I found (an old) 10 dB coupler in the RF component shelves near MC2 - it has BNC connectors and not SMA connectors, but I thought it would be worth it to switch out the 20dB coupler currently on the X green beat PD on the PSL table with it. I used some BNC to SMA adaptors for this purpose. It appears that the coupler works, because I am now able to register an input signal on the X arm channel of the digital frequency counter (i.e. the coupled output from the green beat PD). I thought it may be useful to have this in place and do an IR transmissions arm scan using ALS for the X arm as well, in order to compare the results with those discussed here. However, the beat note amplitude on the analyzer in the control room looks noticeably lower - I am not sure if the coupler is responsible for this or if it has to do with the problems we have been having with the X end laser (the green transmission doesn't look glitchy on striptool though, and the transmission itself is ~0.45). In any case, we could always remove the coupler if this is hindering locking efforts tonight.
I began my attempts to characterize the PDH loops at the X end today. My goal was to make the following measurements:
which I can then put into my simulink noise-budget scheme for the proposed IR beat setup.
I've made an Optickle model of a simple FP cavity and intend to match the measured PDH error signal from the X end to the simulated error signal to get the Hz/V calibration. I'll put the plots up for these shortly.
With regards to the other measurements, I was slowed down by remote data-acquisition from the SR785 - I've only managed to collect the analyzer noise floor data, and I plan to continue these measurements during the day tomorrow.
Over the course of my investigations into the systematic errors in the frequency readout using digital frequency counting, I noticed that my counter variable that keeps track of the number of clock cycles between successive zero crossings was NOT oscillating between 2 values as I would have expected (because of there being a +/- 1 clock cycle difference between successive zero crossings due to the fixed sampling time of 1/16384 seconds), but that there were occassional excursions to values that were +/- 3 clock cycles away. I then checked the output of the SCHMITTTRIGGER CDS library part (which I was using to provide some noise immunity), and noticed that it wasn't triggering on every zero crossing at higher frequencies. I tested this by hooking up a digital oscillator to the SCHMITTTRIGGER part, and looked at its output for different frequencies. The parameters used were as follows:
SCHMITTTRIGGER lower threshold: -1.0
SCHMITTTRIGGER upper threshold: +1.0
I am attaching plots for two frequencies, 3000Hz and 4628Hz (Attachments #1 and #2) . I would have expected a flip in the state of the output of the schmitt trigger between every pair of horizontal red lines in this plot, but at 4628 Hz, it looks like the schmitt trigger isn't catching some of the zero crossings? Come to think of it, I am not even sure why the output of the schmitt trigger takes on any values other than 0 or 1 (could this be an artefact of some sort of interpolation in the visualization of these plots? But this would not affect the conclusion about the schmitt trigger missing some of the zero crossings?)
As an interim measure, I implemented a Schmitt trigger in my C code block - it was just a couple of extra lines anyways - I have designated the schmitt trigger output as a static variable that should hold its value in successive execution cycles, unless it is updated by comparing the input value to the thresholds (code attached for reference). Attachments #3 and #4 show the output of this implementation of a Schmitt trigger at the same two frequencies, and I am seeing the expected flip in the state between successive zero crossings as expected (though I'm still not sure why it takes on values other than 0 and 1?). Anyways this warrants further investigation. An elog regarding the implications of this on the systematic error in the frequency counter readout to follow.
I was trying to take a few more IR transmission scans with ALS when the ETMX got kicked again. I'm not sure how to fix this, so for the time being, I'm leaving the Oplev servo and the LSC turned off. The oplev spot looks really far off center especially in yaw, the yaw error is ~ -80.
The oplev and the LSC are off.
While the ETMx issues are being investigated - with Eric's help, I took some data from arm scans of the Y arm through ~2FSRs using ALS. I've also collected the data from the frequency counter readout during these scans but since they were done rather fast (over 60seconds), I am not sure how accurate this data will be. The idea however is to use the frequency readout from the phase tracker - this has to be linearized though, which I will do during the daytime tomorrow. The plan is to use our GPS timing unit to synchronize the following chain :
GPS timing unit 1PPS out --> FS725 Rb Clock 1PPS in (I recovered one which was borrowed from the 40m some time ago from the ATF lab yesterday evening, waiting for it to lock to the Rb clock now)
FS725 Rb Clock 10 MHz out --> Fluke 6061A 10MHz reference in
FS725 Rb Clock 10 MHz out-->agilent network analyzer 10MHz reference in (for measurement of the frequency of the signal output from the Fluke RF signal generator independent of its front panel display)
Then I plan to look at the phase tracker output as a function of the driving frequency (which will also be measured, offline, using the digital frequency counter setup) over a range of 20 MHz - 50 MHz in steps of 1 MHz. Results to follow.
Earlier tonight, Eric and I tweaked the PMC alignment (the mode cleaner was not staying locked for more than a couple of minutes, for almost an hour).
I've made a few more changes to the frequency counting code - these are mostly details and the algorithm is essentially unchanged.
The other thing that came up in the meeting last week was this issue of the systematic errors in the measured frequency, and how it was always over-estimating the 'actual' frequency. I've been investigating the origin of this over the last few days, and think I've found an explanation. But first, Attachment #1 shows why there is a systematic error in the first place - because we are counting the period of the input signal in terms of clock cycles, which can only take on discrete, integer values, we expect this number to fluctuate between the two integers bounding the 'true value'. So, if I'm trying to measure an input signal of 3000Hz, I would measure its period as either 5 or 6 clock cycles, while the "true" value should be 5.4613 clock cycles. In attachment #1, I've plotted the actual measured frequency and the measured frequency if we always undercounted/overcounted to the nearest integer clock cycles, as functions of the requested frequency. So the observed systematic error is consistent with what is to be expected.
