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ID Date Authorup Type Category Subject
  4191   Mon Jan 24 02:58:46 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingX arm locked !

I succeeded in green-locking the X arm by feeding back the beat signal to ETMX.

Here are some quick reports. Some more details will be posted tomorrow.


The below shows a time series data of the PLL feedback signal when the servo was acquiring the lock.


At t = -2 sec. I started feeding back the signal to ETMX with the gain 50 times smaller than its nominal.

Then at t = 0 sec.I switched on a low frequency boost (pole 0.1Hz and zero 1Hz) to make it more robust.

At t = 3 sec. I increased the gain to the nominal.

Finally the UGF became ~ 60 Hz according to my open loop measurement by diaggui.

However I couldn't make the UGF higher than 60Hz because the more gain caused a instability for some reasons.


Here is a diagram for the green locking.

I used the same VCO box as we setup on the last Friday (see #4189).


  4195   Mon Jan 24 13:08:07 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingRe: X arm locked !

Quote: #4192

Also, the PLL diagram seems to show that you have a 1/f^2 loop: 1/f from the SR560 and 1/f from the Hz->rad conversion ??

Well, the diagram I drew is true. I also have been confused by this 1/f^2 issue in our PLL.

As Rana pointed out, the open-loop TF should become 1/f^2 over most of the frequency range, but it still remains 1/f above 5kHz for some reasons. 

 Need more investigations.


 At the beginning I tried phase-locking the VCO to the beat note without any external filters (i.e. SR560 see here), but I never succeeded.

It was because the hold-in range of the PLL was not sufficiently wide, it could stay locked within frequency range of less than +/- 1MHz from the center frequency of 80 MHz.

This is obviously not good, because the beat note typically fluctuates by more than +/- 3MHz in time scale of 1 sec or so.

  So I decided to put an external filter, SR560,  in order to have a larger DC gain and a higher UGF.

Somehow I unconsciously tuned the SR560 to have a pole at 1Hz with the gain of 2000, which shouldn't work in principle because the open-loop will be 1/f^2.

However I found that the PLL became more robust, in fact it can track the input frequency range of +/- 5MHz.

The open-loop TF is shown above. For comparison I plotted also the open-loop TF wehn it's without the SR560.

I checked the frequency of the VCO output when it was phase-locked to a Marconi, it was healthy (i.e. the same frequency as the input signal from Marconi).

  4196   Mon Jan 24 14:27:13 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingRe: X arm locked !

Quote: #4193

So, how is the IR error signal stabilized when the IR is brought in to the resonance?

I can see the linear trend of 0.1V/s from 5s to 10s.  This corresponds to 100kHz/s and 13nm for the residual beat drift and the arm length motion, respectively. That sounds huge.

 I haven't yet taken any data for the IR fluctuation when the Xarm is locked by the green locking.

You are right, the DC drift was due to a lack of the DC gain. But don't worry about that, because this issue has been solved.


(DC gain issue)

  The lack of DC gain was because I put an IIR filter called ''DC block" that I made. It has 1/f shape below 30mHz and becomes flat above it.

The purpose of this filter was to avoid a DC kick when it starts feeding back to ETMX.

Usually the output signal from the PLL has an offset, typically ~5V, then this offset is also acquired into the ADC and eventually kicks ETMX through the feedback.

So when I took the time series data I enabled the 'DC block', that's why it drifts slowly.

 After taking the time series, I found that without this 'DC block' technique, the lock can be achieved by appropriately subtracting the offsets with epics numerical values.

This subtraction technique, of course, gave me more stable lock at DC.


(open loop transfer function)

Here is the open-loop TF of the arm locking I measured last night:


The IIR filter chain has the following poles and zeros:

     pole 0.1Hz, 1000Hz,

   zero 1Hz, 30Hz

For the fitting I assume that the ETMX pendulum has a resonance at 1Hz with Q of 5. Also I put the cavity pole at 24 kHz, assuming the finesse is 80 at 532 nm.

I just fitted the gain and the time delay by my eyes.

If I believe the result of the fitting, whole time delay is 330 usec, which sounds pretty large to me.

