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ID Date Author Typeup Category Subject
  4338   Tue Feb 22 14:37:24 2011 steveUpdateSAFETYLarisa received 40m safety training

Larisa Thorne received 40m lab specific, basic safety training. She will attend P. King's Basic Laser Safety Training Session tomorrow.


  4339   Tue Feb 22 23:11:42 2011 valeraUpdate new medm screens: C1ASS.adl and C1MCASS.adl
Attachment 1: C1MCASS.jpeg
Attachment 2: C1ASS.jpeg
  4340   Tue Feb 22 23:40:31 2011 KojiUpdateIOOMC mode mach improvement

As per Kiwamu's request I made a light touch to the input steering and the mode matching lens.

Here V_ref and V_trans are C1:IOO-MC_RFPD_DCMON and C1:IOO-MC_TRANS_SUM, respectively.

Result: Visibility = 1 - V_ref(resonant) / V_ref(anti_reso) = 1 - 0.74 / 5.05 = 85%

What has been done:

  • Alignment of the steering mirrors before and after the last mode matching lens
       V_ref: 2.7 ==> 2.2, V_trans: 34000 ==> 39000
  • Moving of the last mode matching lens away from the MC (+ alignment of the steering mirrors)
       V_ref: 2.2 ==> 0.74, V_trans: 39000 ==> 55000
Attachment 1: IOO_MMT_110222.png
  4341   Wed Feb 23 04:56:59 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingnoise curve update

New noise spectra of the green locking have been updated.

The plot below shows the in-loop noise spectra when the beat signal was fedback to ETMX.

The rms noise integrated from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz went down to approximately 2 kHz.


The red curve was taken when the beat was controlled only by a combination of some poles sand zeros on the digital filter banks. The UGF was at 40Hz.

This curve is basically the same as that Koji took few weeks ago (see here). Apparently the rms was dominated by the peaks at 16 Hz and 3 Hz.

The blue curve was taken when the same filter plus two resonant gain filters (at 16.5 Hz and 3.15 Hz) were applied. The UGF was also at 40Hz.

Due to the resonant gain filter at 16.5 Hz, the phase margin became less, and it started oscillating at the UGF as shown in the plot.

  4342   Wed Feb 23 08:53:58 2011 SureshUpdateElectronicsRF Distribution box: Output power levels

We wish to have roughly 2 dBm of output power on each line coming out of the RF distribution box.  So I adjusted the attenuators inside the box to get this.

I also looked at why the 2x output looked so distorted and found that the input power was around 17 dBm whereas the maximum allowed (as per the datasheet of Minicircuits MK-2) is 15dBm.  So I increased the attentuation on its input line to 5dBm (up by 2dBm)  The input power levels are around 14.6dBm now  and the distortion has come down considerably.  However the net output on the 2x lines is now down to 0.7dBm.  We will have to amplify this if we need more power.

The schematic and the power output are now like this:


  4344   Wed Feb 23 11:53:30 2011 josephbUpdateCDSUpdated mx drivers

Alex and I updated the open mx drivers from 1.3.3 to 1.3.901 (1.4 release candidate).  We downloaded the drivers from: http://open-mx.gforge.inria.fr/

We put them in /root/open-mx-1.3.901 on the fb machine (and thus get mounted by all the front ends.).  We did configure and make and make install.

We did a quick check with /opt/mx/bin/mx_info on the fb machine at this point and realized the MAC addresses and host names were all messed up, including two listings for c1iscex with different mac addresses (neither of which was c1iscex).

We then brought all the front ends mx_streams down, brought the fb down, then cleared all the peer names with mx_hostname.  We then brought the fb up, and the front end mx_stream processes.

/opt/mx/mx_info now shows a clean and correct set of hostnames and mac addresses.  Testpoints and trends are working.

  4346   Wed Feb 23 16:56:17 2011 Larisa ThorneUpdateVIDEOCable laying...continued

Having finished labeling the existing cables to match their new names, we (Steve, Kiwamu and Larisa) moved on to start laying new cables and labeling them according to the list.


Newly laid cables include: ETMXT (235'), ETMX (235'), POP (110') and MC2 (105').  All were checked by connecting a camera to a monitor and checking the clarity of the resulting image. Note that these cables were only laid, so they are not plugged in.


The MC2 cable needs to be ~10' longer; it won't reach to where it's supposed to. It is currently still in its place. 

The three other cables were all a lot longer than necessary.

  4347   Thu Feb 24 00:54:33 2011 KevinUpdateElectronicsCalculated Dark Noise for POX and POY

[Kevin, Rana, Koji]

I calculated the dark noise of POX and POY due to Johnson noise and voltage and current noise from the MAX4107 op-amp using nominal values for the circuit components found in their data sheets. I found that the dark noise should be approximately 15.5 nV/rtHz. The measured dark noise values are 18.35 nV/rtHz and 98.5 nV/rtHz for POX and POY respectively. The shot noise plots on the wiki have been updated to show these calculated dark noise sources.

The measured dark noise for POY is too high. I will look into the cause of this large noise. It is possible that the shot noise measurement for POY was bad so I will start by redoing the measurement.

