For all the loops where we drive the NPRO PZT, there is some notch/resonance feature due to the PZT mechanical resonance. In the IMC loop this limits the PZT/EOM crossove to be less than 25 kHz. I don't have a model for this, btu it should be included.
If you hunt through the elogs, people have measured the TF of ALS NPRO PZT to phase/frequency. Probably there's also a measured ALS PDH loop somewhere that you could use to verify your model.
The only two PZT Phase modulation transfer function measurements I could find are 40m/15206 and 40m/12077. Both these measurements were made to find a good modulation frequency and do not go below 50 kHz. So I don't think these will help us. We'll have to do a frequency transfer function measurement at lower frequencies.
I'm still looking for ALS PDH loop measurements to verify the model. I found this 40m/15059 but it is only near the UGF. The UGF measured here though looks very similar to the model prediction. A bit older measurement in 2017 was this 40m/13238 where I assume by ALS OLTF gautum meant the green laser PDH OLTF. It had similar UGF but the model I have has more phase lag, probably because of a 31.5 kHz pole which comes at U7 through the input low pass coupling through R28, C20 and R29 (See D1400293)
If the green laser is not being used, can I go and take some of these measurements myself?
Koji recommended that I can add whitening filters to suppress ADC noise easily. I added a filter before ADC in ALS loop with 4 zeros at 1.5 Hz and 4 poles at 100 Hz and added a reversed filter in the digital filter of ALS. This did not change the performance of the loop but significantly reduced the contribution of ADC noise above 1 Hz. One can see ALS_controls.yaml for the filter description. Please let me know if this does not make sense or there is something that I have overlooked.
Now, the dominant noise source is DFD noise below 100 Hz and green laser frequency noise above that. For DFD noise, I used data dating back to Kiwamu's paper. The noise contribution from DFD in the model is lower than the latest measured ALS noise budget post on elog. I'll look further into design details and noise of DFD.
Code, data, and schematics
I want to get back to locking the interferometer so I can test out the newly installed AS WFS. However, the ALS noise is far too high, at least the transition of arm length control from IR to ALS fails reliably with the same settings that worked so reliably previously. I worked on investigating it a bit today.
In the latter half of last year, I was focused on the air-BHD setup, so I wasn't checking in on the ALS noise as regularly.
All tests are done with the arm cavity length locked to the PSL frequency using POX. Then, the EX laser is locked to the arm cavity length using the AUX PDH servo. The fluctuations in the beatnote between the two lasers is what is monitored as a diagnostic. See Attachment #1. The reference traces in the top pane are from a known good time. The large excess noise between ~80-200 Hz is what I'm concerned about.
A separate issue that can improve the noise is to track down the noise in the 20-80 Hz band - probably some IMC frequency noise issue.
See Attachment #2.
So what could it be? The only things I can think of are (i) the beat mouth photodiode (NF1611) or (ii) excess noise in the fiber carrying the light from EX to the PSL table (but only on this fiber, and not on the EY fiber). Both seem remote to me - I'll test the former by switching the EX and EY fiber inputs to the beat mouth, but apart from this, I'm out of ideas...
To avoid this kind of issue, we should really have scripted locks of all the basic IFO configs and record the data to summary pages or something - maybe something to do once Guardian is installed, it'd be pretty hacky to do cleanly with shell scripts.
I'm also wondering why the error monitors for the X and Y loops report such wildly different spectra for the suppressed frequency noise of the AUX laser relative to the cavity length, see Attachment #1. The y-axis should be approximately Hz/rtHz. In both cases, the servo's error point monitor is connected to the DAQ system via a G=10 SR560. With the SR785, I measure for EX a nice bucket-shaped spectrum, bottoming out at ~10 uV/rtHz around 40 Hz, see Attachment #2. The SR560 should have an input-referred noise much less than this at the G=10 setting. The ADC noise level is only ~5 uV/rtHz, and indeed, the EY spectrum shows the expected shape. So what's up with the EX error mon? Tried swapping out the SR560 for a different unit, no change. And both the SR560 noise, and the ADC noise, check out when everything is checked individually. So some kind of interaction once everything is connected together, but it's only present at EX...
Today, I tried switching the EX and EY fibers going into the beat mouth, but I preserved the channel mapping after the beat mouth by switching the electrical outputs as well (the goal was to make sure that the beat photodiodes weren't the issue here, I think the electronics are already exonerated since driving the channel with a Marconi doesn't produce these noisy features). The EX spectrum remains noisy. I've switched everything back to the nominal configuration now to avoid further confusion. So it would appeat that this is real frequency noise that gets added in the EX fiber somehow. What can I do to fix this? The source of coupling isn't at the PSL table, else the EY channel would also show similar features. Visually, nothing seems wrong to me at EX either. So the problem is somehow in the cable tray along which the 40m of fiber is routed? This is already inside some nice foam/tubing setup, what can be done to improve it? Still doesn't explain why it suddenly became noisy...