  4198   Tue Jan 25 05:26:51 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingcavity scan


I scanned the X arm by changing an offset for the feedback to ETMX while the arm stayed locked by the green locking.

But the resultant plot is still far away from a beautiful one.

Changing the offset broke the lock frequently, so eventually I couldn't measure the stability of the IR-PDH signal at the resonance. 


 The plot above is a result of the scanning. You can see there is a clear resonance at the center of the plot.

However the lock frequently became unstable when I was changing the offset.

It looked like this unstability came from the end PDH lock. I guess there are two possible reasons:

  (1)  feedback range for the laser PZT is not wide enough. Right now the range is limited by a SR560, which has been used for a summing amplifier.

  (2)  Length to Alignment coupling. Pushing ETMX causes a misalignment.

The issue (1) can be easily solved by engaging the temperature feedback, which helps actuating the laser frequency a lot at DC.

The issue (2) will be also solved by well align the IR beam, the arm cavity and the green beam.

  4199   Tue Jan 25 06:48:55 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingTo do list

Here are some tasks that I want someone to work on during my absence.

1. Y-arm alignment for IR

 Basically we gradually have to move onto the Y-arm locking at some point.

Prior to it we need to align the Y arm for IR. Probably we have to touch PZT1 and PZT2.

It would be very nice if the X-arm alignment also gets improved together with this work. 


2. Temperature feedback with a digital control for X end PDH lock

  Need a temperature feedback not with an analog way but with a digital way because we want to put an offset and the feedback signal at the same time (#4198).

 Right now the temperature control input of the laser is connected to a slow DAC (#3850).

Probably we should plug the feedback signal from the PDH box to the fast ADC (i.e. c1iscex), and then connect a fast DAC to the laser temperature.

This entry maybe helpful.


3. Calibration of optical gain for IR arm locking

 In order to evaluate the performance of the green locking, one of the key points is the IR PDH signal.

Because it tells us how much the motion of the X arm is suppressed at IR when the green lock is engaged.

To get this information in m/sqrtHz, we need to know the optical gain.


4. MC servo characterization and PSL frequency noise measurement

 SInce the green beat note tells us the frequency difference between the MC and the arm in the current configuration, we should know how the MC servo is.

Along with this work, I need someone to measure the PSL frequency noise, when it is locked to the MC over the frequency range from 0.01Hz to 1kHz.


5. PLL characterization 

 Solve this issue (#4195) and make it reliable.

  4261   Tue Feb 8 15:22:13 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingnew electronics rack at X end

 Yesterday I moved the whole green electronics stuff, which had been sitting on the floor at the X end,  into a new electronics rack.

The rack now is placed under the cable rail close to the ETMX chamber.


  4268   Thu Feb 10 05:06:35 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingbeat noise : a little bit better, and 1Hz peak from amplitude noise coupling

 I repeated the same measurement as that Koji did before (see here) with the mixer-based frequency discriminator.

The frequency fluctuation of the beat note is now 50 kHz in rms integrated down to 0.1 Hz, which is a bit better than before.

However there still is the same undesired structure in the spectrum below 10 Hz.



Fig.1 power spectra of the green beat note fluctuation in terms of frequency fluctuation.

   Red curves were taken when the IR was locked to the MC, and the green was locked to the X arm.

Blue curves were taken when both the IR and the green were locked to the X arm.

Black curve was also the one taken when the IR and the green were locked to the X arm, but showing the lower noise level.

I have no idea what exactly was going on when I took the black curve, but this noise level sometimes showed up.

The discrepancy may come from a kind of calibration error although I kept using the same calibration factor to convert the data from count to frequency.

Need more investigations.


 Additionally Koji and I took the coherence between the beat fluctuation and the transmitted lights of both the IR and the green.

It showed a strong coherence at 1 Hz, which is one of the dominant noise of the beat note.

This probably indicates that the 1 Hz peak is produced by a coupling from amplitude fluctuation.


 For monitoring the green transmitted light, I used the Jenne's PD (see here)

  4278   Sun Feb 13 15:02:23 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingX arm beam offcentering has been measured

The amounts of the X arm's beam off-centering have been measured by the A2L technique.