  4348   Thu Feb 24 10:56:04 2011 JenneUpdateWienerFilteringOne month of H1 S5 data is now on Rossa

Just in case anyone else wants to access it, we now have 30 days of H1 S5 DARM data sitting on Rossa's harddrive.  It's in 10min segments.  This is handy because if you want to try anything, particularly Wiener Filtering, now we don't have to wait around for the data to be fetched from elsewhere.

  4349   Thu Feb 24 11:18:08 2011 steveUpdateSUSSRM sus-cables

Cheater cables   for SRM sus tied up. They were dangling aimlessly on the floor.

Attachment 1: P1070428.JPG
  4351   Thu Feb 24 17:42:00 2011 AidanUpdateGreen Locking15% of end laser sideband power transmitted through cavity

I did a quick calculation to determine the amount of sideband transmission through the FP cavity.

The modulation frequency of the end PDH is 216kHz. The FSR of the cavity is about 3.9MHz. So the sidebands pick up about 0.17 radians extra phase on one round trip in the cavity compared to the carrier.

The ITM reflectance is r_ITM^2 = 98.5% of power, the ETM reflection is r_ETM^2 = 95%.

So the percentage of sideband power reflected from the cavity is R_SB = r_ITM*r_ETM*(exp(i*0.17) - 1)^2 / (1 - r_ETM*r_ITM exp(i*0.17) )^2 = 0.85 = 85%

So about 15% of the sideband power is transmitted through the cavity. The ratio of the sideband and carrier amplitudes at the ETM is 0.05

So, on the vertex PD, the power of the 80MHz +/-200kHz sidebands should be around sqrt(0.15)*0.05 = 0.02 = 2% of the 80MHz beatnote.

Once we get the green and IR locked to the arm again, we're going to look for the sidebands around the beatnote.



  4352   Thu Feb 24 18:21:24 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingin-loop and out-of-loop measurements

Two different measurement have been performed for a test of the green locking last night.

Everything is getting better. yes. yes.



[ measurement 1 : IR locking]

The X arm was locked by using the IR PDH signal as usual (#4239#4268) .

The in-loop signal at from the IR path and the out-of-loop signal at from the green beat note path were measured.


Let us look at the purple curve. This is an out-of-loop measurement by looking at the green beat note fluctuation.

The rms down to 0.1 Hz used to be something like 60 kHz (see here), but now it went down to approximately 2 kHz. Good.

This rms corresponds to displacement of about 260 pm of the X arm. This is barely within the line width. The line width is about 1 nm.



[ measurement 2 : green locking]

The motion of the X arm was suppressed by using the green beat signal and feeding it back to ETMX.

After engaging the ALS servo, I brought the cavity length to the resonance by changing the feedback offset from epics.

Then took the spectra of the in-loop signal at the beat path and the out-of-loop signal at the IR PDH path.


 Here is a time series of TRX after I brought it to the resonance.


TRX was hovering around at the maximum power, which is 144 counts.


Since I put one more 10:1 filter to suppress the noise around 3 Hz, the rms of the in-loop beat spectrum went to about 1 kHz, which used to be 2 kHz (see #4341).

But the out-of-loop (IR PDH signal) showed bigger noise by a factor of 2 approximately over frequency range of from 2 Hz to 2 Hz. The resultant rms is 2.7 kHz.

The rms is primarily dominated by a peak at 22 Hz (roll mode ?).

I calibrated the IR PDH signal by taking the peak to peak signal assuming the finesse of the cavity is 450 for IR. May need a cooler calibration.

  4353   Thu Feb 24 19:59:25 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingwhitening filter for ALS

I forgot to mention about the whitening filter for the ALS digital control system.

As usual I used a whitening filter to have a good SNR against ADC noise, but this time our whitening scheme is little bit different from the usual our systems.

I used two ADC channels for one signal and put a digital summing point  and digital filters to keep good SNR over the frequency range of interest.

It's been working fine but it's still primitive, so I will study more about how to optimize this scheme.


     The diagram above shows our scheme for the signal whitening.

Basically the SNR at DC is bad when we use only a whitening filter as shown on the bottom part of the diagram because the signal is quite tiny at DC.

On the other hand if we take raw signal into ADC as 'DC path'  shown above, the SNR is better at DC but not good at intermediate frequencies (30 mHz - 1kHz).

So the idea to keep the good SNR over the frequency range of interest is to combine these 'DC path' and 'AC path' in a clever way.

     In our case, the 'DC path' signal is not as good as the 'AC path' signal above 30 mHz, so we cut off those high frequency signals by using a digital low pass filter.

In addition to it, I put a gain of 1000 in order to match the relative gain difference between 'DC path' and 'AC path'.

Then the resultant signal after the summing point keeps the good SNR with a flat transfer function up to 1 kHz. 


Two different measurement have been performed for a test of the green locking last night.

Everything is getting better. yes. yes.

  4354   Thu Feb 24 21:46:30 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockinginstalled a summing box

In this past weekend I replaced a summing amplifier for the end green PDH locking by a home-made summing circuit box in order to increase the control range.

