40m QIL Cryo_Lab CTN SUS_Lab TCS_Lab OMC_Lab CRIME_Lab FEA ENG_Labs OptContFac Mariner WBEEShop
  40m Log, Page 336 of 341  Not logged in ELOG logo
ID Date Authordown Type Category Subject
  2653   Wed Mar 3 18:32:25 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m Upgrading11 MHz RFPD elctronics
** Please add LISO file w/ component values.
 
I designed the circuit for one of the 11 MHz photodiodes that we're going to install in the 40m Upgrade.

This is a simple representation of the schematic:

          gnd
#          |
#          Cw2
#          |
#          n23
#          |
#          Lw2
#          |
#           n22
#          |
#          Rw2                
#                 |                   |\            
#           n2- - - C2 - n3 -  - -  - |  \          
#            |    |      |   |        |4106>-- n5 - Rs -- no
# iinput    Rd   L1     L2 R24    n6- |  /     |           |
#      nin - |    |      |   |    |   |/       |         Rload    
#           Cd   n7     R22 gnd   |            |           |          
#            |    |      |        | - - - R8 - -          gnd              
#           gnd  R1     gnd      R7 
#                 |               |
#         gnd               gnd
#                 
#
#

I chose the values of the components in a realistic way, that is using part available from Coilcraft or Digikey.

Using LISO I simulated the Tranfer Function and the noise of the circuit.

I'm attaching the results.

I'll post the 55MHz rfpd later.

Attachment 1: rfpd11_v2_TF.pdf
rfpd11_v2_TF.pdf
Attachment 2: rfpd11_v2_Noise.pdf
rfpd11_v2_Noise.pdf
  2655   Thu Mar 4 08:43:35 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m Upgrading11 MHz RFPD elctronics

Quote:
** Please add LISO file w/ component values.

oops, forgotten the third attachment...

here it is

Attachment 1: rfpd11_v2.fil
# Resonant RF diode front end
#
#		  gnd
#		  |
#		  Cw2
#		  |
#		  n23
#		  |
#		  Lw2
#		  |
... 60 more lines ...
  2656   Thu Mar 4 19:53:56 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m Upgrading11MHz PD designed adjusted for diode's resistance; 55 MHz RFPD designed
After reading this study done at LIGO MIT in 1998 I understood why it is difficult to define an effective impedance for a photodiode.

I read a few datasheets of the C30642GH photodiode that we're going to use for the 11 and 55 MHz. Considering the  values listed for the resistance and the capacitance in what they define "typical conditions" (that is, specific values of bias voltage and DC photocurrent) I fixed Rd=25Ohms and Cd=175pF.

Then I picked the tunable components in the circuit so that we could adjust for the variability of those parameters.

Finally with LISO I simulated transfer functions and noise curves for both the 11 and the 55MHz photodiodes.

I'm attaching the results and the LISO source files.

 

Attachment 1: rfpd55_Noise.pdf
rfpd55_Noise.pdf
Attachment 2: rfpd55_TF.pdf
rfpd55_TF.pdf
Attachment 3: rfpd11_v2_TF.pdf
rfpd11_v2_TF.pdf
Attachment 4: rfpd11_v2_Noise.pdf
rfpd11_v2_Noise.pdf
Attachment 5: rfpd11_v2.fil
Attachment 6: rfpd55.fil
  2680   Thu Mar 18 12:27:56 2010 AlbertoUpdateABSLPLL reconstructed

Quote:

Last night (Mar 17) I checked the PLL setup as Mott had some difficulty to get a clean lock of the PLL setting.

  • I firstly found that the NPRO beam is not going through the Faraday isolator well. This was fixed by aligning the steering mirrors before the Faraday.
     
  • The signal from the RF PD was send to the RF spectrum analyzer through a power splitter. This is a waist of the signal. It was replaced to a directional coupler.
  • Tee-ing the PZT feedback to the oscilloscope was producing the noise in the laser frequency. I put the oscilloscope to the 600Ohm output of the SR560, while connectiong the PZT output to the 50Ohm output.
  • In addition, 6dB+6dB attenuators have been added to the PZT feedback signal.

Now the beating signal is much cleaner and behave straight forward. I will add some numbers such as the PD DC output, RF levels, SR560 settings...

Now I am feeling that we definitely need the development of really clean PLL system as we use PLL everywhere! (i.e. wideband PD, nice electronics, summing amplifiers, stop poking SR560, customize/specialize PDH box, ...etc)

I also had noticed the progressive change of the aux NPRO alignment to the Farady.

I strongly agree about the need of a good and robust PLL.

By modifying the old PDH box (version 2008) eventually I was able to get a PLL robust enough for my purposes. At some point that wasn't good enough for me either.

I then decided to redisign it from scratch. I'm going to work on it. Also because of my other commitments, I'd need a few days/1 week for that. But I'd still like to take care of it. Is it more urgent than that?