So now we are able to start aligning the IR beam axis in a quantitative way.



 Since we saw big residual motions at 1 Hz, 16 Hz on both the green beat note signal and the IR PDH signal (see #4268 and #4211),

we are suspecting that these noise come from an angle to length coupling.

In order to minimize the angle to length coupling, one thing we can do is to bring the beam spots to the center of ITMX and ETMX more precisely.

To do it, we have to quantitatively know how well the beam spots are on the center of the optics. Therefore I started measuring the amount of the beam off-centering.



 The A2L technique was used to measure the off-centering with the real-time lockin system, which has been recently embedded in the real-time code by Joe (see #4265).

The idea is the same as Yuta did before (see #3863).

But this time the excitation signal from the real-time oscillator was injected directly to the coil matrix on either ITMX or ETMX, at 18.13 Hz with the amplitude of about 400 cnt.

When the IR laser stays locked to the X arm, the LSC feedback signal is demodulated with the oscillator signal.

This demodulated signal gives the amount of the off-centering.

For this purpose I modified Yuta's A2L script such that we can use it also for the X arm.



 I obtained the following values:

     - ETMX

         PIT  = -1.61 mm

         YAW =  -0.918 mm

    - ITMX

         PIT = -3.76 mm

        YAW = -2.24 mm

I used the same calibration factor as that of Koji calculated (see #3020) for MC, in order to convert the results from the coil gain to the off-centering.

These values are consistent with the spots appearing on the CCD monitors.


  4280   Sun Feb 13 16:50:17 2011 kiwamuUpdateASCIP_ANG was at wrong ADC

I found that the ADC channels for IP_ANG had been assigned to a wrong machine.

IP_ANG is supposed to be acquired at c1auxey (east end), but actually it had been at c1auxex (south end).

This is the reason why we couldn't see any signals from IP_ANG.

So I fixed it by editing the db files (i.e. ETMXaux.db and ETMYaux.db). Now it seems working fine.


This mistake obviously came from the X-Y name swapping business. Something else might be still wrong.



  4287   Mon Feb 14 12:37:23 2011 kiwamuUpdateASCno signal from IP_ANG_Seg1

It turns out there are no reasonable signal from the segment 1 on the IP_ANG QPD.

For right now I can still use it as a funny QPD, but I absolutely need somebody to check and fix it in a daytime.


IP_ANG is supposed to be acquired at c1auxey (east end), but actually it had been at c1auxex (south end).

So I fixed it by editing the db files (i.e. ETMXaux.db and ETMYaux.db). Now it seems working fine.


  4294   Tue Feb 15 02:13:16 2011 kiwamuSummaryASCa daytime task : small signals on ETMX OL

Rana and I found that the QPD for the optical lever at X end are showing small signals.

At this moment each of the segments exhibits approximately 200 counts when the oplev beam is centered.

These small numbers may be due to the coating of ETMX, but we are not sure.

Probably we have to increase the gain of the QPD depending on situations.


So a set of the tomorrow's daytime task is:

   1. check the trend data of the QPD outputs to see how much signals were there in the past.

   2. check the whitening filters to make sure if it's on or off.

   3. If it's necessary, increase the gain of the QPD to have reasonable readouts.

I am going to ask somebody to do this task.

  4295   Tue Feb 15 03:10:37 2011 kiwamuUpdateASCIR beam alignment for Xarm : TRX reduction

I tried aligning the IR beam axis for the X arm to have good beam centering on ITMX and ETMX.

As a first attempt, I started translating the beam upward by steering PZT1 and PZT2, since the pitch was quite off from the center on ITMX.

As a result I could decrease the pitch off-centering down to about 0.5 mm on ITMY, but on the other hand TRX decreased a lot (by a factor of 4).

I am worrying if something in the central part of IFO might be clipping the beam.



When I was touching PZT1 and PZT2, I payed attention on IP_ANG so that I don't lose a beam spot on IP_ANG.

As long as the beam is on the IP_ANG QPD, the angle of the beam should not be so much different.

Each time after I touched the PZTs, I realigned ITMX and ETMX to maximize the transmitted light.

In this way I proceeded the alignment by changing the PZT offsets little by little while keeping the X arm locked always.