The reason why this doesn't average out to zero is shown in Attachment #2. In order to investigate this further, I recorded some additional diagnostic variables. If I were to average the period (in terms of clock cycles - i.e. I look for the peaks in the blue cuve, add them up, and divide by the number of peaks), I find that I can recover the expected period in terms of clock cycles pretty accurately. However, the way the code is set up at the moment, the c code block outputs a value every 1/16384 seconds (red curve) - but this is only updated each time I detect a zero crossing - and as a result, if I average this, I am in effect performing some sort of weighted average that distorts the true ratio of the number of times each integer clock-cycle-period is observed. This is the origin on the systematic error, and is a function of the relative frequency each of the two integer values of the clock-cycle-period occurs, which explains why the systematic error was a function of the requested frequency as seen in Attachment #1, and not a constant offset.
At the frequencies I investigated (10-70MHz in 5MHz steps), the maximum systematic error was ~1%.
Is there a fix?
I've been reading up a bit on the two approaches to frequency counting - direct and reciprocal. My algorithm is the latter, which is generally regarded as the more precise of the two. However, in both these approaches, there is a parameter known as the 'gate-time': this is effectively how long a frequency counter measures for before outputting a value. In the current approach, the gate time is effectively 1/16384 seconds. I would think that it is perhaps possible to eliminate the systematic error by setting the gate time to something like 0.25 seconds, and within the gate time, do an average of the total number of periods measured. Something like 0.25 seconds should be long enough that if, within the window, we do the averaging, and between windows, we hold the averaged value, the systematic error could be eliminated. I will give this a try tomorrow. This would be different from the moving average approach already explored in that within the gate-time, I would perform the average only using those datapoints where the 'running counter variable' shown in Attachment #2 is reset to zero - this way, I avoid the artificial weighting that is an artefact of spitting out a value every clock cycle.
I performed a preliminary calibration of the X and Y phase trackers, and found that the slopes of a linear fit of phase tracker output as a function of driven frequency (as measured with digital frequency counter) are 0.7886 +/- 0.0016 and 0.9630 +/- 0.0012 respectively (see Attachments #1 and #2). Based on this, the EPICS calibration constants have been updated. The data used for calibration has also been uploaded (Attachment #4).
I found that by adopting the approach I suggested as a fix in elog 11736, and setting a gate time of 1second, I could eliminate the systematic bias in measured frequency I had been seeing, the origin of which is also discussed in elog 11736. This was verified by using a digital oscillator to supply the input to the frequency counting block, and verifying that I could recover the driving frequency without any systematic bias. Therefore, I used this as a measure of the driving frequency independent of the front panel display of the Fluke 6061A.
The actual calibration was done as follows:
Y-arm transmission scan
I used the information from Attachment #2 to calibrate the X-axis of the Y-arm transmission data I collected on Wednesday evening. Looking at the beat frequency on the analyzer in the control room, between 24 and 47 MHz (green beat frequency, within the range the calibration was done over), we saw three IR resonances. I've marked these peaks, and also the 11MHz sideband resonances, in Attachment #3. It remains to fit the various peaks. I did a quick calculation of the FSR, and the number I got using these 3 peaks is 3.9703 +/- 0.0049 MHz. This value is ~23 kHz greater than that reported in elog 9804, but the error is also ~4 times greater (6 IR resonances were scanned in elog 9804) so I think these measurements are consistent.
I had brought an FS725 Rubidium clock back from W Bridge - the idea was to hook this up to the GPS 1PPS output, and use the 10MHz output from the FS725 as the reference for the fluke 6061A. However, the FS725 has not locked to the Rb frequency even though it has been left powered on for ~2days now. Do I have to do something else to get it to lock? The manual says that it should lock within 7 minutes of being powered on. Once this is locked, I can repeat the calibration with an 'absolute' frequency source...
There are two modulation frequencies that make it to the arm cavities, at ~11MHz and ~55MHz. Each of these will have their own modulation depth indepedent of each other. Bundling them together into one number doesn't tell us what's really going on.
As an update to Yutaro's earlier post - I've done an independent study of this data, doing the fitting with MATLAB, and trying to estimate (i) the FSR, (ii) the mode matching efficienct, and (iii) the modulation depths at 11MHz and 55MHz.
The values I've obtained are as follows:
FSR = 3.9704 MHz +/- 17 kHz
Mode matching efficiency = 92.59 % (TEM00 = 1, TEM10 = 0.0325, TEM20 = 0.0475)
Modulation depth at 11MHz = 0.179
Modulation depth at 55MHz = 0.131
Misc Remarks and Conclusions:
After thinking about the interpretation of the various peaks seen in the scan through 2 FSRs, I have revised the information presented in the previous elog. Yutaro pointed out that the modulation frequency isn't exactly 11MHz, but according to this elog, is 11.066209 MHz. So instead of using mod(11e6,FSR), I really should have been using mod(11.066209,FSR) and mod(5*11.066209,FSR) to locate the positions of the 11MHz and 55MHz sidebands relative to the carrier resonances. With this correction, the 'unknown' peaks identified in Attachment #1 in elog 11743 are in fact the 55MHz sideband resonances.
However, this means that the peaks which were previously identified as 55MHz sideband resonances have to be interpreted now - I'm having trouble identifying these. If we assume that the types of peaks present in the scan are 11 MHz sideband, 55MHz sideband, and the TEM00, TEM10, TEM20, TEM30, and TEM40 mode resonances, then the peaks marked in grey in Attachment #1 to this elog can be interpreted as TEM30 (right of a carrier resonance) and TEM40 (left of a carrier resonance) mode resonances - however, the fitted center frequencies differ from the expected center frequencies (determined using the same method as elog 469) by ~3% (for TEM30) and ~20% (for TEM40) - therefore I am skeptical about these peaks, particularly the 4th HOM resonances. In any case, they are the smallest of all the peaks, and any correction due to them will be small.
The updated modulation depths are as follows (computed using the same method as described in elog 11743, the updated plot showing the ratio of bessel functions as a function of the modulation depth is Attachment #2 in this elog):
@11.066209 MHz ---- 0.179
@5*11.066209 MHz --- 0.226
These numbers are now reasonably consistent with those reported in elog10211.
As for the mode-matching efficiency, the overall number is almost unchanged if I assume the TEM30 peaks are accurately interpreted: 92.11%. But the dominant HOM contribution comes from the first HOM resonance: (TEM00 = 1, TEM20 = 0.0325, TEM10 = 0.0475, TEM30 = 0.0056). These numbers may change slightly if the 4th HOM resonances are also correctly identified.