  2702   Tue Mar 23 15:38:26 2010 AlbertoUpdateelogelog just restarted

I found the elog down and I restarted it.

Then, after few seconds it was down again. Maybe someone else was messing with it. I restarted an other 5 times and eventually it came back up.

  2704   Tue Mar 23 22:46:43 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 upgraded
I modified REFL11 according to the changes lsited in this schematic (see wiki  / Upgrade 09 / RF System / Upgraded RF Photodiodes ).
I tuned it to be resonant at 11.06MHz and to have a notch at 22.12MHz.
These are the transfer functions that I measured compared with what I expected from the LISO model.

2010-03-23_REFL11_model_to_meas_comparison.png

The electronics transfer function is measured directily between the "Test Input" and the "RF Out" connector of the box. the optical transfer function is measured by means of a AM laser (the "Jenne laser") modulated by the network analyzer.
The AM laser's current was set at 20.0mA and the DC output of the photodiode box read about 40mV.
The LISO model has a different overall gain compared to the measured one, probably because it does not include the rest of the parts of the circuit other than the RF out path.

I spent some time trying to understand how touching the metal cage inside or bending the PCB board affected the photodiode response. It turned out that there was some weak soldering of one of the inductors.

  2710   Wed Mar 24 14:52:02 2010 AlbertoUpdateGreen Lockingtwo NPRO PLL

Quote:

Now some pedestals, mirrors and lenses are left on the PSL table, since we are on the middle way to construct a PLL setup which employs two NPROs instead of use of PSL laser.

So Please Don't steal any of them.

 Can I please get the network analyzer back?

  2711   Wed Mar 24 14:57:21 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 upgraded

 

 Hartmut suggested a possible explanation for the way the electronics transfer function starts picking up at ~50MHz. He said that the 10KOhm resistance in series with the Test Input connector of the box might have some parasitic capacitance that at high frequency lowers the input impedance.

Although Hartmut also admitted that considering the high frequency at which the effect is observed, anything can be happening with the electronics inside of the box.

  2715   Thu Mar 25 17:32:42 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL55 Upgraded

I upgraded the old REFL199 to the new REFL55.

To do that I had to replace the old photodiode inside, switching to a 2mm one.

Electronics and optical transfer functions, non normalized are shown in the attached plot.

2010-03-25_REFL55_model_to_meas_comparison.png

The details about the modifications are contained in this dedicated wiki page (Upgrade_09 / RF System / Upgraded RF Photodiodes)

Attachment 1: 2010-03-25_REFL55_model_to_meas_comparison.png
2010-03-25_REFL55_model_to_meas_comparison.png
  2732   Mon Mar 29 21:43:27 2010 AlbertoConfigurationPSLReference Cavity PD Noise Spectrum

[Rana, Alberto]

This evening we measured the noise spectrum of the reference cavity PD used in the FSS loop. From that we estimated the transimpedance and found that the PD is shot-noise limited. We also found a big AM oscillation in correspondence of the FSS modulation sideband which we later attenuated at least in part.

This plot shows the spectrum noise from the RF output of the photodetector.
 
 (here you should be able to see an attached figure, if not it's probably becasue imagemagic has having problems with displaying png files)
2010-03-29_FSS_PD_shotnoise_and_darknoise.png
 
The tall peak at 21.5 MHz is the AM modulation introduced by the EOM. It seems to be caused by a misalignment of the EOM which might be somehow modulating the polarization.
The mount in which the EOM sits is not very solid. We should change it with something similar to that of the other two EOMs in the Mach Zehnder.
By tightening down the plastic screws of the mount Rana reduced the amplitude of the AM modulation by 20dB.
 
The bump in both the dark and shot noise are in corrispondence of the resonance of the PD's electronics. As it appears, the electronics is not well tuned: the bump should coincide with the AM peak.
 
In the case of the dark noise spectrum, the bump is due to the thermal noise of the electronics. It's a good sign: it means that the electronics is good enough to be sensitive to it.
 
Transimpedance Estimate
As a "sanity check" we made an approximate estimate of the transimpedance to make sure that the PD is dominated by shot noise rather than other noises, ie electronic's noise.
 
  1. Supposing that the laser beam hitting the PD was shot noise limited, we measured 1.1V at the DC output. That let us estimate the photocurrent at DC of 20mA, for a 50Ohm output impedance.
  2. The shot noise for 20mA is 80 pA/rtHz
  3. From the nosie spectrum, we measured 3e-7 v/rtHz at 21.5MHz
  4. The impedance at RF is then Z_rf = 3e-7 V/rtHz / 80e-12 pA ~ 4000 Ohm
  5. Since the RF path inside the PD has a gain of 10, the transimpedance is ~400Ohm, which is about as we (ie Rana) remembered it to be.
  6. The PD seems to be working fine.
Attachment 2: 2010-03-29_FSS_PD_shotnoise_and_darknoise.png
2010-03-29_FSS_PD_shotnoise_and_darknoise.png
  2758   Fri Apr 2 08:52:21 2010 AlbertoUpdateelogelog restarted

i just restarted the elog for the third time in the past 12 hours.