At the beginning, all the PZT offsets were zero. And at the end of this work they became:

 C1:LSC-PZT1_Y = 1.880

 C1:LSC-PZT2_Y = -1.699

But during this alignment work TRX gradually decreased eventually down to 0.25, which had been 1 at the beginning (TRX is calibrated by dividing it by its maximum power).

Along with this TRX reduction, I found that the optical gain also decreased by a factor of about 5.

This fact has been confirmed by intentionally increasing the filter gain such that the servo oscillates at the UGF.


The amounts of the X arm's beam off-centering have been measured by the A2L technique.

     - ETMX

         PIT  = -1.61 mm

         YAW =  -0.918 mm

    - ITMX

         PIT = -3.76 mm

        YAW = -2.24 mm


  4299   Tue Feb 15 11:53:02 2011 kiwamuSummaryGeneraltoday's missions

I think this week is going to be an "alignment week".

The goal is to get a good alignment on X arm for both the green and the IR beam in order to reduce a2l couplings.


Today's missions are :

 - fixing the oplev channel names (see here)

 - fixing the oplev gain issue (see here)

 - engage the oplev servos

 - f2p adjustment

 - make a realtime lockin model for the f2p measurement and the dithering technique

 - alignment of the MC incident beam  (because we installed a new PMC this morning)

 - manual alignment of the IR beam by steering PZT1 and PZT2 (this procedure will be replaced by an automatic way soon)

 - bounce roll filters (see here)


  4306   Wed Feb 16 02:04:11 2011 kiwamuUpdateASCIR beam alignment

[Jenne and Kiwamu]

 This time we aligned the vertical angle (not the translation) of the IR beam so that the transmitted light from BS shoots the center of ETMY.

The idea is to use ETMY as a beam pointing reference instead using IP_ANG, assuming the translation is not so bad.

As a result it looks like we are wining. A quick A2L test on ITMX_PITCH showed a small off-centering at sub-milimeter level.


 We are concluding that the initial beam after PZT2 had been pointing downward somehow.

Before doing this whole job, we checked the spot shape on IP_POS to see if the beam is clipped or not. It was a round shape, which means no clipping around MMT.

But on the other hand, the spot on IP_ANG had been clipped more than half of its bottom as Suresh reported on his elog (see here).

I found that this clipping is able to be fixed by moving the beam angle upward. I guess the clipping happened at one of the steering mirror in the ETMY chamber.

According to these information, we imagined that the beam was somehow pointing downward after PZT2.

So we started aligning the beam by touching only PZT2 for vertical direction. Then we found a beam spot on ETMY's suspension frame, and brought it to the center.

Then we aligned BS and X arm for this new beam axis. The it resulted a small off-centering on pitch.

Once the MC fully gets back, we will examine the TRX degradation with this configuration.

  4310   Thu Feb 17 00:43:13 2011 kiwamuSummaryGeneralto do list for tomorrow

Let's share our tasks !


==== daytime ===

 . mode matching for MC  (Jenne/Koji)

 . mode matching for doubling crystal on PSL table (Suresh/Koji)

 . f2p adjustment (Kiwamu)

 . fix daq and CDS issues (Joe)

 . increase oplev gain (low priority)

 . make ITMY camera nicer (Steve)

 . c1ass simlink model (Valera/Joe)

 . Bounce Roll notches (Suresh)


==== nighttime (after 7pm) ====

 . align everything   (at first green beam, then X arm cavity and finally IR beam)

 . update the noise spectrum of the green locking

 . estimate the noise from angle to length coupling

  4321   Fri Feb 18 00:13:55 2011 kiwamuUpdateCDSRe:Daqd was rebuilt, now reverted.



As one of the trouble shooting steps for the daqd (i.e. framebuilder) I rebuilt the daqd executable.