It's been working well so far.

However due to this circuit box, the demodulation phase of the PDH locking is now somewhat different from the past, so we have to readjust it at some point.



    At the X end station, the voltage going to the NPRO PZT had been limited up +/- 4 V because of the summing amplifier : SR560.

Therefore the laser was following the cavity motion only up to ~ +/- 4 MHz, which is not wide enough. (it's okay for night time)

So we decided to put a passive circuit instead of SR560 to have a wider range.


(summing box)

   We made a passive summing circuit and put it into a Pomona box.

The circuit diagram is shown below. Note that we assume the capacitance of the 1W Innolight has the same capacitance as that of the PSL Innolight (see #3640).


The feedback signal from a PDH box goes into the feedback input of the circuit.

Then the signal will be low passed with the corner frequency of 200 kHz because of the combination of RC (where R is 681 Ohm and C is capacitance of the PZT).

Because of this low pass filter, we don't drive the PZT unnecessarily at high frequency.

On the other hand the modulation signal from a function generator goes into the other input and will be high passed by 50 pF mica capacitor with the corner frequency of 200 kHz.

This high pass filter will cut off noise coming from the function generator at low frequency.

In addition to it, the 50 pF capacitor gives a sufficient amount of attenuation for the modulation because we don't want have too big modulation depth.


Here is a plot for the expected transfer functions.

You can see that the modulation transfer function (blue curve) has non-zero phase at 216 kHz, which is our modulation frequency.



  4355   Fri Feb 25 01:48:54 2011 valeraUpdateASCmc auto alignment status

 I made several scripts to handle the mcass configuration and sensing measurements:

- The scripts and data are in the scripts/ASS directory

- The mcassUp script restores the settings for the digital lockins: oscillator gains, phases, and filters. The MC mirrors are modulated in pitch at 10, 11, 12 Hz and in yaw at 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 Hz. The attached plot shows the comb of modulation frequencies in the MCL spectrum.

- The mcassOn and mcassOff scripts turn on and off the dither lines by ramping up and down the SUS-MC1_ASCPIT etc gains

- The senseMCdecenter script measures the response of the MCL demodulated signals to the decentering of the beam on the optics by imbalancing the coil gains by 10% which corresponds to the shift of the optic rotation point relative to the beam by 2.65 mm (75mm diameter optic) and allows calibration of the demodulated signals in mm of decentering. The order of the steps was MC1,2,3 pitch and MC1,2,3 yaw. The output of the script can be redirected to the file and analyzed in matlab. The attached plot shows the results. The plot was made using the sensemcass.m script in the same directory.

- The senseMCmirror script measures the response of the MCL demodulated signals to the mirror offsets (SUS-MC1_ASCPIT etc filter banks). The result is shown below (the sensemcass.m script makes this plot as well). There is some coupling between pitch and yaw drives so the MC coils can use some balancing - currently all gains are unity.

- The senseMCdofs scripts measures the response to the DOF excitation but I have not got to it yet.

- The next step is to invert the sensing matrix and try to center the beams on the mirrors by feeding back to optics. Note that the MC1/MC3 pitch differential and yaw common dofs are expected to have much smaller response than the other two dofs due to geometry of this tree mirror cavity. We should try to build this into the inversion.

Attachment 1: mcditherlines.pdf
Attachment 2: mcdecenter.pdf
Attachment 3: mcmirror.pdf
  4356   Fri Feb 25 10:11:56 2011 steveUpdateSAFETYhow not to

The beam of IR for doubling  is clipping on bnc cable to green beam transmitted pd.

Attachment 1: Presentation1.jpg
  4358   Fri Feb 25 14:35:06 2011 Larisa ThorneUpdateElectronicsTotal harmonic distortion results for +7dBm mixer

 This experiment deals with measuring the total harmonic distortion (THD) contribution of mixers in a circuit.

(a circuit diagram is attached) where:

Mixer: ZFM-3-S+ at +7dBm

Attenuator: VAT-7+, at +7dB

Low-pass filter: SLP-1.9+, which is set to DC-1.9MHz


The total harmonic distortion can be calculated by the equation: 

\mbox{THD} =  \frac{V_2^2 + V_3^2 + V_4^2 + \cdots + V_\infty^2}{V_1^2}

where Vn represents the voltage of the signal at a certain harmonic n.


In this experiment, only the voltages of the first three harmonics were measured, with the first harmonic at 400Hz, the second at 800Hz, and the third at 1.2kHz. The corresponding voltages were read off the spectrum analyzer after it had time averaged 16 measurements. (picture of the general shape of the spectrum analyzer output is attached)

(results for this mixer's particular configuration are on the pdf attached)


There really isn't that much correlation between the modulations and the resulting THD.

We won't know how good these numbers are until more experiments on other mixers are done, so they can be compared. Since the rest of the mixers are relatively high levels (+17dBm, +23dBm in comparison to this experiment's +7dBm), an RF amplifier will need to be hooked up first to do any further measurements.






