz. Once you have the SUS state space model, you should be able to see how this can be done using only the free'swinging eigenfrequencies. Then you should get the closed loop model including the F2A filters and the damping filters to see what the closed loop behavior is like.
I think I mis-spoke about the balancing channels before. The ~20 Hz balancing could go into either the COIL banks or the SUS output matrix.
I believe its more conceptually clean to do this as gains in the outputmatrix, and leave the coil gains as +/- 1. i.e. we would only use the coil gains to compensate for coil/magnet actuation strength.
Then the high frequency balance goes into the outputmatrix. The F2A and A2L decoupling filters would then be generated having a high frequency gain = 1.
So I made coffee at 1547 and was astonished to find the above. Its a sad, very sad day.
At first I thought that something (a gravity wave?) or someone, accidentally hit the thing and it fell and broke. But Koji told me that the janitor was cleaning around the thing and it did indeed fell accidentally.
I turned off fb40m2 and fb40m temporarily while we added an extra power strip to the (new) 1X6 rack at the bottom in the back. This is to allow for the addition of the 4600 computer given to us by Rolf (which needs a good name) into the rack above the fb machine. The fb40m2 was unfortunately plugged into the main power connectors, so we unplugged two of its cables, and put them into the new strip. While trying to undo some of the rats nest of cables in the back I also powered down and unpluged briefly the c0dcu1, the pem crate, and the myrinet bypass box.
I am in the process of bringing those machines back up and restoring the network.
Also this morning, Megatron was moved from the end station into the (new) 1X3 rack, along with its router. This is to allow for the installation of the new end computer and IO chassis.
I have uploaded to my directory a directory neural_plant. The most important file is reference_plant.c, which compiles with the command
We would appreciate some plots. Learning curves of recurrent NN working as a plant are interesting. For harmonic oscillator your RNN should not contain any hidden layers - only 1 input and 1 output node and 2 delays at each of them. Activation function should be linear. If your code is correct, this configuration will match oscillator perfectly. The question is how much time does it take to adapt.
Does FANN support regularization? I think this will make your controller more stable. Try to use more advanced algorithms then gradient descent for adaptation. They will increase convergence speed. For example, look at fminunc function at Matlab.
I've been on break this week, so in addition to working at my lab here, I've done some NN stuff. In response to Den's response to my last post, I've included learning curve plotting capabilities,
I've explored all of the currently documented capabilities of FANN (Fast Artificial Neural Network - it's a C library) (most likely, there are additions to the library floating around in open-source communities, but I have yet to look into those). There is extensive FANN documentation on the FANN website (http://leenissen.dk/fann/html/files/fann-h.html), but I'll cut it down to the basics here:
FANN Neural Network Architectures
standard: This creates a fully connected network, useful for small networks, as in the reference plant case
sparse: This creates a sparsely connected network (not all of the connections between all neurons exist at all times), useful for large networks, but not useful in the reference plant case, since the number of neurons is relatively small
shortcut: This creates some connections in the network which skip over various hidden layers. Not useful in the harmonic oscillator case since there are no hidden layers. Probably won't be useful in a better-modeled referrence plant since this reduces the non-linear capabilities of the model.
TRAIN_INCREMENTAL: updates the weights after every iteration, rather than after each epoch. This is faster than the other algorithms for the reference plant.
TRAIN_BATCH: updates the weights after training on the whole set. This should not be used on batches of data for the reference plant, seeing as the time history dependence of the plant is smaller than the size of the entire data set.
TRAIN_RPROP: batch training algorithm which updates the learning parameter.
TRAIN_QUICKPROP: updates the learning parameter, and uses second derivative information, instead of just first derivative, for backpropagation.
FANN Activation Functions
FANN offers a bunch of activation functions, including a function FANN_ELLIOT, which is essentially the "signmoid like" activation function Den and I used this summer, which runs in the order of multiplication and addition. The function parameters (steepness) can also be set.