ETMx is still not well behaved and the mode cleaner isnt too happy either, so I think we will save the measurement of the round trip arm loss for daytime tomorrow.
In the last few days, with Koji's help, I have recovered both the FS725 Rubidium references from W. Bridge, one from the ATF lab, and one from the CTN lab. Both are back at the 40m at the moment.
However, the one that was recovered from the ATF lab is no longer locking to the Rubidium reference frequency, although it was locked at the time we disconnected it from the ATF lab. I emailed the support staff at SRS, who seem to think that either the internal oscillator has drifted too far, or the Rb lamp is dead. Either ways, it needs to be repaired. They suggested that I run a check by issuing some serial commands to the unit to determine which of these is actually the problem, but I've been having some trouble setting up the serial link - I will try this again tomorrow. I'm also having trouble generating an RMA number that is needed to start the repair/maintenance process, but I've emailed SRS support again and hope to hear back from them soon.
The other FS725, recovered from the CTN lab earlier today, seems to work fine and is locked to the Rb reference at the moment. I plan to redo the calibration of the phase tracker with an 'absolute' frequency reference with the help of the FS725 and out GPS timing unit tomorrow. Once that is done, the working unit can be returned to the CTN lab.
In order to synchronise the FS725 Rb clock with our GPS timing signals, I laid out a longish cable running from 1X7 to the IOO rack via the overhead cable guide. There was a T-connector attached to the 1pps output of the GPS timing unit, with one of the outputs unused - I have connected one end of the cable I laid out to this output, with the other end going to the 1pps input of the FS725. I am now waiting for the FS725 to sync to the external reference, before running the calibration of the phase tracker once again using the same method detailed here, using the 10MHz output from the FS725 to serve as a reference for the Fluke RF signal generator...
Having obtained a working FS725 Rubidium standard and syncing it to out GPS timing unit, I wanted to have one more pass at calibrating the phase tracker output, with the RF signal generator calibrated relative to an 'absolute' source. I also extended the range of frequencies swept over to 15MHz to 110MHz. We found that the phase tracker output appears linear over the entire range scanned, but taking a closer look at the residuals suggested some quadratic structure. Restricting the fitted range to [31MHz 89MHz] yields the following calibration constants for the X and Y arm respectively: 0.9904 +/- 0.0008 and 0.9984 +/- 0.0005. This suggests that out previous calibration was pretty accurate, and that it is valid over a wider range of frequencies, so we could plausibly fit in more FSRs in future scans if necessary. I have not updated these values on the EPICS screens (though judging by how close they are to 1, I wonder if this is even necessary)...
The principle change in the setup compared to that used to collect the data presented in elog 11738 was the addition of the FS725 rubidium standard. As detailed here, I synced the Rubidium standard to our GPS timing unit (this took a while - the manual suggests it should only take minutes, but it took about 10 hours - the two photos in Attachment #1 show the status of the front panel before and after it synced to the external 1PPS input). I then took 10 MHz outputs from the FS725, and ran one to the Fluke 6061A, and the other to the AG4395A. The Fluke 6061 A has a small switch at the back which has to be set to "EXT" in order for it to use the external reference (it has now been returned to the "INT" state). We then connected the output of the signal generator via a 3-way minicircuits splitter to the AG4395A, and the two beat channels.
I cleared the phase history on the MEDM screen, and set the phase tracker UGF. We then swept through frequencies from 15MHz to 110MHz (using the AG4395 to verify the frequency at each step). I used the following command to record the average value (over 10 seconds) and the standard deviation: z avg 10 -s C1:ALS-BEATX_FINE_PHASE_OUT_HZ >> 20151113_PT_X.dat and so on.. The amplitude of the signal generated (i.e. before the splitter) was -18dBm (chosen such that the Q outputs of either phase tracker was between 1000 and 3000), while the gains were ~100 (X) and 50 (Y). I then downloaded the data and fitted it.
The output of the phase tracker looks roughly linear over the entire range of frequencies scanned - but looking at the residuals, one could say there was some quadratic structure to it (see residual plots in Attachment #2). By looking at the shapes of the residuals, I judged that if we fit in the range [31MHz 89MHz] (for both X and Y), we should see negligible structure in the residuals. Attachment #3 contains the fits and residuals for these fits. One could argue that there is still some structure in the residuals, but is markedly less than over the entire range, and, I think, small enough to be neglected. The calibration constants quoted at the beginning of the elog are from the fits over this range. In principle, we could always break this down into smaller pieces and do a linear fit over that range. But this should allow us to scan through >5 FSRs.
Since the beat signal also goes to the frequency counter via the couplers, I was also collecting the readouts of the frequency counter. Attachment #5 contains the data collected. It is interesting to note that the FCs fail at ~101 MHz (corresponding to ~6146 Hz after the dividers).
Also, we had taken another dataset last night, but found that there was an anomalous kink in the X phase tracker output at (coincidentally?) 89 MHz (I've attached the data in Attachment #6). I'm not sure why this happened, but this is what led me to take another dataset earlier today (Attachment #4).
Summary of Attachments:
ROC_ETMY = 59.3 +/- 0.1 m.
I followed a slightly different fitting approach to Yutaro's in an attempt to determine the g-factor of the Y arm cavity (details of which are below), from which I determined the FSR to be 3.932 +/- 0.005 MHz (which would mean the cavity length is 38.12 +/- 0.05 m) and the RoC of ETMY to be 60.5 +/- 0.2 m. This is roughly consistent (within 2 error bars) of the ATF measurement of the RoC of ETMY quoted here.
I set up the problem as follows: we have a bunch of peaks that have been identified as TEM00, TEM10... etc, and from the fitting, we have a bunch of central frequencies for the Lorentzian shapes. The equation governing the spacing of the HOM's from the TEM00 peaks is:
The main differences in my approach are the following:
A Caltech maintenance staff dropped by at around noon today, and told me that he had seen a small puddle of water on the other side of the door along the Y-arm that is kept locked (about 10m from the end-table, on the south side of the arm). He suspected a leak in the lab. Koji and I went down to the said door and observed that there was indeed a small puddle of water accumulated there. There isn't any obvious source of a leak on our side of the door, although the walls tiles in the area suggest that there could be a leak in one of the pipes running through the wall/under the floor. In any case, the leak doesn't seem too dramatic, and we have decided to consult Steve as to what is to be done about this once he is back on Wednesday.