Attachment 1: THDcircuit.jpg
Attachment 2: Photo_on_2011-01-17_at_12.25.png
Attachment 3: THDwithoutamp.pdf
  4360   Sat Feb 26 00:25:38 2011 KojiUpdateIOOMC servo improvement

[Rana / Koji]

The MC servo loop has been investigated as the MC servo was not an ideal state.

With the improved situation by us, the attached setting is used for the MC and the FSS.
The current UGF is 24kHz with phase margin is ~15deg, which is unbearably small.
We need to change the phase compensation in the FSS box some time in the next week.

- We found the PD has plenty of 29.5MHz signal in in-lock state. This was fixed by reducing the LO power and the modulation depth.

- The LO power for the MC demodulator was ~6dBm. As this was too high for the demodulator, we have reduced it down to 2dBm
by changing attenuator to 12dB (at 6 oclock of the dial) on the AM stabilization box.

- The RF power on the MC PD was still too high. The PD mush have been saturated. So the modulation slider for 29.5MHz was moved
from 0.0 to 5.0. This reduced the 29.5MHz component. (But eventually Koji restored the modulation depth after the servo shape has been modified.)

- The openloop gain of the loop has been measured using EXC A/TEST1/TEST2. The UGF was ~5kHz with the phase mergin of ~10deg. 

- This quite low phase margin is caused by the fact that the loop has f^-2 shape at around 4k-100kHz. The reference cavity has
the cavity pole of 40kHz or so while the IMC has the pole of ~4kHz. Basically we need phase lead at  around 10-100kHz.

- We decided to turn off (disable) 40:4000 boost of the MC servo to earn some phase. Then MC did not lock. This is because the LF gain was not enough.
So put Kevin's pomona box in the FAST PZT path (1.6:40). By this operation we obtain ~75deg (max) at 560Hz, ~35deg at 5kHz, ~20deg at 10kHz.

- In this setup the UGF is 24kHz. Still the phase margin is ~15kHz. This phase lag might be cause by 1)  the MC servo circut 2) PMC cavity pole


- Put/modify phase lead in the FSS box.
- Measure the PMC cavity pole
- Measure and put notch in the PZT path
- Increase the UGF / measure the openloop TF

Attachment 1: fss_servo.png
Attachment 2: mc_servo.png
  4361   Sat Feb 26 02:33:16 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingsidebands on beatnote

The power ratio of the beatnote signal vs. the 216kHz sideband has been measured.

The measured ratio was -55 dB, which is smaller by about 20 dB than Aidan's estimation.

To confirm this fact we should check the modulation depth of the end PDH somehow.


The below is a picture showing the sidebands around the beatnote locked at 66.45 MHz.

Other than the +/-216 kHz sidebands, we can see some funny peaks at +/- 50 kHz and +/-150 kHz

I wonder if they come from the servo oscillation of the MC servo whose UGF is at 24 kHz.  We can check it by unlocking the MC.


Quote: #4351 by Aidan

So, on the vertex PD, the power of the 80MHz +/-200kHz sidebands should be around sqrt(0.15)*0.05 = 0.02 = 2% of the 80MHz beatnote.

Once we get the green and IR locked to the arm again, we're going to look for the sidebands around the beatnote.

  4362   Sun Feb 27 09:43:59 2011 AidanUpdateGreen Lockingsidebands on beatnote

Can we set up a fiber-PD on the end table to look at the beat between the "end laser IR beam" and the "PSL IR beam fiber-transmitted end beam"? 

We should see the same thing on that PD that we see on the green PD (plus any fiber noise and I'm not really sure how much that'll be off the top of my head). If we unlock the lasers from the arm cavity then the free-running noise of the lasers wrt to each other will probably swamp the 50kHz and 150kHz signals. Maybe we could lock the end laser to the free-running PSL by demodulating the beat note signal from the fiber-PD and then we could look for the extra sidebands in the IN-LOOP signal. Then we could progressively lock the PSL to the MC and arm cavity and see if the sidebands appear on the fiber-PD at some point in that process. 

It's possible that the 216kHz drive of the PZT on the Innolight is somehow driving up some sub-harmonics in the crystal. I think this is unlikely though: if you look at Mott's measurements of the Innolight PZT response, there are no significant PM resonances at 50 or 150kHz.



Other than the +/-216 kHz sidebands, we can see some funny peaks at +/- 50 kHz and +/-150 kHz.


Quote: #4351 by Aidan

So, on the vertex PD, the power of the 80MHz +/-200kHz sidebands should be around sqrt(0.15)*0.05 = 0.02 = 2% of the 80MHz beatnote.

Once we get the green and IR locked to the arm again, we're going to look for the sidebands around the beatnote.


  4363   Sun Feb 27 13:09:56 2011 ranaUpdateGreen Lockingsidebands on beatnote

When Koji and I were massaging the MC, we noticed that the oscillations were at 48.5 kHz. They were pretty huge and are probably what you're seeing on the beat. My guess is that they are the PZT resonances of the PSL 2W NPRO; we need to put a notch in the FSS box - it still has the notch from the old NPRO.