I checked the elog.log file to debug the problem. It doesn't contain eveidence of any particular cause, except for png/jpg file uploads happened last night.

I'm not sure we can blame Image Magic again because the last crash seems to be occurred just after an entry with e jpg picture was included in the body of the message. I think Image Magic is used only for previews of attachments like pdfs or ps.

Maybe we should totally disable image magic.

  2760   Sat Apr 3 16:07:40 2010 AlbertoConfigurationPSLReference Cavity PD Noise Spectrum

 I was aware of a problem on those units since I acquired the data. Then it wasn't totally clear to me which were the units of the data as downloaded from the Agilent 4395A, and, in part, still isn't.

It's clear that the data was in units of spectrum, an not spectral density: in between the two there is a division by the bandwidth (100KHz, in this case). Correcting for that, one gets the following plot for the FSS PD:

2010-03-29_FSS_PD_shotnoise_and_darknoise.png

Although the reason why I was hesitating to elog this other plot is that it looks like there's still a discrepancy of about 0.5dBm between what one reads on the display of the spectrum analyzer and the data values downloaded from it.

However I well know that, I should have just posted it, including my reserves about that possible offset (as I'm doing now).

Quote:

The units on this plot are completely bogus - we know that the thermal noise from the resonant part of the circuit is just V = sqrt(4*k*T*Z) ~ 3nV/rHz. Then the gain of the MAX4107 stage is 10. The output resistor is 50 Ohms, which forms a divide by 2 with the input impedance of the spectrum analyzer and so the bump in the dark noise should only be 15 nV/rHz and not microVolts.

Quote:

[Rana, Alberto]

This evening we measured the noise spectrum of the reference cavity PD used in the FSS loop. From that we estimated the transimpedance and found that the PD is shot-noise limited. We also found a big AM oscillation in correspondence of the FSS modulation sideband which we later attenuated at least in part.

This plot shows the spectrum noise from the RF output of the photodetector.

  2761   Sat Apr 3 19:54:19 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 and REFL55 PDs Noise Spectrum

These are the dark noise spectrum that I measured on the 11MHz and 55MHz PD prototypes I modified.

The plots take into account the 50Ohm input impedance of the spectrum analyzer (that is, the nosie is divided by 2).

2010-04-03_REFL11_darknoise.png 2010-04-03_REFL55_darknoise.png

With an estimated transimpedance of about 300Ohm, I would expect to have 2-3nV/rtHz at all frequencies except for the resonant frequencies of each PD. At those resonances I would expect to have ~15nV/rtHz (cfr elog entry 2760).

Problems:

  1. For the 55MHz PD the resonance peak is too small
  2. In the 55 MHz: noise is present at about 7MHz
  3. In the 11MHz PD there's a lot of noise below 10 MHz.

I have to figure out what are the sources of such noises.

Suggestions?

  2763   Sun Apr 4 17:32:07 2010 AlbertoMetaphysicsGeneralnew y-arm?

Quote:

There's several more of the this vintage in one of the last cabinets down the new Y-arm.

 Hold on, did the arms get re-baptized?

  2767   Mon Apr 5 10:23:40 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 Low Frequency Oscilaltion Reduced

After adding an inductor L=100uH and a resistor R=10Ohm in parallel after the OP547A opamp that provide the bias for the photodiode of REFL11, the noise at low frequency that I had observed, was significantly reduced.

See this plot:

 2010_04_05_REFL11_darknoise_with_100uH_coil_10ohm_res.png

A closer inspection of the should at 11MHz in the noise spectrum, showed some harmonics on it, spaced with about 200KHz. Closing the RF cage and the box lid made them disappear. See next plot:

 2010_04_05_REFL11_darknoise_wide_freq_window_lid_open-closed.png

The full noise spectrum looks like this:

2010_04_05_REFL11_darknoise_wide_freq_window_lid_open-closed.png

A big bump is present at ~275MHz. it could important if it also shows up on the shot noise spectrum.

  2768   Mon Apr 5 10:33:12 2010 AlbertoOmnistructureElectronicssoldering iron broken

This morning the pencil soldering iron of our Weller WD2000M Soldering Station suddenly stopped working and got cold after I turned the station on. The unit's display is showing a message that says "TIP". i checked out the manual, but it doesn't say anything about that. I don't know what it means. Perhaps burned tip?

Before asking Steve to buy a new one, I emailed Weller about the problem.

  2772   Mon Apr 5 13:52:45 2010 AlbertoUpdateComputersFront-ends down. Rebooted

This morning, at about 12 Koji found all the front-ends down.

At 1:45pm rebooted ISCEX, ISCEY, SOSVME, SUSVME1, SUSVME2, LSC, ASC, ISCAUX

Then I burtestored ISCEX, ISCEY, ISCAUX to April 2nd, 23:07.

The front-ends are now up and running again.