As usual, the learning parameter can be set. While over the summer we worked with lower learning parameters, in the case of the harmonic oscillator reference plant, since the error is low after the first iteration, higher learning parameters (0.9, for example), work better. However, this is a very isolated case, and, in general, lower parameters, though convergence is slower, produce more optimal results.
The learning momentum is another parameter that can be set - the momentum factor is a coefficient in the weight adjustment equation which allows for the difference in weights beyond the previous weight to be factored in. In the case of the reference plant, a higher learning momentum (0.9) is optimal, although in most cases, a lower learning momentum is optimal so that the learning curve doesn't oscillate terribly.
FANN does not explicitly include regularization, but this can be implemented by checking the MSE at each iteration against the MSE at the n previous iterations, where n is the regularization parameter, and stopping training if there is no significant decrease (also determined by a parameter). The error bound I specified during training was 0.0001
The best result for the reference plant was obtained using FANN_TRAIN_INCREMENTAL, a "standard" architecture, a learning rate of 0.9 (as explained above) and a learning momentum of 0.9 (these values should NOT be used for highly non-linear and more complicated systems).
I have included plots of the learning curves - each title includes the architecture, the learning algorithm, the learning parameter, and the learning momentum if I modified it explicitly.
All of my code (and more plots!) can be found in /users/masha/neural_plant
On the whole, FANN has rather limited capabilities, especially in terms of learning algorithms, where it only has 4 (+ all of the changes one can make to parameters and rates). It is, however, much more intuitive to code with and faster han the Matlab NN library, although the later has more algorithms. I'll browse around for more open-source packages.
Red and blue curves: frequency fluctuation of the beat node between PSL and YARM laser.
Green and broen curves: Actuation on ETMY. In ALS_CONTROL.adl ETMY filter bank 4 and 5 were switched on. Gain was 0.3
Nice reduction of the frequency fluctuation.
Y axis is in volts^2 per counts. In order to go to MHz/sqrt(Hz) you have to take the square root and then times [20Volts/(2^16)counts]*[10Hz/0.04V].
Started to scan the cavity, but this didn't work. Green light all out of lock. IR beam was badly aligned to cavity. Now, my time is over and I have to leave you.
Thanks, for your help and the nice time.
Below is an inventory of the signal feedthroughs that need to be installed on the vacuum Acromag crate this week.
**The original documentation lists five satellite boxes (one for each test mass chamber and one for the beamsplitter chamber), but Chub reports not all of them are in use. We may remove the ones not used.
- New feedthrus [4xDB25 Qty 4 / 8xDB25 Qty 1] are placed on the wire shelf at the entrance -> Jordan, please clean them.
- There are plenty of 2" DLC mounts. There are also many 1.5" mounts but they are less useful.
We need at least 3 1" moounts and 1 1" or 2" lens mount (and the lens). Let's purchase them on Thorlabs. I'll work on the order.
[Koji, Annalisa, Manasa]
NPRO with controller from ATF joins the 40m. We have put it on the POY table where we plan to use it for ABSL.
I've added 4 proposed schemes for implementing ALS in voyager. Major thing to figure out is what AUX laser would be and how we would compare the different PSL and AUX lasers to create an error signal for ALS. Everywhere below, 2um would mean wavelengths near 2 um including the proposed 2128nm. Since it is not fixed, I'm using a categorical name. Same is the case for 1um which actually would mean half of whatever 2 um carries.
After discussing with Koji, I decided to try and align the input beam polarization at the PSL fiber coupler to one of the special axes of the PM fiber. The motivation is to try and narrow down the source of the large RF beatnote amplitude drift I noticed and reported last night.
The setup for doing so is shown in Attachment #1 - essentially, I setup one of the newly purchased couplers in a mount, set up a PBS, and placed two photodiodes at the S and P ports of the PBS. The idea is to rotate the input coupler in its mount, thereby maximizing the PER (monitored on two Thorlabs PDA520s - I didn't check the gain balance of them).