  4365   Tue Mar 1 08:42:18 2011 AidanUpdateelogRestarted the elog this morning

 The elog was dead this morning. I reanimated it. It is now undead.

Attachment 1: Zombie.gif
  4366   Wed Mar 2 04:01:51 2011 KojiUpdateIOOMC servo improvement

[Koji / Rana]

- Since the MC servo had UGF up to ~20kHz and huge servo bump at 50kHz, we needed more phase between 20kHz to 100kHz.

- Today a phase compensation filter in a Pomona box has been inserted between the MC servo box and the FSS box.
  This is a passive filter with zero@14kHz and pole@140kHz. We obtain ~60deg at around 50kHz.

- After the insertion, the lock of the MC was achieved immediately. The overall gain as well as the PZT fast gain was tweaked
  such that the PC feedback is reduced down to 1~2.

- The OLTF has been measured.
  The insertion of the filter change increased the UGF to 130kHz even with "40:4kHz" and double super boost turned on.

  The phase margin is 54deg. Quite healthy.

- Rana modified the existed Auto Locker script.
  It is now continuously running on op340m!
  We made a couple of testsif it correctly relock the MC and it did. VERY COOL.


- Measure the PMC cavity pole
- Measure the circuit TF and try to shave off the phase lag.
- Measure the PZT resonance of the NPRO and put notch in the PZT path
- Increase the UGF / measure the openloop TF

Attachment 1: IMG_3904.jpg
Attachment 2: MC_OLTF.pdf
  4369   Wed Mar 2 18:08:43 2011 AidanUpdateGreen LockingGhost beams on green

Kiwamu and I noticed that there is a ghost beam on the green beam going into the ETM. What we see is some interference fringes on the edge of the transmission of the green beam through the dichroic beam splitter (DCBS). If we look at the reflection from the dichroic beam splitter these are much more pronounced.

The spacing of the fringes (about 2 per 10mm) indicates an angle between the fields of around 0.1 mrad.

We were able to cause significant motion of the fringes by pushing on the knobs of the steering mirrors that steer the beam into the DCBS. A rough calculation of the derivative of optical path difference between the ghost and the primary beam as a function of input angle gives about 15 microns per mrad. What filtering the effect the arm cavity will have on the ghost beam is not immediately clear, but the numbers shouldn't be too difficult to determine.


Attachment 1: Ghost_Beam_at_ETM_DCBS.pdf
  4370   Wed Mar 2 22:04:22 2011 KevinUpdateElectronicsPOY Shot Noise Measurement

The previous measurement for the shot noise of POY had the dark noise at ~100 nV/rtHz. I redid the measurement and got 26 nV/rtHz for the dark noise. I think that when I made the previous measurement, the spectrum analyzer had automatically added some attenuation to the input that I failed to remove. This added attenuation raised the noise floor of the measurement making the dark noise of POY appear larger than it is.

The updated measurement can be found on the wiki at http://lhocds.ligo-wa.caltech.edu:8000/40m/Electronics/POY.

  4372   Thu Mar 3 00:12:52 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingplan
Tomorrow's tasks
  - Auto noise budget (Jamie)
  - Demodulation phase adjustment (Kate)
  - Auto alignment for green (Joe/Kiwamu)
  - ADC connection for the X end green REFL_DC ( )
  - remote local boost for the X end green ( )
  - TDS stuff (Joe)
  - check harmonic distortions on the RF distribution box (Larisa/Koji)
  - connect the X end mechanical shutter to c1auxex (Steve)
  4373   Thu Mar 3 07:25:24 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingscrewed up the end PDH box

 I somehow screwed up the PDH box at the X end station. 

Right now it's not working, so I am going to check and fix it today.


 In the last evening I found that one of the gain stages on the PDH box wasn't fully functional.

So I started investigating it and I though it was going to finish soon, but actually it wasn't so easy.


  The PDH box has several gain stages. So an input signal goes through a buffer, a filter, a boost and an output buffer stages sequentially.

The boost stage is supposed to have gain of 10, but I found it didn't have such gain.

In fact the gain was something like -30dB which is pretty small. Plus this boost stage was imposing an wired bump on the transfer function around 50 kHz.

I checked the voltages on some components around the boost stage and confirmed there were no strange voltage.

Then I suspected that the op-amp : LF356 had been broken for some reason. So I replaced it by LT1792 to see if it fixes the issue.

Indeed it did make it functional. However after few minutes of the replacement, it went back to the same bad condition.

I have no idea about what was going on at that time. Anyway it needs more careful investigations.


  I temporarily put a jumper cable on the board to skip this stage, but now the PDH lock is not healthy at all.