  2775   Tue Apr 6 11:27:11 2010 AlbertoUpdateComputer Scripts / ProgramsData formats in the Agilent AG4395a Spectrum Analyzer

Lately I've been trying to sort out the problem of the discrepancy that I noticed between the values read on the spectrum analyzer's display and what we get with the GPIB interface.

It turns out that the discrepancy originates from the two data vector that the display and the GPIB interface acquire. Whereas the display shows data in "RAW" format, the GPIB interface, for the way the netgpibdata script is written, acquires the so called "error-corrected data". That is the GPIB downloaded data is postprocessed and corrected for some internal calibration factors of the instrument.

Another problem that I noticed in the GPIB downloaded data when I was measuring noise spectrum, is an unwanted factor of 2 in the amplitude spectral density.
For example, measuring the amplitude spectral density of the FSS RF PD's dark noise at its resonant frequency (~21.5 MHz), I would expect ~15nV/rtHz from the thermal noise - as Rana pointed out in the elog entry 2759). However, the spectrum analyzer reads 30nV/rtHz, in both the display and the GPIB downloaded data, except for the above mentioned little discrepancy between the two. (The discrepancy is about 0.5dBm/Hz in the power spectrum density).
 
My measurement, as I showed it in the elog entry 2760) is of ~15nV/rtHz, but only becasue I divided by 2. Now I realize that that division was unjustified.
 
I'm trying to figure out the reason for that. By now I'm not sure we can trust the netgpib package for spectrum measurements with the AG4395.
  2776   Tue Apr 6 16:55:28 2010 AlbertoUpdateComputer Scripts / ProgramsData formats in the Agilent AG4395a Spectrum Analyzer

Quote:

Lately I've been trying to sort out the problem of the discrepancy that I noticed between the values read on the spectrum analyzer's display and what we get with the GPIB interface.

It turns out that the discrepancy originates from the two data vector that the display and the GPIB interface acquire. Whereas the display shows data in "RAW" format, the GPIB interface, for the way the netgpibdata script is written, acquires the so called "error-corrected data". That is the GPIB downloaded data is postprocessed and corrected for some internal calibration factors of the instrument.

Another problem that I noticed in the GPIB downloaded data when I was measuring noise spectrum, is an unwanted factor of 2 in the amplitude spectral density.
For example, measuring the amplitude spectral density of the FSS RF PD's dark noise at its resonant frequency (~21.5 MHz), I would expect ~15nV/rtHz from the thermal noise - as Rana pointed out in the elog entry 2759). However, the spectrum analyzer reads 30nV/rtHz, in both the display and the GPIB downloaded data, except for the above mentioned little discrepancy between the two. (The discrepancy is about 0.5dBm/Hz in the power spectrum density).
 
My measurement, as I showed it in the elog entry 2760) is of ~15nV/rtHz, but only becasue I divided by 2. Now I realize that that division was unjustified.
 
I'm trying to figure out the reason for that. By now I'm not sure we can trust the netgpib package for spectrum measurements with the AG4395.

 I noticed that someone, that wasn't me, has edited the wiki page about the netgpibdata under my name saying:

 " [...]

* A4395 Spectrum Units
Independetly by which unites are displayed by the A4395 spectrum analyzer on the screen, the data is saved in Watts/rtHz
"

That is not correct. The spectrum is just in Watts, since it gives the power over the bandwidth. The correspondent power spectral density is showed under the "Noise" measurement format and it's in Watts/Hz.
Watts/rtHz is not a correct unit.
  2779   Wed Apr 7 10:48:04 2010 AlbertoUpdateElectronicsREFL11 Noise Simulation
LISO simulations confirm the estimate of ~15nV for the noise of REFL11.
The largest contribution comes from the 50Ohm output resistor (Rs in the schematic below), the 450Ohm feedback resistor of the max4107 opamp stage; the 10KOhm resistor at the Test Input connector.
 
See attached plot.
 
(It's also all in the SVN, under https://nodus.ligo.caltech.edu:30889/svn/trunk/alberto/40mUpgrade/RFsystem/RFPDs/)
#
#                 gnd
#                 |
#                 Cw2
#                 |
#                 n23
#                 |
#                 Lw2
#                 |
#   gnd           n22
#   |             |
#   Rip           Rw2
#   |             |                   |\
#   nt- Rsi-n2- - - C2 - n3 -  - -  - |  \
#            |    |      |   |        |4106>-- n5 - Rs -- no                                                            
# iinput    Rd   L1     L2 R24    n6- |  /     |           |
#    |- nin- |    |      |   |    |   |/       |         Rload
#           Cd   n7     R22 gnd   |            |           |
#            |    |      |        | - - - R8 - -          gnd
#           gnd  R1     gnd      R7
#                 |               |
#                gnd             gnd
#
#
#
Attachment 1: rfpd11_testinput_noiseplot.pdf
rfpd11_testinput_noiseplot.pdf
  2781   Wed Apr 7 11:11:19 2010 AlbertoUpdateElectronicsREFL11 Noise Simulation

Quote:

What??? I don't see any gray trace of Rs in the plot. What are you talking about?