I spent ~30mins doing some preliminary trials just now, and, I was able to achieve a PER of ~1/20. But I think much better numbers were reported in this SURF project (although I'm not entirely sure I understand that measurement). I will spend a little more time tweaking the alignment. The procedure is tricky as at some point, simply rotating the mount reduces the mode-matching efficiency into the fiber so much that it is not possible to get a meaningful PER measurement from the photodiodes. I'm adjouring for now, more to follow...
Current configuration of PSL free-space to fiber coupling is:
I had noticed that the RF beat amplitude was fluctuating by up to 20dBm as viewed on the control room analyzer. As detailed in my earlier elog, I suspected this to be because of random polarization drift between the PSL and EX fields incident on the Fiber coupled PDs. Since I am confident the problem is optical (as opposed to something funny in the electronics), we'd like to be able to isolate which of the many fiber segments is dominating the contribution to this random polarization drift.
Some useful references:
Procedure and details:
Last week, we were talking about reviving the Fiber ALS box. Right now, it's not in great shape. Some changes to be made:
Previous elog thread about work done on this box: elog11650
Today, I borrowed the fiber microscope from Johannes and took a look at the fibers coupled to the PDs. The PD labelled "BEAT PD AUX Y" has an end that seems scratched (Attachments #1 and #2). The scratch seems to be on (or at least very close to) the core. The other PD (Attachments #3 and #4) doesn't look very clean either, but at least the area near the core seems undamaged. The two attachments for each PD corresponds to the two available lighting settings on the fiber microscope.
I have not attempted to clean them yet, though I have also borrowed the cleaning supplies to facilitate this from Johannes. I also plan to inspect the ends of all other fiber connections before re-installing them.
Today, with Johannes' help, I cleaned the fiber tips of the photodiodes. The effect of the cleaning was dramatic - see Attachments #1-4, which are X Beat PD, axial illumination, X Beat PD, oblique illumination, Y beat PD, axial illumination, Y beat PD, oblique illumination. They look much cleaner now, and the feature that looked like a scratch has vanished.
The cleaning procedure followed was:
I will repeat this procedure for all fiber connections once I start putting the box back together - I'm almost done with the new box, just waiting on some hardware to arrive.
I completed the revamp of the box, and re-installed the box on the PSL table today. I think it would be ideal to install this on one of the electronic racks, perhaps 1X2 would be best. We would have to re-route the fibers from the PSL table to 1X2, but I think they have sufficient length, and this way, the whole arrangement is much cleaner.
Did a quick check to make sure I could see beat notes for both arms. I will now attempt to measure the ALS noise with this revamped box, to see if the improved power supply and grounding arrangement, as well as fiber cleaning, has had any effect.
Photos + power budget + plan of action for using this box to characterize the green PDH locking to follow.
For quick reference: here is the AM/PM measurement done when we re-installed the repaired Innolight NPRO on the new X endtable.
Attachment #1 is the updated diagram of the Fiber ALS setup. I've indicated part numbers, power levels (optical and electrical). For the light power levels, numbers in green are for the AUX lasers, numbers in red are for the PSL.
I confirmed that the output of the power splitter is going to the "RF input" and the output of the delay line is going to the "LO input" of the demodulator box. Shouldn't this be the other way around? Unless the labels are misleading and the actual signal routing inside the 1U chassis is correctly done :/
Still facing some CDS troubles, will start ALS recovery once I address them.
Attachment #2 is the svg file of Attachment #1, which we can update as we improve things. I'll put it on the DCC 40m tree eventually.
I did a cursory check of the ALS signal chain in preparation for commissioning the IR ALS system. The main elements of this system are shown in my diagram in the previous elog in this thread.