  4322   Fri Feb 18 00:35:21 2011 kiwamuSummaryGeneralto do list for Feb. 18th


  -  more precise F2P measurement and modify lockin simlink model (Kiwamu)

  -  run  C1ASS to check it (Valera)

  -  take care of CDS (Joe)

  -  MC mode matching (Jenne/Koji)

   -  RF stuff  (Suresh)

  -  mode matching for doubling crystal at PSL table (low priority)

  -  OPLEV (low priority)


 -  update the noise spectra of green locking

 -  make noise budgets

  4324   Fri Feb 18 15:05:49 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingtransfer function of angle to beat note (length)

[Koji and Kiwamu]

 We took transfer functions (TF) from the angle excitations at ETMX and ITMX to the green beat note signal (i.e. angle to length TF).

It turned out that the coupling from ETMX_PIT is quite large.

I wonder how f2p of the ETMX changes this coupling. We'll see.




The plot above shows a set of the transfer functions from the angle excitation to the green beat note.

Note that the y-axis has not been calibrated, it is just a unit of counts/counts.

You can see that the TF from ETMX_PIT to the beat (red cruve) is larger than the others by about a factor of 10 over most of the frequency range.

This means that any PIT motions on ETMX can be coupled into the green beat signal somewhat over the wide frequency range.

It looks having a resonance at 1.5 Hz, but we don't exactly know why.

At that time the coil gains on only ITMX were tuned by applying f2p filters, but ETMX wasn't because of a technical reason coming from epics.


- - - - measurement conditions

  * PSL laser was locked to X arm by feeding back the IR PDH signal to MC2.

  * the green laser was locked to Xarm as usual.

  * took the green beat note signal (approximately 0 dBm) into Rana's MFD with the cable length of about  6 m.

  * the output from the MFD was connected to XARM_COARSE channel without a whitening filter.

  * excitation signal was injected into either ASC_PIT or ASC_YAW. The excitation was Gaussian noise with frequency band of 10 Hz and amplitude of 300 counts.

  * only ITMY had the f2p filters, which balance the coil gains all over the frequency.


  4326   Fri Feb 18 18:46:08 2011 kiwamuSummarySUSf2p done on ETMX and ITMX

The f2p measurements are done on ETMX and ITMX with the real time lockin systems.

I don't explain what is the f2p measurement in this entry, but people who are interested in it can find some details on an old elog entry here or somewhere on DCC.

So far the resultant filters looked reasonable compared with the previous SRM f2p filters.


- backgrounds -

  Some times ago I found that the coils on ETMX had not  been nicely balanced, and it made a POS to angle coupling when I tried green locking (see here).

In addition to that, accuracy of A2L kind of measurement including the dithering techniques depend on how well the coils are balanced.  Therefore we need to balance the coils basically at all the suspended optics.

There used to be a script for this particular purpose, called f2praio.sh. This script does measure the imbalances and then balance the coils.

However this time I used the realtime lockin system to measure the imbalances instead of using the old f2p script.

One of the reasons using the real time system is that,  some of the ezca and tds commands for the old script don't work for some reasons.

Therefore we decided to move on to the real time system like Yuta did for the A2L measurement a couple of months ago.

The f2p measurement finally gives us parameters to generate a proper set of filters for POS and also the coil gains. We apply those filters and the gains in order to eliminate the POS to angle coupling and to balance the coils.


- results -

The followers are the resultant filters and coil gains.

The plots below show new f2p filters according to the measurement.

f2p_ITMX.png       f2p_ETMX.png


ITMX (assuming pendulum POS has f0 = 1 Hz and Q = 1)

ULPOS  fz = 1.009612   Qz = 1.009612 

URPOS fz = 1.125965   Qz = 1.125965  

LLPOS  fz = 0.873725   Qz = 0.873725    

LRPOS  fz = 0.974418   Qz = 0.974418  

C1:SUS-ITMY_ULCOIL_GAIN      -1.103044

C1:SUS-ITMY_URCOIL_GAIN      0.884970

C1:SUS-ITMY_LLCOIL_GAIN      0.950650

C1:SUS-ITMY_LRCOIL_GAIN      -1.060326



ETMX (assuming pendulum POS has f0 = 1 Hz and Q = 1)

ULPOS  fz = 1.055445   Qz = 1.055445   

URPOS  fz = 1.052735   Qz = 1.052735   

LLPOS  fz = 0.944023   Qz = 0.944023   

LRPOS  fz = 0.941600   Qz = 0.941600   

C1:SUS-ETMX_ULCOIL_GAIN      -0.887550

C1:SUS-ETMX_URCOIL_GAIN      1.106585


C1:SUS-ETMX_LRCOIL_GAIN      -0.931013


The precision of the coil gains looked something like 1% because every time I ran the measurement script, the measured imbalances fluctuated at this level.