How about resurrecting the PSL table green beat for the X arm to see if the non-fiber setup shows the same level of the freq noise (e.g. the PDH locking became super noisy due to misalignment etc).
I thought about it, but wouldn't that show up at the AUX PDH error point? Or because the loop gain is so high there we wouldn't see a small excess? I suppose there could be some clipping on the Faraday or something like that. But the GTRX level and the green REFL DC level when locked are nominal.
If the sensing noise level of the end PDH degraded for some reason, it'd make the out of loop stability worse without making the end pdh error level degraded.
It's just speculation.
I did this test today. The excess noise around 100 Hz doesn't show up in the green beat.
See Attachment #1. The setup was as usual:
So, this excess appears to truly be excess phase noise on the fiber (though I have no idea what the actual mechanicsm could be or what changed between Aug and Oct 2020 that could explain it. Maybe the HEPA?
For this work, I had to spend some time aligning the two green beams onto the beat photodiode. During this time, I shuttered the PSL, disabled feedback via the FSS servo, turned the HEPA high, and kept the EX green locked to the arm so as to have a somewhat stable beat signal I could maximize. Everything has been returned to nominal settings now (obviously, since I locked the arms to get the data).
You may ask, why do we care. In terms of RMS frequency noise, it would appear that this excess shouldn't matter. But in all my trials so far, I've been unable to transition control of the arm cavity lengths from POX/POY to ALS. I suppose we could try using the green beat, but that has excess low frequency noise (which was the whole point of the fiber coupled setup).
I see no evidence of anything radically different from my PSL table optical characterization in the IMC transmitted beam, see Attachment #1. The lines are just a quick indicator of what's what and no sophisticated peak fitting has been done yet (so the apparent offset between the transmission peaks and some of the vertical lines are just artefacts of my rough calibration I believe). The modulation depths recovered from this scan are in good agreement with what I report in the linked elog, ~0.19 for f1 and ~0.24 for f2. On the bright side, the ALS just worked and didn't require any electronics fudgery from me. So the mystery continues.
Here is our first attempt at a single-arm noise budget for ALS.
Attachment 1 shows the loop diagram we used to calculate the contribution of different noises.
Attachment 2 shows the measured noise at C1:ALS-BEATX_PHASE_FINE_OUT_HZ when XARM was locked to the main laser and Xend Green laser was locked to XARM.
Here's an updated X ARM ALS noise budget.
I attempted a single arm actuation calibration using IR beatnote (in the directions of soCal idea for DARM calibration)
Rana suggested in today's meeting to put in a notch filter in the XARM IR PDH loop to avoid suppressing the excitation line. We tried this today first with just one notch at 1069 Hz and then with an additional notch at 619 Hz and sent two simultaneous excitations.
We attempted to simulate "oscillator based realtime calibration noise monitoring" in offline analysis with python. This helped us in finding about a factor of sqrt(2) that we were missing earlier in 16171. we measured C1:ALS-BEATX_FINE_PHASE_OUT_HZ_DQ when X-ARM was locked to main laser and Xend green laser was locked to XARM. An excitation signal of amplitude 600 was setn at 619 hz at C1:ITMX_LSC_EXC.
We got a value of . The calibration factor in use is from nm/cts from 13984.
Next steps could be to budget this noise while we setup some way of having this calibration factor generated in realitime using oscillators on a FE model. Calibrating actuation of a single optic in a single arm is easy, so this is a good test setup for getting a noise budget of this calibration method.
We did a quick check to make sure there is no saturation in the C1:SUS-ITMX_LSC_EXC analog path. For this, we looked at the SOS driver output monitors from the 1X4 chassis near MC2 on a scope. We found that even with 600 x 10 = 6000 counts of our 619 Hz excitation these outputs in particular are not saturating (highest mon signal was UL coil with 5.2 Vpp). In comparison, the calibration trials we have done before had 600 counts of amplitude, so we can safely increase our oscillator strength by that much
Things that remain to be investigated -->
I did this analysis again by just doing demodulation go 5s time segments of the 60s excitation signal. The major difference is that I was not summing up the sine-cosine multiplied signals, so the error associated was a lot more. If I simply multpy the whole beatnote signal with digital LO created at excitation frequency, divide it up in 12 segments of 5 s each, sum them up individually, then take the mean and standard deviation, I get the answer as:
as opposed to that was calculated using MICH signal earlier by gautum in 13984.