Questions I have:
After labeling cables I would disconnect, I pulled the box out of the LSC rack. Attachment #1 is a picture of the insides of the box - looks like it is indeed just two lengths of cabling. There was also some foam haphazardly stuck around inside - presumably an attempt at insulation/isolation.
Since I have the box out, I plan to measure the delay in each path, and also the signal attenuation. I'll also try and neaten the foam padding arrangement - Steve was showing me some foam we have, I'll use that. If anyone has comments on other changes that should be made / additional tests that should be done, please let me know.
20180111_2200: I'm running some TF measurements on the delay line box with the Agilent in the control room area (script running in tmux sesh on pianosa). Results will be uploaded later.
For completeness, I'd like to temporarily pull the box out of the rack, open it up, take photos, and make a diagram unless there are any objections.
With Johannes' help, I re-installed the box in the LSC electronics rack. In the end, I couldn't find a good solution to thermally insulate the inside of the box with foam - the 2U box is already pretty crowded with ~100m of cabling inside of it. So I just removed all the haphazardly placed foam and closed the box up for now. We can evaluate if thermal stability of the delay line is limiting us anywhere we care about and then think about what to do in this respect. This box is actually rather heavy with ~100m of cabling inside, and is right now mounted just by using the ears on the front - probably should try and implement a more robust mounting solution for the box with some rails for it to sit on.
I then restored all the cabling - but now, the delayed part of the split RF beat signal goes to the "RF in" input of the demod board, and the non-delayed part goes to the back-panel "LO" input. I also re-did the cabling at the PSL table, to connect the two ZHL3-A amplifier inputs to the IR beat PDs in the BeatMouth instead of the green BBPDs.
I didn't measure any power levels today, my plan was to try and get a quick ALS error signal spectrum - but looks like there is too much beat signal power available at the moment, the ADC inputs for both arm beat signals are overflowing often. The flat gain on the AS165 (=ALS X) and POP55 (=ALS Y) channels have been set to 0dB, but still the input signals seem way too large. The signals on the control room spectrum analyzer come from the "RF mon" ports on the demod board, and are marked as -23dBm. I looked at these peak heights with the end green beams locked to the arm cavities, as per the proposed new ALS scheme. Not sure how much cable loss we have from the LSC rack to the network analyzer, but assuming 3dB (which is the Google value for 100ft of RG58), and reading off the peak heights from the control room analyzer, I figure that we have ~0dBm of RF signal in the X arm. => I would expect ~3dBm of signal to the LO input. Both these numbers seem well within range of what the demod board is designed to handle so I'm not sure why we are saturating.
Note that the nominal (differential) I and Q demodulated outputs from the demod board come out of a backplane connector - but we seem to be using the front panel (single-ended) "MON" channels to acquire these signals. I also need to update my Fiber ALS diagram to indicate the power loss in cabling from the PSL table to the LSC electronics rack, expect it to be a couple of dB.
I am facing two problems:
I swapped the inputs to the ZHL-3A at the PSL table - so now the X beat RF signals from the beat mouth are going through what was previously the Y arm ALS electronics. From Attachment #1, you can see that the Y arm beat is now noisier than the X. The ~5kHz peak has also vanished.
So I will pursue this strategy of switching to try and isolate where the problem lies...
Somebody had forgotten to turn the HEPA variac on the PSL table down. It was set at 70. I set it at 20, and there is already a huge difference in the ALS spectra
[rana, kevin, udit, gautam]
quick notes of some discussions we had today:
RXA: 0805 size SMD thin film resistors have been ordered from Mouser, to be shipped on Monday. **note that these thin film resistors are black; i.e. it is NOT true that all black SMD resistors are thick film**
I did some work on the PSL table today. Main motivations were to get a pickoff for the BeatMouth PSL beam before any RF modulations are imposed on it, and to improve the mode-matching into the fiber. Currently, we use the IR light reflected by the post doubling oven harmonic separator. This has the PMC modulation sideband on it, and also some green leakage.