I noticed that all the models running on C1LSC had crashed when I came in earlier today. I restarted all of them by ssh-ing into C1LSC and running rtcds restart all. The models seem to be running fine now.
We've been talking about putting in BLRMS filters for several channels - it would be a pain to manually copy over the correct bandpass and lowpass filter coefficients into the newly created filter banks, and so I've set up a script (attached) that can do the job. As template filters, I'vm using the filters rana detailed here. Essentially, what the script does is identify the (empty on creation) block of text for a given filter: e.g. RMS_STS1Z_BP_0p01_0p03 for STS1Z), and appends the template filter coefficients. To test my script, I first backed up the original C1PEM.txt file from /opt/rtcds/caltech/c1/chans, removed all the filter coefficients for the STS1Z BLRMS filters, and then replaced it with one generated using my script. I then loaded the coefficients for all the filters in the C1PEM modules, without any obvious error messages being generated. I also checked that foton could read the new file, and checked tmake sure that sensible filter shapes were seen for some channels. Since this seems to be working, I'm going to start putting in BLRMS blocks into the models tomorrow.
I've made several changes to the C1MCS model and C1PEM model, and have installed BLRMS filters for the MC mirror coils, which are now running. The main idea behind this test was to see how much CPU time was added as a result of setting up IPC channels to take the signals from C1MCS to C1PEM (where the BLRMS filtering happens) - I checked the average CPU time before and after installing the BLRMS filters, and saw that the increase was about 1 usec for 15 IPC channels installed (it increased from ~27usec to 28usec). A direct scaling would suggest that setting up the BLRMS for the vertex optics might push the c1sus model close to timing out - it is at ~50usec right now, and I would need, per optic, 12 IPC channels, and so for the 5 vertex optics, this would suggest that the CPU timing would be ~55usec. I have not committed either of the changed models to the SVN just yet.
Now that I have a procedure in place to install the BLRMS filters, we can do so for other channels as well, such as for the coils and Oplevs of the vertex optics, and the remaining PEM channels (SEIS, accelerometers, microphones?). For the vertex optics though, I am not sure if we need to do some rearrangement to the c1sus model to make sure it does not time out...
While trying to resolve the strange SRCL loop shape seen yesterday (which has been resolved, eric will elog about it later), we got a chance to put in the correct filters to the "CINV" branch in the C1CAL model for MICH, PRCL, and SRCL - so we have some calibrated spectra now (Attachment #1). The procedure followed was as follows:
The final set of gains used were:
MICH: -247 dB
PRCL: -256 dB
SRCL: -212 dB
and the gain-only filters in the CINV filter banks are all called "DRMI1f".
Once we are able to lock the DRFPMI again, we can do the same for CARM and DARM as well...
In order to be consistent with the naming conventions for the new BLRMS filters, I made a library block that takes all the input signals of interest (i.e. for a generic optic, the coil signals, the local damping shadow sensors, and the Oplev Pitch and Yaw signals - so a total of 12 signals, unused ones can be grounded). The block is called "sus_single_BLRMS". Inside the block, I've put in 12 BLRMS library blocks, with each input signal going to one of them. All the 7 outputs of the BLRMS block are terminated (I got a compiling error if I did not do this). The idea is to identify the optic using this block, e.g. MC2_BLRMS. The BLRMS filters inside are called UL_COIL, UR_COIL etc, so the BLRMS channels will end up being called C1:SUS-MC2_BLRMS_UL_COIL_0p01_0p03 and so on. I tried implementing this in C1PEM, but immediately after compiling and restarting the model, I noticed some strange behaviour in the seismic rainbow STS strip in the control room - this was right after the model was restarted, before I attempted to make any changes to the C1PEM.txt file and add filters. I then manually opened up the filter bank screens for the RMS_STS1Z bandpass and lowpass filters, and saw that the filter switches were OFF - I wonder if this has something to do with these settings not being updated in the SDF tables? So I manually turned them on and cleared the filter hitsory for all 7 low pass and band pass filter banks, but the traces on the seismic striptool did not return to their nominal levels. I manually checked the filter shapes with Foton and they seem alright. Anyways, for now, I've reverted to the C1PEM model before I made any changes, and the seismic strip looks to be back at its normal level - when I recompiled and restarted the model with the changes I made removed, the STS1Z BLRMS bandpass and lowpass filters were ON by default again! I'm not sure what I'm doing wrong here, I will investigate this further.
BLRMS filters have been set up for the coil outputs and shadow sensor signals. The signals are sent to the C1PEM model from C1MCS, where I use the library block mentioned in the previous elog to put the filters in place. Some preliminary observations:
Unrelated to this work: we cleaned up the correspondence between the accelerometer numbers and channels in the C1PEM model. Also, the 3 unused ADC blocks in C1PEM (ADC0, ADC1 and ADC2) are required and cannot be removed as the ADC blocks have to be numbered sequentially and the signals needed in C1PEM come from ADC3 (as we found out when we tried recompiling the model after deleting these blocks).
I measured the PZT actuator gain for the Lightwave NPRO at the Y-end to be 3.6 +/- 0.3 MHz/V. This is somewhat lower than the value of 5 MHz/V reported here, but I think is consistent with that measurement.
In order to calibrate the Y-axis of my Aux PDH loop noise budget plots, I wanted a measurement of the end laser actuator gain. I proceeded to measure this as follows:
The attached plot shows the measured data. The X-axis is shown after the conversion mentioned in the last bullet point. The error bars are the standard deviations of the averaging at each DC offset.
After the discussions at the Wednesday meeting, I redid this measurement using a sinusoidal excitation summed at the error-point of the PDH servo as opposed to a DC offset. From the data I collected, I measured the actuator gain to be 2.43 +/- 0.04 MHz/V. This is almost half the value we expect, I'm not sure if I'm missing something obvious.