Attachment 1 shows the scatter plot for the complex calibration factors found for the 12 segments.
My aim in the previous post was however to get a time series of the complex calibration factor from which I can take a noise spectral density measurement of the calibration. I'll still look into how I can do that. I'll have to add a low pass filter to integrate the signal. Then the noise spectrum up to the low pass pole frequency would be available. But what would this noise spectrum really mean? I still have to think a bit about it. I'll put another post soon.
It was known that the Y end ALS PZTs are not working. But Anchal reported in the meeting that the X end PZTs are not working too.
We went down to the X arm in the afternoon and checked the status. The HV (KEPCO) was off from the mechanical switch. I don't know this KEPCO has the function to shutdown the switch at the power glitch or not.
But anyway the power switch was engaged. We also saw a large amount of misalignment of the X end green. The alignment was manually adjusted. Anchal was able to reach ~0.4 Green TRX, but no more. He claimed that it was ~0.8.
We tried to tweak the SHG temp from 36.4. We found that the TRX had the (local) maximum of ~0.48 at 37.1 degC. This is the new setpoint right now.
I've disabled the alarm for PEM_count_half, using the mask in the 40m.alhConfig file. We can't do anything about it, and it's just annoying.
I turned the StripTool and ALARMS and BLRMS back on on op540m. Looks like it has been rebooted 5 days ago and no one turned these back on. Also, there was a bunch of junk strewn around its keyboard which I restrained myself from throwing in the trash.
The BLRMS trends should be active now.
A small rat / large mouse just ran through the control room. Ugh.
Fire alarm went off several minutes ago. Talked to security and they said there was no fire. It beeped twice again just now. No one has been working on the IFO today.
The fire alarm came on around 15:05 for about 2-3 minutes. We all left the lab and counted heads. I called Paul Mackel x2646 (cell 626/ 890- 3259) at Fire Protection Services. He said that this alarm test was planned and we should of got an email notice. Perhaps I missed that notes.
It is posted at the 40m wiki with Gautam' help. Printed copies posted around doors also.
There was an alarm sound from the Smart-UPS 2200 sitting under the workstation. I see that the 'replace battery' light is red, and this elog tells me that these batteries are replaced every ~1-4 years; the last replacement was march 2016. Holding down the 'test' button for 2-3 seconds results in the alarm sound and does not clear the replace battery indicator.
In the revival of the experiement length measurement for the recycling cavities, I turned the auxiliary NPRO back on. The shutter is closed.
I also recollected all the equipment of the experiment after that during the summer it had been scattered around the lab to be used for other purposes (Joe and Zach's cameras and Stephanie and Koji's work with the new EOM).
I'm working on the PSL table to set up the PLL setup for the AbsL experiment.
I turned the auxialiary NPRO for the AbsL Experiment on. Its shutter stays closed.
Aligning the beam for the PLL of the AbsL Experiement I rotated the polarizer along the path of the MC Input pick off beam (= the pick off coming from the MC periscope).
I've been trying to lock the PLL for the AbsL Experiment but I can't see the beat (between the auxiliary NPRO and the PSL).
I believe the alignment of the PLL is not good. The Farady Isolator is definitely not perfectly aligned (you can see it from the beam spot after it) but still it should be enough to see something at the PLL PD.
it's probably just that the two beams don't overlap well enough on the photodiode. I'll work on that later on.
I'm leaving the lab now. I left the auxiliary NPRO on but I closed its shutter.
All the flipping mirrors are down.
I've opened the AP table and I'm working on it.
I re-aligned the Faraday on the AP table. I also aligned the beam to the periscope on the PSL and all the other optics along the beam path. Now I have a nice NPRO beam at the PLL which overlaps with the PSL beam. The alignment has to be further improved because I see no beat yet.
I wonder if the all the tinkering on the PSL laser done recently to revive the power has changed the PSL NPRO temperature and so its frequency. That could also explain why the beat doesn't show up at the same temperature of the NPRO as I used to operate it. Although I scanned the NPRO temperature +/- 2 deg and didn't see the beat. So maybe the misalignment is the casue.
Not feeling very well right now. I need to go home for a while.
AP table closed at the moment.
NPRO shutter closed
I re-aligned the Faraday on the AP table. I also aligned the beam to the periscope on the PSL and all the other optics along the beam path. Now I have a nice NPRO beam at the PLL which overlaps with the PSL beam. The alignment has to be further improved becasue I see no beat yet.