So I picked off ~8.5mW of PSL light from the first PBS (pre Faraday rotator), out of the ~40 mW available here, using a BS-80-1064-S. I dumped the 80% reflected light into the large beam dump that was previously being used to dump this PBS reflection. Initially, I used a R=10% BS for S-pol that I found on the SP table, but Koji tipped me off on the fact that these produce multiple reflected beams, so I changed strategy to use the R=80% BS instead.
The transmitted 20% is routed to the West edge of the PSL table via 2 1" Y1-1037-45S optics, towards the rough vicinity of the fiber coupler. For now it is just dumped, tomorrow I will work on the mode matching. We may want to cut the power further - ideally, we want ~2.5mW of power in the fiber - this is then divided by 4 inside the beat mouth before reaching the beat PD, and with other losses, I expect ~500mW of PSL power and comparable AUX light, we will have a strong >0dBm beat.
Attachment #1 is a picture of my modifications. For this work, I
I was looking into the physics of polarization maintaining fibers, and then I was trying to remember whether the fibers we use are actually polarization maintaining. Looking up the photos I put in the elog of the fibers when I cleaned them some months ago, at least the short length of fiber attached to the PD doesn't show any stress elements that I did see in the Thorlabs fibers. I'm pretty sure the fiber beam splitters also don't have any stress elements (see Attached photo). So at least ~1m of fiber length before the PD sensing element is probably not PM - just something to keep in mind when thinking about mode overlap and how much beat we actually get.
I was looking at this a little more closely. As I understand it, the purpose of the audio differential IF amplifier is:
Attachment #1 shows, the changes to the TF of this stage as a result of changing R19->50ohm, R17->500ohm. For the ALS application, we expect the beat signal to be in the range 20-100MHz, so the 2f frequency component of the mixer output will be between 40-200MHz, where the proposed change preserves >50dB attenuation. The Q of the ~500kHz resonance because of the series LCR at the input is increased as a result of reducing R17, so we have slightly more gain there.
At the meeting yesterday, Koji suggested incorporating some whitening in the preamp itself, but I don't see a non-hacky way to use the existing PCB footprint and just replace components to get whitening at audio frequencies. I'm going to try and measure the spectrum of the I and Q demodulated outputs with the actual beat signal to see if the lack of whitening is going to limit the ALS noise in some frequency band of interest.
Does this look okay?
The demod circuit board is configured to have gain of x100 post demod (conversion loss of the mixer is ~-8dB). This works well for the PDH cavity locking type of demod scheme, where the loop squishes the error signal in lock, so most of the time, the RF signal is tiny, and so a gain of x100 is good. For ALS, the application needs are rather different. So we lowered the gain of the "Audio IF amplifier" stage of the circuit from x100 to x10, by effecting the resistor swaps 10ohms->50ohms, 1kohm->500ohms (more details about this later).
I tried to couple the PSL pickoff into the fiber today for several hours, but got nowhere really, achieved a maximum coupling efficiency of ~10%. TBC tomorrow... Work done yesterday and today:
I think part of the problem was that the rejected beam from the PBS was not really very Gaussian - looking at the spot on the beam profiler, I saw at least 3 local maxima in the intensity profile. So I'm now switching strategies to use a leakage beam from one of the PMC input steering optics- this isn't ideal as it already has the PMC modulation sideband on it, and this field won't be attenuated by the PMC transmission - but at least we can use a pre-doubler pickoff. This beam looks beautifully Gaussian with the beam profiler. Pics to follow shortly...
I tried to couple the PSL pickoff into the fiber today for several hours, but got nowhere really, achieved a maximum coupling efficiency of ~10%. TBC tomorrow... Work done yesterday and today
Attachment #1 shows the current situation of the PSL table IR pickoff. It isn't the greatest photo but it's hard to get a good one of this setup. Now there is no need to open the Green PSL shutter for there to be an IR beat note.