Anyway, if you are true, the circuit is bad as the noise should only be dominated by the thermal noise of the resonant circuit.

Quote:
LISO simulations confirm the estimate of ~15nV for the noise of REFL11.
The largest contribution comes from the output resistor (Rs in the schematic below).
See attached plot.

 

The colors in the plot were misleading.
Here's hopefully a better plot.
The dominant sources of noise are the resonant of the photodiode (~10Ohm), the max4107, the resistor in series to ground at the - input of the max4107.
Attachment 1: rfpd11_testinput_noiseplot.pdf
rfpd11_testinput_noiseplot.pdf
  2782   Thu Apr 8 10:17:52 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 Noise Vs Photocurrent

From the measurements of the 11 MHz RFPD at 11Mhz I estimated a transimpedance of about 750 Ohms. (See attached plot.)

The fit shown in the plot is: Vn = Vdn + sqrt(2*e*Idc) ; Vn=noise; Vdn=darknoise; e=electron charge; Idc=dc photocurrent

The estimate from the fit is 3-4 times off from my analsys of the circuit and from any LISO simulation. Likely at RF the contributions of the parassitic components of each element make a big difference. I'm going to improve the LISO model to account for that.

2010_04_05_REFL11_ShotnoiseVsPhotocurrent.png

The problem of the factor of 2 in the data turned out to be not a real one. Assuming that the dark noise at resonance is just Johnson's noise from the resonant circuit transimpedance underestimates the dark noise by 100%.

  2783   Thu Apr 8 10:24:33 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 Noise Vs Photocurrent

Quote:

From the measurements of the 11 MHz RFPD at 11Mhz I estimated a transimpedance of about 750 Ohms. (See attached plot.)

Putting my hands ahead, I know I could have taken more measurements around the 3dB point, but the 40m needs the PDs soon.

  2785   Fri Apr 9 06:45:28 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 Noise Vs Photocurrent

Quote:

Something must be wrong. 

1. Physical Unit is wrong for the second term of "Vn = Vdn + Sqrt(2 e Idc)"

2. Why does the fit go below the dark noise?

3. "Dark noise 4 +/- NaN nV/rtHz"   I can not accept this fitting.

Also apparently the data points are not enough.

 1) True. My bad. In my elog entry (but not in my fit code) I forgot the impedance Z= 750Ohm (as in the fit) of the resonant circuit in front of the square root: Vn = Vdn + Z * sqrt( 2 e Idc )

2) That is exactly the point I was raising! The measured dark noise at resonance is 2x what I expect.

3) I don't have uncertainties for the fit offset (that is, for the Dark Noise). The quick fit that I used (Matlab's Non Linear Least Squares method) doesn't provide 95% confidence bounds when I constrain the offset parameter the way I did (I forced it to be strictly positive).
Sure. It's not a very good fit. I just wanted to see how the data was going.

I also admitted that the data points were few, especially around the 3dB point.

Today I'm going to repeat the measurement with a new setup that lets me tune the light intensity more finely.

  2786   Sun Apr 11 13:51:04 2010 AlbertoOmnistructureComputersWhere are the laptops?

I can't find the DELL laptop anywhere in the lab. Does anyone know where it is?

Also one of the two netbooks is missing.

  2789   Mon Apr 12 16:20:05 2010 AlbertoConfiguration40m UpgradingREFL55 improved
During the commissioning of the AS55 PD, I learned how to get a much better rejection of the 11MHz modulation.
So I went back to REFL55 and I modified it using the same strategy. (Basically I added another notch to the circuit).
After a few days of continuous back and forth between modeling, measuring, soldering, tuning I got a much better transfer function.

All the details and data will be included in the wiki page (and so also the results for AS55). Here I just show the comparison of the transfer functions that I measured and that I modeled.

I applied an approximate calibration to the data so that all the measurements would refer to the transfer function of Vout / PD Photocurrent. Here's how they look like. (also the calibration will be explained in the wiki)

2010-04-12_REFL55_TF_model_to_meas_comparison.png.

The ratio between the amplitude of the 55Mhz modulation over the 11MHz is ~ 90dB

The electronics TF doesn't provide a faithful reproduction of the optical response.

  2790   Mon Apr 12 17:09:30 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingREFL11 Noise Vs Photocurrent

Quote:

Quote:
 

 1) True. My bad. In my elog entry (but not in my fit code) I forgot the impedance Z= 750Ohm (as in the fit) of the resonant circuit in front of the square root: Vn = Vdn + Z * sqrt( 2 e Idc )

2) That is exactly the point I was raising! The measured dark noise at resonance is 2x what I expect.