  4374   Thu Mar 3 18:32:33 2011 Larisa ThorneUpdateElectronicsHarmonic distortion calculations for RF distribution box

Finished calculations for harmonic distortion at each of the 10 outputs of the RF distribution box. The diagram can be found on Suresh's post  http://nodus.ligo.caltech.edu:8080/40m/4342


THD calculation consisted of gather data on the dBm at harmonics of the fundamental frequency. These dBm values were converted into units of power and plugged into the appropriate THD equation pulled from Wikipedia: 
\mbox{THD} = \frac{P_2 + P_3 + P_4 + \cdots + P_\infty}{P_1} = \frac{\displaystyle\sum_{n=2}^\infty P_n}{P_1}

On the table, the number 1-6 correspond to the harmonic number of the input frequency used. For example, the first five PD's listed used an 11MHz source, while the second set of five PD's listed used a 55MHz source. Values listed under certain harmonics are dBm measurements at the corresponding frequency. The P-subscript values are essentially the dBm measurements converted to units of power (Watts) for ease of calculation in the equation above. THD is then calculated using these power units; I have converted the ratios to percentages.


It should be noted that as with all THD calculations, the more data points collected, the more precise the THD % will be.

By the way, the outputs on the physical RF distribution box for REFL165 and AS165 are actually labeled as REFL166 and AS166. 

Attachment 1: RFdistribboxcalcs.pdf
  4376   Fri Mar 4 03:31:35 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingA first noise budget

I made a noise budget for the ALS noise measurement that I did a week ago (see #4352).

I am going to post some details about this plot later because I am now too sleepy.


  4377   Fri Mar 4 09:47:46 2011 SureshUpdateElectronicsHarmonic distortion calculations for RF distribution box

Fast work indeed! It would be nice if we could have the following details filled in as well
a) A short title and caption for the table, saying what we are measuring
b) the units in which this physical quantity is being measured.

It is good to keep in mind that people from other parts of the group, who are not directly involved in this work, may also read this elog.

  4378   Fri Mar 4 13:25:04 2011 ZachUpdateelogrestarted

with script

  4379   Fri Mar 4 18:06:34 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingnoise budget : differential noise

Here I explain how I estimate the contribution from the differential noise shown in the plot on my last entry (#4376) .



 According to the measurement done about a week ago, there is a broadband noise in the green beatnote path when both Green and IR are locked to the X arm.

The noise can be found on the first plot on this entry (#4352) drawn in purple. We call it differential noise.

However, remember, the thing we care is the noise appearing in the IR PDH port when the ALS standard configuration is applied (i.e. taking the beatnote and feeding it back to ETMX).

So we have to somehow convert the noise to that in terms of the ALS configuration.

In the ALS configuration, since the loop topology is slightly different from that when the differential noise was measured, we have to apply a transfer function to properly estimate the contribution.


(How to estimate)

 It's not so difficult to calculate the contribution from the differential noise under some reasonable assumptions.

Let us assume that the MC servo and the end PDH servo have a higher UGF than the ALS, and assume their gains are sufficiently big.

Then those assumptions allow us to simplify the control loop to like the diagram below:


 Since we saw the differential noise from the beatnote path, I inject the noise after the frequency comparison in this model.

Eventually the noise is going to propagate to the f_IR_PDH port by multiplying by G/(1+G), where G is the open loop transfer function of the ALS.

The plot below shows the open loop transfer function which I used and the resultant G/(1+G).


In the curve of G/(1+G), you can see there is a broad bump with the gain of more than 1,  approximately from 20 Hz to 60 Hz.

Because of this bump, the resultant contribution from the differential noise at this region is now prominent as shown in the plot on the last entry (#4376).

Quote: #4376

I made a noise budget for the ALS noise measurement that I did a week ago (see #4352).

I am going to post some details about this plot later


  4380   Mon Mar 7 17:22:39 2011 josephbUpdateCDSNew simulated plant work

[Joe, Jamie]

We modified the c1scx model to have a switch to go between simulated and real plants.  The channel is currently C1:SCX-SIM_SWITCH. 

When this channel is zero, the simulated plant channels are going to the ADCs and zeros  are going out to the real DACs.  When this channel is one, the real ADCs are coming in, and real data is going out to the DACs.

Jamie will be adding a big green/red light to the suspension screens which indicate the state of the simulated plant.  We will also eventually add this to the overall status screen.

A control screen for the simulated plant is located at /opt/rtcds/caltech/c1/medm/c1spx/master/C1SUP_ETMX.adl.  These are currently a work in progress.

  4383   Tue Mar 8 06:29:06 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise setup

[Jenne, Chris, Kiwamu]

 A photo diode and an AOM driver have been newly setup on the PSL table to measure the intensity noise coupling to the beat note signal.

We tried taking a transfer function from the PD to the beat, but the SNR wasn't sufficient on the PD. So we didn't get reasonable data.


(what we did)

  - put a DCPD after the doubling crystal on the PSL table. The PD is sitting after the Y1 mirror, which has been used for picking off the undesired IR beam.

  - installed the AOM driver (the AOM itself had been already in place)

  - injected some signals onto the AOM to see if we can see an intensity fluctuation on the PD as well as the beat signal


(intensity noise)

  In order to have better SNR for the intensity measurement, we put an AC coupled SR560 with the gain of 100 just before the ADCs.

When a single frequency signal was applied from a Stanford Research's function generator to the AOM, we could clearly see a peak at the doubled frequency of the injected signal.

Also a peak at the same frequency was found on the beat note signal as well.

But when random noise was injected from the same function generator, the random noise looked below the ADC noise.