I've attached the results from my measurements of the noise characteristics of the Y-end auxiliary PDH system.
The following spectra were measured, in the range DC-1MHz:
In order to have good spectral resolution, the frequency range was divided into 5 subsections: DC-200Hz, 200Hz-3.4kHz, 3.4kHz-16.2kHz, 10kHz-100kHz, 100kHz-1MHz. The first three are measured using the SR785, while the last two ranges are measured with the Agilent network analyzer. The spectrum of the mixer output with its input terminated was quite close to the analyzer noise floor - hence, this was measured with an S560 preamplifier set to a gain of 100, and subsequently dividing the ASD by 100. To convert the Y-axis from V/rtHz to Hz/rtHz, I used two conversion factors: for the analyzer noise floor, PD dark noise, mixer noise and in-loop error signal, I made an Optickle simulation of a simple FP cavity (all parameters taken from the wiki optics page, except that I put in Yutaro's measured values for the arm loss and a modulation depth of 0.21 which I estimated as detailed here), and played around with the demodulation phase until I got an error signal that had the same qualitative shape as what I observed on an oscilloscope with the arms freely swinging (feedback to the laser PZT disabled). The number I finally used is 45.648 kHz/V (the main horns were 800mV peak-to-peak on an oscilloscope trace, results of the Optickle FP cavity simulation shown in Attachment #2 used to calibrate the X-axis). For the servo noise spectrum and in-loop control signal, I used the value of 2.43 MHz/V as determined here.
I'm not sure what to make of the strong peaks in the mixer noise spectrum between ~60Hz and 10kHz - some of the more prominent peaks are 60Hz harmonics, but there are several peaks in between as well (these have been confusing me for some time now, they were present even when I made the measurement in this frequency range using the Agilent network analyzer. My plan is to repeat these measurements for the Xend now.
I noticed what I thought was excessive movement of the beam spot on ITMX and ETMX on the control room monitors, and when I checked the CDS FE status overview MEDM screen, I saw that c1scx and c1asx had crashed. I ssh-ed into c1iscex and restarted both models, and then restarted fb as well. However, the DAQ-DCO_C1SCX_STATUS indicator remains red even after restarting fb (see attached screenshot). I am not sure how to fix this so I am leaving it as is for now, and the X arm looks to have settled down.
Forgot to submit this yesterday...
While we were trying to get the X-arm locked to IR using MC2, frame-builder mysteriously crashed, necessitating us having to go down to the computer and perform a hard reboot (after having closed the PSL shutter and turning all the watchdogs to "shutdown"). All the models restarted by themselves, and everything seems back to normal now..
Since there are a few hours to go before the locking efforts tonight, I've temporarily borrowed the channels used to read out the green beat frequency, and have hooked them up to the broadband IR PDs in the FOL box on the PSL table. I've used the network analyzer in the control room to roughly position the two beatnotes. I've also turned the green beat PDs back on (since the PSL shutter has to be open for the IR beat, and there is some green light falling on these PDs, but I've terminated the outputs).
So this needs to be switched back before locking efforts tonight...
I've set up two IPC channels that take the output from the digital frequency counters and send them to the end front-ends (via the RFM model). A summary of the steps I followed:
I've set things up such that we can select either the "PZT IN" or the frequency counter as the input to the slow servo, via means of a EPICS variable called "FC_SWITCH" (so C1:ALS-X_FC_SWITCH or C1:ALS-Y_FC_SWITCH). If this is 0, we use the default "PZT IN" signal, while setting it to 1 will change the input to the slow servo to be the frequency readout from the digital frequency counter. I've not updated the MEDM screens to reflect the two new paths yet, but will do so soon. It also remains to install appropriate filters for the servo path that takes the frequency readout as the input.
Tangentially related to this work: I've modified the FC library block so that it outputs frequency in MHz as opposed to Hz, just for convenience..
I've not updated the MEDM screens to reflect the two new paths yet, but will do so soon. It also remains to install appropriate filters for the servo path that takes the frequency readout as the input.
A few more related changes:
When I came in this afternoon, I saw that the PZT voltage to the PMC had railed. Following the usual procedure of turning the servo gain to zero and adjusting the DC offset, I got the PMC to relock, but the PMCR level was high and the alignment looked poor on the control room monitor. So I tweaked the input alignment on the PSL till I felt it was more reasonable. The view on the control room monitor now looks more like the usual state, and the "REFL (V)" field on the PMC MEDM screen now reads 0.02-0.03 which is the range I remember it being in nominally.
However, the one that was recovered from the ATF lab is no longer locking to the Rubidium reference frequency, although it was locked at the time we disconnected it from the ATF lab. I emailed the support staff at SRS, who seem to think that either the internal oscillator has drifted too far, or the Rb lamp is dead. Either ways, it needs to be repaired. They suggested that I run a check by issuing some serial commands to the unit to determine which of these is actually the problem, but I've been having some trouble setting up the serial link - I will try this again tomorrow.
The Rubidium standard we had sent in for repair and recalibration has come back. I checked the following:
However, I am still having trouble setting up a serial communications link with the FS725 with a USB-serial adaptor - I've tried with a Raspberry Pi and my Mac (using screen to try and connect), and also using one of the old Windows laptops lying around on which I was able to install the native software supplied by SRS (still using the USB-serial adaptor to establish connection though). Could it be that the unit is incompatible with the USB-serial adaptor? I had specifically indicated in the repair request that this was also a problem. In any case, this doesn't seem to be crucial, though it would have been nice for diagnostics purposes in the future...
I've stored the repaired FS725 inside the electronics cabinet (marked "Eletronics Modules") for now (the other unit was returned to Antonio in W. Bridge some weeks ago).
I redid this measurement and have now determined the actuator gain to be 4.61 +/- 0.10 MHz/V. This is now pretty consistent with the expected value of ~5MHz/V as reported here.
I made the following changes to the old methodology:
I also took spectra of the phase tracker output and error signal to make sure I was choosing my excitation frequencies in regions where there were no peaks already present (Attachment #1).
The scatter of measured actuator gains at various excitation frequencies is shown in Attachment #2.