3) I don't have uncertainties for the fit offset (that is, for the Dark Noise). The quick fit that I used (Matlab's Non Linear Least Squares method) doesn't provide 95% confidence bounds when I constrain the offset parameter the way I did (I forced it to be strictly positive).
Sure. It's not a very good fit. I just wanted to see how the data was going.

I also admitted that the data points were few, especially around the 3dB point.

Today I'm going to repeat the measurement with a new setup that lets me tune the light intensity more finely.

 Here's another measurement of the noise of the REFL11 PD.

This time I made the fit constraining the Dark Noise. I realized that it didn't make much sense leaving it as a free coefficient: the dark noise is what it is.

2010-04-09_REFL11NoiseMeasurements.png

Result: the transimpedance of REFL11at 11 MHz is about 4000 Ohm.

Note:
This time, more properly, I refer to the transimpedance as the ratio between Vout @11Mhz / Photocurrent. In past entries I improperly called transimpedance the impedance of the circuit which resonates with the photodiode.
  2834   Thu Apr 22 21:42:24 2010 AlbertoUpdatePSLInnolight 2W Vertical Beam Profile

 

 What kind of fit did you use? How are the uncertainties in the parameters obtained?

  2856   Wed Apr 28 14:15:58 2010 AlbertoUpdateIOOMC alignment

 

 That's interesting.

Would it be possible to write about the technique on a wiki page as you get measurements and results?

  2874   Mon May 3 19:21:43 2010 AlbertoDAQEnvironmentBoot fest

[Alberto, Koji, Rana]

The RFM network failed today. We had to reboot the frame builder anf restart all the front end following the instructions for the "Nuclear Option".

Burt-restoring to May 1st at 18:07, or April 30 18:07 made c1sosvme crash. We had to reset the front ends again and restore to April 15th at 18:07 in order to make everything work.

Everything seems fine again now.

  2882   Wed May 5 16:32:39 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingNew REFL55 PD, 11MHz rejection

Here's the (calibrated) transimpedance of the new REFL55 PD.

T(55.3) / T_(11.06) = 93 dB

2010-05-05_REFL55_CalibratedOpticalResponse0-60MHz.png

  2886   Thu May 6 16:18:37 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingNew improved design for the 11MHz photodiode

After munching analytical models, simulations, measurements of photodiodes I think I got a better grasp of what we want from them, and how to get it. For instance I now know that we need a transimpedance of about 5000 V/A if we want them to be shot noise limited for ~mW of light power.

Adding 2-omega and f1/f2 notch filters complicates the issue, forcing to make trade-offs in the choice of the components (i.e., the Q of the notches)

Here's a better improved design of the 11Mhz PD.

Attachment 1: pox11.pdf
pox11.pdf
  2893   Thu May 6 19:57:26 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingNew improved design for the 11MHz photodiode

Quote:

After munching analytical models, simulations, measurements of photodiodes I think I got a better grasp of what we want from them, and how to get it. For instance I now know that we need a transimpedance of about 5000 V/A if we want them to be shot noise limited for ~mW of light power.

Adding 2-omega and f1/f2 notch filters complicates the issue, forcing to make trade-offs in the choice of the components (i.e., the Q of the notches)

Here's a better improved design of the 11Mhz PD.

 This should be better. It should also have larger resonance width.

Attachment 1: pox11.pdf
pox11.pdf
  2896   Fri May 7 18:18:02 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingNew improved design for the 11MHz photodiode

Quote:

How much is the width?

Quote:

 This should be better. It should also have larger resonance width.

 

 The transfer function phase drops by 180 degrees in about 2MHz. Is that a good way to measure the width?

  2902   Mon May 10 16:59:35 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingUnexpected oscilaltionin the POY11 PD

The measured transimpedance of the latest POY11 PD matches my model very well up to 100 MHz. But at about ~216MHz I have a resonance that I can't really explain.

2010-05-10_POY11_CalibratedOpticalResponse0-500MHz.png

 

 The following is a simplified illustration of the resonant circuit:

POX11.png

 

Perhaps my model misses that resonance because it doesn't include stray capacitances.

While I was tinkering with it, i noticed a couple of things:

- the frequency of that  oscillation changes by grasping with finger the last inductor of the circuit (the 55n above); that is adding inductance

- the RF probe of the scope clearly shows me the oscillation only after the 0.1u series capacitor

- adding a small capacitor in parallel to the feedback resistor of the output amplifier increases the frequency of the oscilaltion

  2906   Mon May 10 19:29:33 2010 AlbertoHowToElectronicsNew Focus 1811 PD calibrated against New Focus 1611 PD
I measured the output impedance of the New Focus 1611 PD (the 1GHz one) and it is 50 Ohm for both the DC and the AC output. It turns out that the transimpedance values listed on the datasheet are the following:
T1611_dc = 1e4 V/A (1MOhm referred)
T1611_ac = 700 V/A (50 Ohm)
The listed transimpedances for the 1811 PD (the 125 MHz PD) are the following:
T_dc = 1e3 V/A (??)
T1811_ac = 4e4 V/A (50 Ohm)
I measured the output impedances of the 1811 and they are: 50 Ohm for the AC output, ~10 Ohm for the DC output.
It's not clear which input impedance the DC transimpedance should be intended referred to.
So I measured the transimpedance of the 1811 using the 1611 as a (trusted) reference. It turns out that for the AC transimpedance to match the listed value, the DC transimpedance has to be the following:
T1811_dc = 1.7e3 V/A (1MOhm)
  2924   Wed May 12 17:10:16 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingRF frequency generation box - step 0

I started putting together the components that are coint to go inside the frequency generation box. Here's how it looked like:

DSC_1499_small.JPG

The single component are going to be mounted on a board that is going to sit on the bottom of the box.