Jenne adjusted the output voltage from the PD to about 1 V to avoid a saturation in the analog path, but later we realized that the ADC counts was marely ~ 20 counts.

So we will check the ADC tomorrow. Hopefully we will get a good SNR.

  4384   Tue Mar 8 14:50:19 2011 kiwamuUpdateCDSnames for filter modules


 We found there are some filter names that we can not properly build for some reason.

The following names are not properly going to be built :


 - AUX

If we use the names shown above for filters, it doesn't compile any filter modules.

We took a quick look around the src files including feCodegen.pl, but didn't find any obvious bugs.

  4385   Tue Mar 8 15:20:31 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingdifferential noise on Mar.8th


Noise below 10 Hz became larger again compared with the data before (see here #4352)

Note that the Y-axis is in MHz.

  4386   Tue Mar 8 15:23:16 2011 steveUpdatePEMclean room gloves

Ansell AccuTech 91-300 clean room gloves  ONLY in the 40m lab.

Cleaning and preparation must be carried out in these gloves also.

  4388   Tue Mar 8 16:59:47 2011 josephbUpdateCDSSimulated Plant Work

The screens for the simplified c1spx model have been updated.  I re-introduced the suspension point information into the sensor output matrix so we can take into account the fact that as the entire supporting structure moves, the osems moves relative to the optic.

Master screens for the noise filters (i.e. 60 Hz, suspension point motion, and optic noise) have been created.

I have currently set the matrix values of the c1spx model to handle just longitudinal motion.  I.e. Coils drive only in the POS degree of freedom and sensor read outs are also only in the POS degree of freedom.  I've turned off all the noise inputs.

I added a simple double pole at 1 Hz in the C1:SUP_ETMX_PL_F2P_0_0 filter bank.

  4389   Wed Mar 9 04:46:13 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingmore intensity noise measurement


Here is a diagram for our intensity noise coupling measurement.



The below is a plot for the intensity noise on the DCPD. (I forgot to take a spectra of the PD dark noise)

For some reason, the RIN spectrum becomes sometimes noisier and sometimes quieter. Note that after 10 pm it's been in the quiet state for most of the time.

An interesting thing is that the structure below 3 Hz looks like excited by motion of the MC when it's in the louder state.


Quote: from #4383

A photo diode and an AOM driver have been newly setup on the PSL table to measure the intensity noise coupling to the beat note signal.

We tried taking a transfer function from the PD to the beat, but the SNR wasn't sufficient on the PD. So we didn't get reasonable data.

  4390   Wed Mar 9 16:07:42 2011 kiwamuUpdateVIDEOcable session

[Koji, Steve, Suresh, Kiwamu]

The following video cables have been newly laid down :

  - MC1F/MC3F (65 ft.)

  - PMCR (100 ft.)

  - PSL spare (100 ft.)

  - PSL1  (100 ft.)

  - PSL2  (100 ft.)


  4392   Wed Mar 9 18:17:11 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise coupling

Here is a new plot for the differential noise measurement. I plot a noise contribution from the intensity noise (brown curve).

If we believe this data, the differential noise is NOT dominated by the intensity noise of the PSL.



(intensity noise coupling measurement)

 Here is a plot for the transfer functions (TFs) from the intensity noise DCPD to the beat signal.


   In principle these TFs tell us how much intensity noise are contributed into the differential noise.

When I measured the spectra shown above, the frequency offset of the beatnote was at about 8 MHz from the zero cross point.

Keeping the same lock, I measured the transfer function (red curve) by using the swept sine technique on DTT. The setup for this measurement is depicted on the last entry (#4389).

Then I made the spectra above by multiplying the intensity spectrum by this TF.

  Later I measured another transfer function when the beatnote was at about 2 MHz from the zero cross point.

According to this measurement, our MFD gets insensitive to the intensity noise as the beat offset goes close to the zero cross point. This is consistent with what we expected.

  4393   Wed Mar 9 23:19:04 2011 kiwamuUpdateCDSrebooted c1ioo

For some reason the c1ioo machine suddenly died just 30 miteus before.

It died after we added a DAQ channel for c1gcv and rebooted the frame builder.

It didn't respond to a ping command. Therefore I rebooted the machine by clicking the physical reset button.

Now it seems fine.

  4395   Thu Mar 10 01:31:37 2011 KevinUpdateElectronicsAS55 Characterizations

I measured the transfer function, shot noise, and dark spectrum of AS55.

From the shot noise measurement, the RF transimpedance is (556.3 +- 0.8) Ohms and the dark current is (2.39 +- 0.01) mA. The dark noise agrees with the approximate value calculated from the circuit components.

There are no anomalous oscillations when there is no light on the photodiode. I am working on fitting the transfer function in LISO but the other plots are on the wiki at http://blue.ligo-wa.caltech.edu:8000/40m/Electronics/AS55

  4396   Thu Mar 10 13:44:56 2011 josephbUpdateCDSAdded digitization noise to the c1spy model for simulated ADCs/DACs

To simulate digitization noise, the easiest way I found was to use the MathFunction block, found in the CDS_PARTS model, under simLinkParts. 