I've re-measured the noise breakdown for the Y-end AUX PDH system. Spectra are attached. I've also measured the OLTF of the PDH loop, from which the UGF appears to be ~8.5kHz.
As Eric and Koji pointed out, the spectra uploaded here were clearly wrong as there were breaks in the spectra between decades of frequency. I redid the measurements, this time being extra careful about impedance mismatch effects. All measurements were made from the monitor points on the PDH box, which according to the schematic found here, have an output impedance of 49.9 ohms. So for all measurements made using the SR785 which has an input impedance of 1Mohm, or those which had an SR560 in the measurement chain (also high input impedance), I terminated the input with a 50ohm terminator so as to be able to directly match up spectra measured using the two different analyzers. I'm also using my more recent measurement of the actuator gain of the AUX laser to convert the control signal from V/rtHz to Hz/rtHz in the plotted spectra.
As a further check, I locked the IR to the Y-arm by actuating on MC2, and took the spectrum of the Y-arm mirror motion using the C1CAL model. We expect this to match up well with the in-loop control signal at low frequencies. However, though the shapes seem consistent in Attachment #2 (light orange and brown curves), I seem to be off by a factor of 5- not sure why. In converting the Y-arm mirror motion spectrum from m/rtHz to Hz/rtHz, I multiplied the measured spectrum by , which I think is the correct conversion factor (FSR/(0.5*wavelength))?
In preparation for tonight's work, I did the following:
On the PSL table:
At the IOO Rack area:
At the X-end:
At the Y-end:
Having done all this, I checked the green transmission levels for both arms (PSL green shutter closed, after running ASS to maximize IR transmission). GTRY is close to what I remember (~0.40) while the best I could get GTRX to is ~0.12 (I seem to remember it being almost double this value - maybe the alignment onto the beat PD has to be improved?). Also, the amplitudes of the beatnotes on the network analyzer are ~-50dBm, and I seem to remember it being more like -25dBm, so maybe the alignment on the PD is the issue? I will investigate further in the evening. It remains to measure the OLTF of the X-end PDH as well.
Last week, Eric and I noticed that the green transmission levels at the PSL table seem much lower now than they did a month or two ago. To investigate this, I attempted to reproduce a power budget for the X endtable setup - see the attached figure (IR powers measured with calorimeter, green powers measured with Ophir power meter). A summary of my observations:
It is worth noting that two years ago, the IR power from the AUX-Y laser was ~280 mW, so we should still be getting "enough" green power for ALS?
While carrying out my end-table power investigations, I decided to take a quick look at the out-of-loop ALSX noise - see the attached plot. The feature at ~1kHz seems less prominent (factor of 2?) now, though its still present, and the overall noise above a few tens of Hz is still much higher than the reference. The green transmission was maximized to ~0.19 before this spectrum was taken.
We managed to access the trends for the green reflected and transmitted powers from a couple of months back when things were in their nominal state - see Attachment #2 for the situation then. For the X arm, the green reflected power has gone down from ~1300 counts (November 2015) to ~600 counts (january 2016) when locked to the arm and alignment is optimized. The corresponding numbers for the green transmitted powers (PSL + End Laser) are 0.47 (November 2015) and ~0.18 (January 2016). This seems to be a pretty dramatic change over just two months. For the Y-arm, the numbers are: ~3500 counts (Green REFL, Nov 2015), ~3500 counts (Green REFL, Jan 2016) ~1.3 (Green Trans, Nov 2015), ~1 (Green Trans, Jan 2016). So it definitely looks like something has changed dramatically with the X-end setup, while the Y-end seems consistent with what we had a couple of months ago...
I was trying to characterize the AM/PM response of the X end laser. I tried to measure the AM response first, as follows:
There were a number of directories in /users/OLD/mott/PZT/2NPRO, I've used the data in Innolight_AM_New. Also, I am unsure as to what their "calibration" factor is to convert the measured data into RIN, so I've just used a value of 0.8, with which I got the plot to match up as close as possible to the plot in this elog. I also redid the measurement today, given that the laser parameters have changed. The main difference was that I used an excitation amplitude of +15dBm, and an "IF Bandwidth" of 30Hz in the parameter files for making these measurements, which I chose to match the parameters Mott used. There does seem to be a shift in some of the features, but the <100kHz area seems similar to the old measurement now.
Having put the PD back in, I also took measurements of the RIN with the input to the laser PZT terminated. There is no difference with the Noise Eater On or OFF!
Attachment #1 shows the measured AM response. It differs qualitatively in shape from the earlier measurements reported in this elog and on the wiki below the 100kHz region.
It looks like some of the features may have shifted in frequency. The previous measurement results can be found in /users/OLD/mott/PZT/2NPRO, can you plot the two AM measurements together?
I attempted to measure the frequency noise of the extra Lightwave NPRO we have that is currently sitting on the PSL table. I did the following:
I've turned the Lightwave NPRO back to standby for now, in anticipation of further trials later today. I've also restored the IMC.
After adjusting the alignment of the two beams onto the PD, I managed to recover a stronger beatnote of ~ -10dBm. I managed to take some measurements with the PLL locked, and will put up a more detailed post later in the evening. I turned the IMC autolocker off, turned the 11MHz Marconi output off, and closed the PSL shutter for the duration of my work, but have reverted these to their nominal state now. The are a few extra cables running from the PSL table to the area near the IOO rack where I was doing the measurements from, I've left these as is for now in case I need to take some more data later in the evening...
I didn't really appreciate this measurement until just now. IF you can save the DTT .xml file with all the traces in it (i.e. NOT just the plots), we should save this data for comparison plotting later. Perhaps Gautam can post the gzipped xml file for you into the log.
The accelerometers don't read any real noise below ~3 Hz, so we can't judge the difference down low, but this seems like a good measurement in the 5 - 100 Hz band.
Unfortunately I had closed all the DTT windows that Steve had used for the earlier plots. So I took the spectra again - there may be minor differences given that this measurement was taken at ~11pm at night. Anyways, plots and the xml data file are attached.