I wonder if the all the tinkering on the PSL laser done recently to revive the power have changed the PSL NPRO temperature and so its frequency. That could also explain why the beat doesn't show up at the same temperature of the NPRO as I used to operate it. Although I scanned the NPRO temperature +/- 2 deg and didn't see the beat. So maybe the misalignment is the casue.
We definitely changed the PSL NPRO temp while fiddling around, trying to increase the laser power. I think it's noted in the elog both times that it's happened in the last few months (once when Rana, Koji and I worked on it, and then again when it was just Koji), but we opened up the side of the MOPA box so that we could get at (and change) the potentiometer which adjusts the NPRO temp. So you may have to search around for a while.
Yes it did.
For long time, the crystal temperature C1:PSL-126MOPA_LTMP was 43~46deg. Now it is 34deg. Try ~10deg lower temperature.
I wonder if the all the tinkering on the PSL laser done recently to revive the power have changed the PSL NPRO temperature and so its frequency. That could also explain why the beat doesn't show up at the same temperature of the NPRO as I used to operate it. Although I scanned the NPRO temperature +/- 2 deg and didn't see the beat.
Also auxiliary NPRO turned on and mechanical shutter opened.
Beat found at 30MHz with auxiliary NPRO temperature of 37.19 degrees, vs. ~48 deg as it used to be.
The beat is small (-70dBm). PLL alignment has to be improved.
PLL alignment improved. Beat amplitude = -10dBm. Good enough.
DC readouts at the PLL photodiode:
V_NPRO = -4.44V
V_PSL = -3.76V
The NPRO beam is attenuated by a N.D.=1 attenuator just before going to the photodiode.
Something strange happened at the last. Right before -10dBm, the amplitude of the beat was about -33dBm. Then I was checking the two interfering beams with the IR card and saw that they overlapped quite well. I then turned my head back to the spectrum analyzer and suddenly the beat was at -10dBm. Not only, but a bunch of new peaks had appeared on the spectrum. Either I inadvertently hit the PD moving it to a better position or something else happened.
Like if someone was making some other modulation on the beam or the modulation depth of the PSL's sidebands had gone up.
I locked the PLL and made some first measuremtns of the spectrum of the error signal. I'll post them later.
I closed the shutter of the NPRO.
I'm working on the AP table. I also opened the auxiliary NPRO shutter. The auxiliary beam is on its path on the AP table and PSL table.
Closing the AP table and the NPRO shutter now.
Last night something happened on the beat between the PSL beam and the auxiliary NPRO beam, that spoiled the quality of the beating I had before. As a result the PLL has become unable to lock the two lasers.
The amplitude of the beat at the spectrum analyzer has gone down to -40 dBm from -10 that it was earlier. The frequency has also become more unstable so that now it can be seen writhing within tens of KHz.
Meanwhile the power of the single beams at the PLL photodiode hasn't changed, suggesting that the alignment of the two beam didn't change much.
Changes in the efficiency of the beating between the two beams are not unusual. Although that typically affects only the amplitude of the beat and wouldn't explain why also its frequency has become unstable. Tuning the alignment of the PLL optics usually brings the amplitude back, but it was uneffective today.
It looks like something changed in either one of the two beams. In particular the frequency of one of the two lasers has become less stable.
Another strange thing that I've been observing is that the amplitude of the beat goes down (several dBm) as the beat frequency is pushed below 50 MHz. Under 10 MHz it even gets to about -60 dBm.
I noticed the change yesterday evening at about 6pm, while I was taking measurements of the PLL open loop tranfer function and everything was fine. I don't know whether it is just a coincidence or it is somehow related to this, but Jenne and Sanjit had then just rebooted the frame builder.
I confirm what I said earlier. The amplitude of the beat is -10 dBm at 300MHz. It goes down at lower frequencies. In particular it gets to-60 dBm below 20 MHz. For some strange reason that I couldn't explain the beating efficiency has become poorer at low frequencies.
NPRO shutter closed
Problem found. Inspecting with Koji we found that there was a broken SMA-to-BNC connector in the BNC cable from the photodiode.
I measured the open loop gain of the PLL in the AbsL experiment.
I repeated the measurement twice: one with gain knob on the universal PDH box g=3.0; the second measurement with g=6.0
The UGF were 60 KHz and 100 KHz, respectively.
That means that one turn of the knob equals to about +10 dB.
I closed the shutter of the NPRO for the night.