The MathFunction block supports square of input value, square root of input value, reciprocal of input value, and modulo of two input values.

The last is useful because it casts the input values as integers before taking the modulo.By placing this block after the saturation block (set to +/- 32768), adding 32768.5, choosing the 2nd input to be larger than 2 * 32768 (100,000 in this case), and then subtracting 32768, we wind up with a rounding function. 

The above method has been applied to the c1spy model in the CI and SO out sub-blocks.

  4397   Thu Mar 10 14:06:54 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

We are limited by the intensity noise of the X arm transmitted green light.

Since the intensity noise from the PSL wasn't big enough to explain the differential noise (#4392), so this time I measured the noise contribution from the X arm transmitted light.


(coupling measurement)


  I performed the same intensity noise coupling measurement, but this time between the DC signal of the beatnote RFPD and the beatnote signal.

 While measuring it, I excited the intensity of the PSL laser by using the same AOM like I did yesterday. This AM cause the observable intensity noise on the beatnote RFPD.

With the excited AM, we can pretend to have an excited AM on the green transmitted light from the X arm, of course assuming the intensity noise coupling from the PSL is less.

  4398   Thu Mar 10 14:22:58 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

The next steps we should do are :

    - to investigate a cause of the intensity fluctuation
          * end green laser
          * suspensions' angular motions
          * doublecheck the RIN contribution if it's from the PSL or the X arm in the beatnote RFPD to make sure the RIN is dominated by the X arm transmitted light
    - to think about how to make the system insensitive to the intensity noise
          - bring the beat frequency to the zero cross point of the MFDs ?
          - PLL ?


We are limited by the intensity noise of the X arm transmitted green light.

  4399   Thu Mar 10 14:29:05 2011 KojiUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

We can modify the freq divider circuit to make it a comparator.


The next steps we should do are :

    - to investigate a cause of the intensity fluctuation
          * end green laser
          * suspensions' angular motions
          * doublecheck the RIN contribution if it's from the PSL or the X arm in the beatnote RFPD to make sure the RIN is dominated by the X arm transmitted light
    - to think about how to make the system insensitive to the intensity noise
          - bring the beat frequency to the zero cross point of the MFDs ?
          - PLL ?


We are limited by the intensity noise of the X arm transmitted green light.


  4400   Thu Mar 10 14:30:53 2011 ranaUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

There are 3 standard techniques to reduce this effect:

1) Stabilize the end laser by sensing the green light coming into the PSL before recombination and feeding back with SR560 (this is the only one that you should try at first).

2) Moving to the center of the MFD fringe via ETM steps.

3) Auto-alignment of the beam to the arm.

  4401   Thu Mar 10 16:00:53 2011 Aidan, JoeUpdateGreen LockingIntensity stabilization loop using beatnote DC.

Aidan: Joe and I have added a channel that takes the DC output from the vertex beatnote PD and sends it, via RFM, to a DAC at the ETMX end. Immediately before the output is a filter C1GCX_AMP_CTRL. The output of the DAC is connected to the CURRENT LASER DIODE modulation input on the back of the Innolight driver. This will modulate the current by 0.1A/V input.

We should be able to modulate the green laser on the end now and stabilize the intensity of the amplitude on the beatnote PD at the vertex. (In this configuration, the ampltiude noise of the PSL laser will be injected onto the end laser - we may want to revisit that).

Joe's comments on model change:

I added a RFM connection at the output of the C1:GCV-XARM_BEAT_DC filter in the c1gcv model.  The RFM connection is called: C1:GCV-SCX_ETMX_AMP_CTRL.

This RFM connection goes to the c1scx model and into Kiwamu's GCX box, which uses top_names.  There's a filter inside called AMP_CTRL, so the full filter name is C1:GCX-AMP_CTRL.  The output then goes to the 7th DAC output.


  1. NPRO CURRENT CTRL plugged into DAC channel 7
  2. You can actually see it's channel 7 in this image
  3. The other end plugged into the back of the Innolight driver
  4. Schematic of the setup
  5. Updated C1ALS_OVERVIEW MEDM screen (I don't know why the field in the background turned orange - maybe it's coming into a long dry summer?)



There are 3 standard techniques to reduce this effect:

1) Stabilize the end laser by sensing the green light coming into the PSL before recombination and feeding back with SR560 (this is the only one that you should try at first).


The reason that I chose this PD is that, apparently, the green light coming from the cavity is clipped when it is picked off for its DC PD.

Attachment 1: P1000313.jpg
Attachment 2: P1000314.jpg
Attachment 3: P1000315.jpg
Attachment 4: GREEN_ISS_LOOP.pdf
Attachment 5: Screenshot-C1ALS_OVERVIEW.adl.png
  4403   Thu Mar 10 21:45:34 2011 ranaUpdateGreen LockingIntensity stabilization loop using beatnote DC.

Ridiculous and hacky. Digital stabilization removed as well as the old "leave a pile of equipment on a stool" strategy.

We used a a BNC cable to send a pickoff of the beam before the recombination to the end via an SR560.

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