Summary of the work done today:
Alignment and other work on PSL table
As mentioned in a previous elog, the beatnote amplitude I obtained was tiny - so I checked the alignment of the two beams onto the PD. I did this as follows:
After doing all of this, I found a beatnote at ~-10dBm at a temperature of 45.3002 degrees on the Lightwave. The DC level was ~8V (~4V contribution from each beam).
PLL and frequency nosie measurements:
Pretty much the same procedure as that described in this elog was followed for setting up the PLL and taking the measurements, except that this time, I used the two SR560s in a better way to measure the open loop TF of the PLL. This measurement suggested a UGF of ~ 10kHz, which seems reasonable to me. I turned the 11MHz marconi off because some extra peaks were showing up in the beat signal spectrum. I judged that the beatnote was not large enough to require the use of an attenuator between the PD and the mixer. I was able to lock the PLL easily enough, and I've attached spectra of the control signal (both uncalibrated and calibrated). To calibrate the spectrum, I did a quick check to determine the actuator gain of the spare Lightwave laser, by sweeping the fast PZT with a low frequency (0.5Hz) 1Vpp sine wave, and looking at the peak in the beat signal spectrum move on the network analyzer. This admittedly rough calibration suggests that the coefficient is ~5MHz/V, consistent with the other Lightwave. Eric suggested a more accurate way to do this would be to match up spectra taken using this method and by locking the PLL by actuating on the FM input of the Marconi - I didn't try this, but given the relatively large low-frequency drifts of the beatnote that I was seeing, and that the control signal was regularly hitting ~2V (i.e shifting the frequency by ~10MHz), I don't think this is viable with a low MHz/V coefficient on the Marconi, which we found is desirable as described here.
The spare Lightwave frequency noise seems comparable to the other two measurements (see attachment #2). If anything, it is a factor of a few worse, though this could be due to an error in the calibration? I'm also not sure why the shapes of the spectra from today's measurement differ qualitatively from those in elog 11929 above ~7kHz.
Some random notes:
We will update the X circuit DCC page with an accurate schematic and photo.
I've uploaded reasonably high-resolution photographs of the uPDH box for the X-end and Y-end on their respective wiki pages. I've uploaded two photos for each box, one of the circuit board (I checked that these photos are clear enough that we can zoom in and read off component values if necessary), and one of the box with the peripherals not integrated into the circuit board (i.e. the minicircuits mixer ZAD-8+ and the little Pomona box that is an LP filter for the output from the mixer). Since I pulled the boxes out, I thought it might not be a bad idea to measure the TFs of these Pomona boxes and make sure nothing weird is going on, I'll put up some plots later.
Rana and I discussed some things to look at earlier today:
I also did a quick check of the behaviour of the Servo Gain potentiometer by checking the resistance at various positions of the knob - we had suspected that the potentiometer may be logarithmic, but I found that it was in fact linear. I'll put up a plot of the gain as a function of the Servo Gain knob position soon,(plot added) along with results from the other checks.
While disassembling the setup at the X-end to get the PDH box out, I noticed that the signal from the LO is going to the mixer through a Pomona box (no such Pomona box is used at the Y-end). I opened it up and found that it contains just a pair of capacitors in parallel, so it's a phase shifter?. The LO signal also goes through an attenuator. The mixer in both boxes is a ZAD-8+, so why is this part of the setup different?
Both PDH boxes are not hooked up at the moment, I will restore the setups at both ends after running a few more checks on the boxes...
I don't think there's any evidence that the noise eater is bad. That would change the behavior of the relaxation oscillation which is at 1 MHz ?
While I was investigating the AM/PM ratio of the Innolight, I found that there was a pronounced peak in the RIN at ~400kHz, which did not change despite toggling the noise eater switch on the front panel (see plot attached). The plot in the manual suggests the relaxation oscillations should be around 600kHz, but given that the laser power has dropped by a factor of ~3, I think it's reasonable that the relaxation oscillations are now at ~400kHz?
The Innolight laser control unit has a 25 pin D-sub connector on the rear which is meant to serve as a diagnostics aid, and the voltages at the various pins should tell us the state of various things, like the diode power monitor, laser crystal TEC error temperature, NE status etc etc. Unfortunately, I am unable to locate a manual for this laser (online or physical copy in the filing cabinets), so the only thing I have to go on is a photocopied page that Steve had obtained sometime ago from the manual for the 2W NPRO. According to that, Pin 1 is "Diode laser 1, power monitor, 1V/W". The voltage I measured (with one of the 25 pin breakout boards and a DMM) is 1.038V. I didn't see any fast fluctuations in this value either. It may be that the coefficient indicating "normal" state of operation is different for the 1W model than the 2W model, but this measurement suggests the condition of the diode is alright after all?
I also measured the voltage at Pin 12, which is described in the manual as "Noise Eater, monitor". This value was fluctuating between ~20mV and ~40mV. Toggling the NE switch on the front of the control unit between ON and OFF did not change this behaviour. The one page of the manual that we have, however, doesnt provide any illumination on how we are supposed to interpret the voltage measured at this pin...
Before distrubing the beat setup with the spare Lightwave laser, I wanted to see if I could resolve the apparent difference in behaviour between the measured free running noise of the spare Lightwave laser and my earlier measurements with the existing X and Y end lasers above ~5kHz. So I redid the measurement, but this time, on Eric's suggestion, while taking spectra on the SR785, I was careful to maintain the same "CH1 input range" while measuring the control signal spectrum and the measurement noise spectra. The level used was -20dBvpk. I think the measured spectrum shape now makes sense - above ~4kHz, the SR560 noise means that the SNR is poor and so we can only trust the spectra up to this value (the spectra for the end lasers are from earlier measurements where I did not take care to keep the input range constant). Anyways, I think the conclusion is that the spare Lightwave seems to have a free-running frequency noise that is approximately a factor of 3 worse than the Lightwave laser at the Y-end, though this may be because I didn't take the measurement at the optimal operating conditions (diode current, power etc). But I guess this is tolerable and that we can go ahead with the planned swapping out of the existing Innolight at the X-end with this laser.
I will now move the Lightwave laser off the PSL table onto the SP table where I will do some beam characterization and see if I can come up with a satisfactory mode-matching solution for the swap. I've borrowed a beam profiler from the TCN lab for this purpose.