All this lead me to conclude that I have reached at least some sort of local maximum. The AR coating of the lens has ~0.5% reflection at 8 degrees AOI according to spec, and EricG mentioned today that the fiber itself probably has ~4% reflection at the interface due to there not being any special AR coating. There is also the fact that the mode of the collimator isn't exactly Gaussian. Anyways I think this is a big improvement from what was the situation before, and I am moving on to debugging the ALS electronics.
There is 3.65mW of power coupled into the fiber - our fiber coupled PDs have a damage threshold of 2mW, and this 3.65mW does get split by 4 before reaching the PDs, but good to keep this number in mind. For a quick measurement of the PMC and X end PDH modulation depth measurements, I used an ND=0.5 filter in the beam path.
Attachment #1 - Photo of the revamped beat setup. The top panel has to be installed. New features include:
Attachment #2 - Power budget inside the box. Some of these FC/APC connectors seem to not offer good coupling between the two fibers. Specifically, the one on the front panel meant to accept the PSL light input fiber seems particularly bad. Right now, the PSL light is entering the box through one of the front panel connectors marked "PSL + X out". I've also indicated the beat amplitude measured with an RF analyzer. Need to do the math now to confirm if these match the expected amplitudes based on the power levels measured.
Attachment #3 - We repeated the measurement detailed here. The X arm (locked to IR) was used for this test. The "X" delay line electronics were connected to the X green beat PD, while the "Y" delay line electronics were connected to the X IR beat PD. I divided the phase tracker Hz calibration factor by 2 to get IR Hz for the Y arm channels. IR beat was at ~38MHz, green beat was at ~76MHz. The broadband excess noise seen in the previous test is no longer present. Indeed, below ~20Hz, the IR beat seems less noisy. So seems like the cleaning / electronics revamp did some good.
Further characterization needs to be done, but the results of this test are encouraging. If we are able to get this kind of out of loop ALS noise with the IR beat, perhaps we can avoid having to frequently fine-tune the green beat alignment on the PSL table. It would also be ideal to mount this whole 1U setup in an electronics rack instead of leaving it on the PSL table.
GV Edit: I've added better photos to the 40m Google Photos page. I've also started a wiki page for this box / the proposed IR ALS system. For the moment, all that is there is the datasheet to the Fiber Couplers used, I will populate this more as I further characterize the setup.
Is it better to mount the box in the PSL under the existing shelf, or in a nearby PSL rack?
Further characterization needs to be done, but the results of this test are encouraging. If we are able to get this kind of out of loop ALS noise with the IR beat, perhaps we can avoid having to frequently fine-tune the green beat alignment on the PSL table. It would also be ideal to mount this whole 1U setup in an electronics rack instead of leaving it on the PSL table
It seems like the main contribution to the RMS comes from the high frequency bump. When using the ALS loop to lock the arm to the beat, only the stuff below ~100 Hz will matter. Interesting to see what that noise budget will show. Perhaps the discrepancy between inloop and out of loop will go down.
I was having a chat with EricQ about this today, just noting some points from our discussion down here so that I remember to look into this tomorrow.
Can we make use of the Jetstor raid array for some kind of consolidated 40m CDS backup system? Once we've gotten everything of interest out of it...
I did some work today to see if I could use the IR beat for ALS control. Initial tests were encouraging.
I will now embark on the noise budgeting.
I am leaving the green beat electronics on the PSL table in the switched state for further testing...
The Fiber ALS box has been installed on the existing shelf on the PSL table. We had to re-arrange some existing cabling to make this possible, but the end result seems okay (to me). The box lid was also re-installed.
Some stuff that still needs to be fixed:
Beat spectrum post changes to follow.
To couple the spare NPRO into our Panda PM980 fibers, in order to carry out tests to characterize the fibers, in order to use them in FOL.
Manasa and I spent this morning building the setup to couple NPRO light into the fibers. We used two steering mirrors to precisely guide the beam into the coupler (collimator).