I'm thinking whether to mount the components on an isolating board (like they did in GEO), or on an aluminum board.

I emailed Hartmut to know more details about his motivations on making that choice.

  2925   Wed May 12 23:31:17 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m Upgrading216 MHz resonance in the POY11 PD killed
It turned out that the resonance at 216 MHz in the 11MHz PD that I showed in the elog entry 2902 was casued by an instability of the of the MAX4107 opamap' feedback loop.
As the datasheet of the opamp shows, the close-loop gain has a peak at about 200-250MHz, in presence of even small capacitive loads.
In my case, perhaps either the capacitance of the BNC cables plugged to the RF output of the PD box, or the shunt capacitance of the circuit parts after the opamap (traces and resistors) might have introduced capacitance at the output of the amplifier.
 
LISO had failed in predicting the resonance because it has only ideal transfer functions of the opamps. In particular the open-loop gain of the opamaps in the library is just a function with a simple pole.
 
At RF frequencies the output impedances of the opamp starts having a non-negligible inductance that interacts with the load capacitance, generating a typical LC-circuit resonance.
 
In cases like this, such effect can be mitigated by introducing an "isolating" resistor at the output of the opamp.
 
So I did that and modified the circuit as in this simplified schematic here:
 
POX11.png
 

The choice of 100 Ohm for the isolating resistor was mainly empirical. I started with 10, then 20 and 50 until I got a sufficient suppression of the resonance. Even just 10Ohm suppressed the resonance by several tens of dB.

2010-05-12_POY11_CalibratedOpticalResponse0-500MHz.png

 

In that way the gain of the loop didn't change. Before that, I was also able to kill the resonance by just increasing the loop gain from 10 to 17.  But, I didn't want to increase the closed-loop gain.

One thing that I tried, on Koji's suggestion, was to try to connect the RF output of the PD box to an RF amplifier to see whether shielding the output from the cable capacitance would make the resonance disappear: It did not work.

  2966   Fri May 21 11:56:34 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m Upgrading40mUpgrade Field Power and RF Power Spectrum at the ports. 38m/38.55m arm length issue.

I update my old 40mUpgrade Optickle model, by adding the latest updates in the optical layout (mirror distances, main optics transmissivities, folding mirror transmissivities, etc). I also cleaned it from a lot of useless, Advanced LIGO features.

I calculated the expected power in the fields present at the main ports of the interferometer.

I repeated the calculations for both the arms-locked/arms-unlocked configurations. I used a new set of functions that I wrote which let me evaluate the field power and RF power anywhere in the IFO. (all in my SVN directory)

As in Koji's optical layout, I set the arm length to 38m and I found that at the SP port there was much more power that I woud expect at 44Mhz and 110 MHz.

It's not straightforward to identify unequivocally what is causing it (I have about 100 frequencies going around in the IFO), but presumably the measured power at 44MHz was from the beat between f1 an f2 (55-11=44MHz), and that at 110MHz was from the f2 first sidebands.

Here's what i found:

RFPower_locked_38m.png

RFPower_unlocked_38m.png

FieldPower_locked_38m.png

FieldPower_unlocked_38m.png

 

I found that When I set the arm length to 38.55m (the old 40m average arm length), the power at 44 and 110 MHz went significantly down. See here:

RFPower_3855m.png

 FieldPower_3855m.png

I checked the distances between all the frequencies circulating in the IFO from the closest arm resonance to them.

I found that the f2 and 2*f2 are two of the closest frequencies to the arm resonance (~80KHz). With a arm cavity finesse of 450, that shouldn't be a problem, though.

40mUpgrade_distanceFromResonance_38m.png

 I'll keep using the numbers I got to nail down the culprit.

Anyways, now the question is: what is the design length of the arms? Because if it is really 38m rather than 38.55m, then maybe we should change it back to the old values.

  2969   Fri May 21 16:27:45 2010 AlbertoOmnistructureEnvironmentThe control room is molding...

... not just because we haven't locked the interferometer for quite some time. I mean, it literally stinks. The chiller's chiller is molding. Its' dripping water and there's mold all under it (Jo just confirmed: "yeah, it's mold").

Someone from Caltech maintenance just crossed the door. Hopefully he'll help us fix it.