I've moved the following components that was a part of Koji's setup from the PSL table to the SP table so that I may measure the beam profile of the beam from the spare Lightwave NPRO and work on a mode-matching solution for the X-end.
I did some preliminary characterization of the beam from the Lightwave - in the power controlled mode, setting the "ADJ" parameter to 0 (which is the state recommended in the manual) gives an output power of ~240mW. I used the HWP and PBS to dump most of this into a "Black Hole" beam dump, but I was still getting about 300uW of power after this. This was saturating the CCD in the beam profiler (even though 300uW for a beam of ~1mm should be well within the recommended operating limits as per its manual - maybe the ND filter on the camera isn't really ND4.0), and so I further reduced the "ADJ" parameter on the laser controller to -20, such that I had no saturation of the CCD. I will try and take some data later today. The laser is presently in "Standby" mode, and the SP table is fully covered again.
As Koji pointed out in the previous elog, the CCD beam profiler was ill suited for this measurement. Nevertheless, to get a rough idea of the beam profile, I made a few rearrangements to my earlier setup:
Following Koji's suggestion, I decided to do a knife-edge measurement as well. The measurement configuration was similar to the one described above, except the PBS/BS were removed, and a 1.0 neutral density filter was was installed ~80cm from the laser head (here the ~300 mW beam was >2mm in diameter, as judged by eye). I used the Ophir power meter, which was why I had to install an ND filter as it is rated for 100mW max power. I will put a picture up tomorrow. Thermal lensing shouldn't be of much consequence here, as we just need the whole beam to fall onto the power meter active area (verified by eye), and only the relative change in power levels as the knife edge cuts the beam matters. I took the cross-sectional profile of the beam by translating the knife in the x-direction (i.e. cut the beam "left to right" ).
Attachments 1 and 2 are the results from todays measurements. It remains to repeat by cutting the beam along the y direction, and see what ellipticity (if any) shows up. I also found some "nominal" numbers in page 4 of the Lightwave datasheet - it tells us to expect a waist 5cm from the shutter housing, with horizontal and vertical 1/e^2 diameters of 0.5mm and 0.38mm respectively. My measurement suggests a horizontal diameter of ~0.25mm (half the "nominal" value?!), and the waist location to be 8.22cm from the shutter housing. I wonder if this discrepancy is a red flag? Could it be due to the HWP? I'm reasonably sure of my calculations, and the fits have come out pretty nicely as well...
I've repeated the measurement for the x-direction and also did the y-direction, taking into account Koji's suggestion of keeping the power meter as close as possible to the knife edge. Attachment #1 shows a picture of the setup used. Because an ND filter is required to use this particular power meter, the geometrical constraints mean that the closest the power meter can be to the knife edge is ~3cm. I think this is okay.
The result from the re-measured X-scan (Attachments #2 and #4) is consistent with the result from yesterday. Unfortunately, in the y-direction (Attachments #3 and #4), I don't seem to have captured much of the 'curved' part of the profile, even though I've started from pretty much adjacent to the HWP. Nevertheless, the fits look reasonable, and I think I've captured sufficient number of datapoints to have confidence in these fits - although for the Y-scan, the error in the waist position is large. The ellipticity as measured using this method is also significantly smaller than what the CCD beam profiler was telling us.
If we are happy with this measurement, I can go ahead and work on seeing if we can arrive at a minimally invasive mode-matching solution for the X-end table once we switch the lasers out...
Steve thinks that the X-end Innolight does not come with the noise-eater option (it is an add-on and not a standard feature, and the purchase order for the PSL Innolight explicitly mentions that it comes with the NE option, but the X-end Innolight has no such remarks), which would explain why there is no difference with the noise eater ON/OFF. During earlier investigations however, I had found that there was a cable labelled "Noise-Eater" connected to one of the Modulation Inputs on the rear of the Innolight controller. Today, we traced this down. The modulation input on the rear says "Current Laser Diode 0.1A/V". To this input, a Tee is connected, one end of which is terminated with a 50ohm terminator. The other end of the Tee is connected to a BNC cable labelled "Nosie-Eater", which we traced all the way to the PSL table, where it is just hanging (also labelled "X end green noise eater"), unterminated, at the southeast corner of the PSL table. It is unlikely that this is of any consequence given the indicated coefficient of 0.1A/V, but could this somehow be introducing some junk into the laser diode current which is then showing up as intensity fluctuations in the output? Unfortunately, during the PLL measurements, I did not think to disconnect this BNC and take a spectrum. It would also seem that the noise-eater feedback to the laser diode current is implemented internally, and not via this external modulation input jack (the PSL, which I believe has the noise-eater enabled, has nothing connected to this rear input)...
I've done a first pass at trying to arrive at a mode-matching solution for the X-end table once we swtich the lasers out. For this rough calculation, I used a la mode to match my seed beam (with z = 0 being defined as the shutter housing on the current position of the Innolight laser head, and the waist of the beam from the NPRO being taken as the square-root of the X and Y waists as calculated here), to a target beam which has a waist of 35um at the center of the doubling oven (a number I got from this elog). I also ignored the optical path length changes introduced by the 3 half-wave plates between the NPRO and the doubling oven, and also the Faraday isolator. The best a la mode was able to give me, with the only degrees of freedom being the position of the two lenses, was a waist of 41um at the doubling oven. I suppose this number will change once we take into account the effects of the HWPs and the Faraday. Moreover, the optimized solution involves the first lens after the NPRO, L1, being rather close to the second steering mirror, SM2 (see labels in Attachment #2, in cyan), but I believe this arrangement is possible without clipping the beam. Moreover, we have a little room to play with as far as the absolute physical position of the z=0 coordinate is - i.e. the Lightwave NPRO head can be moved ~2cm forward relative to where the Innolight laser head is presently, giving a slightly better match to the target waist (see attachment #3). I will check the lenses we have available at the 40m to see if a more optimal solution can be found, but I'm not sure how much we want to be changing optics considering all this is going to have to be re-done for the new end table... Mode-matching code in Attachment #4...