We also attached the lens to a moveable stage (in the z axis), so the setup could be fine tuned to put the beam waist precisely at the photodiode.
The fiber was attached to a fiber-coupled powermeter, so I would be able to tell the coupling efficiency.
During alignment, the NPRO was operating at 1.0 amps, roughly half of nominal current (2.1A).
I first placed the coupler at the distance that I believed the target waist of 231um to be.
Using the steering mirrors and the stage that holds the couple, I aligned the axes of the coupler and the beam.
Finally, I used the variable stage that the lens is attached to to fine tune the location of the target waist.
Once I was getting readings on the powermeter (~0.5nW), the laser was turned up to nominal current of 2.1A.
At this point, I and getting 120nW through the fiber.
While far from "good" coupling, it is enough to start measuring some fiber characteristics.
Tomorrow, I hope to borrow the beam profiler once again so as to measure the fiber mode.
Beyond this, I will be taking further measurements of the Polarization Extinction Ratio, the Frequency Noise within the fiber, and the effects of a temperature gradient upon the fiber.
Once these measurements are completed, the fiber will have been characterized, and will be ready for implementation in FOL.
We wanted to measure the mode coming out of the fibers, so we can later couple it to experimental setups for measuring different noise sources within the fiber. i.e. Polarization Extinction Ratio, Frequency Noise, Temperature Effects.
I used the beamscan mounted on a micrometer stage in order to measure the spot sizes of the fiber coupled light at different points along the optical axis, in much the same way as in the razorblade setup I used earlier in the summer.
I entered my data (z coordinates, spot size in x, spot size in y) into a la mode to obtain the beam profile (waist size, location)
Code is attached in .zip file.
After I took these measurements, Manasa pointed out that I need points over a longer distance. (These were taken over the range of the micrometer stage, which is 0.5 inches.)
I will be coming in to the 40m early on Monday to make these measurements, since precious beamscan time is so elusive.
Eventually, we will use this measurement to design optical setups to characterize Polarization Extinction Ratio, Frequency Noise, and temperature effects of the fibers, for further use in FOL.
The idea was to measure the profile of the light coming out of the fiber, so we could have knowledge of it for further design of measurement apparatuses, for characterization of the fibers' properties.
The method was the same as the last time I tried to measure the fiber mode.
This time I moved the beam profiler in a wider range along the z-axis.
Additionally, I adjusted the coupling until it gave ~1mW through the fiber, so the signal was high enough to be reliably detectable.
Measurements were taken in both X and Y transections of the beam.
The range of movement was limited by the aperture of the beam profiler, which cuts off at 9mm. My measurements stop at 8.3mm, as the next possible measurement was beyond the beam profiler's range.
I entered my data into A La Mode, which gave me a waist of 5um, at a location of z = -0.0071 m, that is to say, 7.1mm inside the fiber.
Note that in the plot, data points and fits overlap, and so are sometimes hard to distinguish from each other.
Code is attached.
Using this data, I will begin designing setups to measure fiber characteristics, the first of which being Polarization Extinction Ratio.
Eventually, the data collected from these measurements will be put to use in the frequency offset locking setup.
The previous data were flawed, in that they were taken in groups of three, as I had to move the micrometer stage which held the beamscan between holes in the optical table.
In order to correct for this, I clamped a straightedge (ruler) to the table, so I could more consistently align the profiler with the beam axis.
These data gave a waist w_o = 4um, located 6mm inside the fiber. While these figures are very close to what I would expect (3.3um at the end of the fiber) the fitting still isn't as good as I would like.
The fit given by ALM is below.
I would like to get a stage//rail so I can align the axes of the beam and profiler more consistently.
I would also like to use an aperture the more precisely align the profiler aperture with the beam axis.
Once these measurements have been made, I can begin assembling the setup to measure the Polarization Extinction Ratio of the fiber.