I'll keep you updated. Stay tuned.

  2994   Wed May 26 17:10:09 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingRF Generation box

This is how the RF generation box might soon look like:

Visio-frequencyGenerationBox_wiringSchematic.png

A dedicated wiki page shows the state of the work:

http://lhocds.ligo-wa.caltech.edu:8000/40m/Upgrade_09/RF_System/frequency_generation_box#preview

  2996   Wed May 26 22:22:03 2010 AlbertoConfiguration40m UpgradingArm cavity length

The second sideband is resonant in the arms for a cavity length of 37.9299m.

The nearest antiresonant arm lengths for f2 (55MHz) are 36.5753m and 39.2845m.

If we don't touch the ITMs, and we use the room we still have now on the end tables, we can get to 37.5m.

This is how the power spectrum at REFL would look like for perfect antiresonance:

reflRFpowerVsArmLength_3658m.png

And this is how it looks like for 37.5m:

reflRFpowerVsArmLength_3750m.png

Or, god forbid, we change the modulation frequencies...

  3001   Thu May 27 12:52:02 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingArm lengths


For both sidebands to be antiresonant in the arms, the first modulation frequency has to be:

f1 = (n + 1/2) c / (2*L)

where L is the arm length and c the speed of light.  For L=38m, we pick to cases: n=3,  then f1a = 13.806231 MHz;  n=2, then f1b = 9.861594 MHz.

If we go for f1a, then the mode cleaner half length has to change to 10.857m.  If we go for f1b, the MC length goes to 15.200m. A 2 meter change from the current length either way.

And the mode cleaner would only be the first of a long list of things that would have to change. Then it would be the turn of the recycling cavities.

Kind of a big deal.

  3004   Fri May 28 07:13:05 2010 AlbertoFrogsGreen LockingSR785 found abandoned next to the workbenches

A poor lonely SR785 was found this morning roaming around in the lab in evident violation of the fundamental rule which requires all the equipment on carts to be brought back inside the lab right after use.

The people and the professors related to the case should take immediate action to repair for their misdeed.

  3012   Fri May 28 21:32:32 2010 AlbertoUpdate40m UpgradingMC alignment

[Alberto, Kiwamu, Kevin, Rana]

Today we tried to measured the beam shape after the MC MMT1 that Jenne installed on the BS table.

The beam scan showed a clipped spot. We tracked it down to the Farady and the MCT pickoff mirror.

The beam was getting clipped at the exit of the Faraday. But it was also clipping the edge of the MCT pick-off mirror. I moved the mirror.

Also the beam looked off-center on MC2.

We're coming back on Sunday to keep working on this.

Now things are bad.

  3015   Sun May 30 15:33:21 2010 AlbertoConfigurationIOOmode cleaner and air conditioning

The mode cleaner is locked and the air conditioning is full on. So the the air conditioning doesn't seem to be so important for the lock to hold.

  3016   Sun May 30 15:36:22 2010 AlbertoConfigurationPSLIMC periscope shutter

Two days ago I opened the PSL shutter by switching the switch on the shutter driver. That caused the shutter's switch on the medm screen to work in reversed mode: open meant closed and closed meant open.

I fixed that. Now the medm screen switch state is correct.

  3026   Tue Jun 1 16:29:51 2010 AlbertoUpdateIOOMC transmitted beam aligned to the Faraday; next things to do

We moved the MC-trans pick-off mirror (= the beam splitter between the input of the Faraday and the steering mirror located right after MC3). Now the beam goes through the Farady without getting clipped.

This is the list of the things that have to be done next:

  1. take pictures of the beam spot just before and after the Faraday
  2. lock down to the table the MCTrans pickoff mirror with its screws
  3. measure the beam profile after the first MC telescope mirror (MMT1)
  4. remove Jenne's extra steering mirror from the MC table
  5. re-level the MC table with the bubble level
  6. align the MC-trans beam to its photodiode on the PSL table
  7. align the REFL beam to its photodiode on the AP table
  3053   Mon Jun 7 07:39:38 2010 AlbertoOmnistructureElectronicsCapacitor Bridge Test

Quote:

To get a feel for the Capacitive Bridge problems, we setup a simple bridge using fixed (1 nF) caps on a breadboard. We used an SR830 Lock-In amplifier to drive it and readout the noise.

The measurement setup for the Capacitor Bridge Test is still sitting on one of the work benches.

Unless the experiment is supposed to continue today, the equipment shouldn't have been left on the bench. It should have been  taken back to the lab.

Also the cart with HP network analyzer used for the test was left in the desk area. That shouldn't have left floating around in the desk area anyway.

The people responsible for that, are kindly invited to clean up after themselves.

  3062   Thu Jun 10 07:53:14 2010 AlbertoUpdatePEMLaTeXlabs

Quote:

BTW, latex launched this new thing for writing pdfs. doesnot require any installations.  check  http://docs.latexlab.org

 so cool!

ELOG V3.1.3-