The precision of the filter gain at DC (0.01 Hz) could be worse, because the integration cycles for the measurement are fewer than that of the coil gains done at high frequency (8.5 Hz).

Of course we can make the precisions by increasing the integration cycles and the excitation amplitudes, if we want to.

  4327   Fri Feb 18 20:06:59 2011 kiwamuSummarySUScheck f2p function on ETMX

 The plot below shows how the f2p filters work.

At -2 min I turned on the f2p filters.


  4341   Wed Feb 23 04:56:59 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingnoise curve update

New noise spectra of the green locking have been updated.

The plot below shows the in-loop noise spectra when the beat signal was fedback to ETMX.

The rms noise integrated from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz went down to approximately 2 kHz.


The red curve was taken when the beat was controlled only by a combination of some poles sand zeros on the digital filter banks. The UGF was at 40Hz.

This curve is basically the same as that Koji took few weeks ago (see here). Apparently the rms was dominated by the peaks at 16 Hz and 3 Hz.

The blue curve was taken when the same filter plus two resonant gain filters (at 16.5 Hz and 3.15 Hz) were applied. The UGF was also at 40Hz.

Due to the resonant gain filter at 16.5 Hz, the phase margin became less, and it started oscillating at the UGF as shown in the plot.

  4352   Thu Feb 24 18:21:24 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingin-loop and out-of-loop measurements

Two different measurement have been performed for a test of the green locking last night.

Everything is getting better. yes. yes.



[ measurement 1 : IR locking]

The X arm was locked by using the IR PDH signal as usual (#4239#4268) .

The in-loop signal at from the IR path and the out-of-loop signal at from the green beat note path were measured.


Let us look at the purple curve. This is an out-of-loop measurement by looking at the green beat note fluctuation.

The rms down to 0.1 Hz used to be something like 60 kHz (see here), but now it went down to approximately 2 kHz. Good.

This rms corresponds to displacement of about 260 pm of the X arm. This is barely within the line width. The line width is about 1 nm.



[ measurement 2 : green locking]

The motion of the X arm was suppressed by using the green beat signal and feeding it back to ETMX.

After engaging the ALS servo, I brought the cavity length to the resonance by changing the feedback offset from epics.

Then took the spectra of the in-loop signal at the beat path and the out-of-loop signal at the IR PDH path.


 Here is a time series of TRX after I brought it to the resonance.


TRX was hovering around at the maximum power, which is 144 counts.


Since I put one more 10:1 filter to suppress the noise around 3 Hz, the rms of the in-loop beat spectrum went to about 1 kHz, which used to be 2 kHz (see #4341).

But the out-of-loop (IR PDH signal) showed bigger noise by a factor of 2 approximately over frequency range of from 2 Hz to 2 Hz. The resultant rms is 2.7 kHz.

The rms is primarily dominated by a peak at 22 Hz (roll mode ?).

I calibrated the IR PDH signal by taking the peak to peak signal assuming the finesse of the cavity is 450 for IR. May need a cooler calibration.

  4353   Thu Feb 24 19:59:25 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingwhitening filter for ALS

I forgot to mention about the whitening filter for the ALS digital control system.

As usual I used a whitening filter to have a good SNR against ADC noise, but this time our whitening scheme is little bit different from the usual our systems.

I used two ADC channels for one signal and put a digital summing point  and digital filters to keep good SNR over the frequency range of interest.

It's been working fine but it's still primitive, so I will study more about how to optimize this scheme.


     The diagram above shows our scheme for the signal whitening.

Basically the SNR at DC is bad when we use only a whitening filter as shown on the bottom part of the diagram because the signal is quite tiny at DC.

On the other hand if we take raw signal into ADC as 'DC path'  shown above, the SNR is better at DC but not good at intermediate frequencies (30 mHz - 1kHz).

So the idea to keep the good SNR over the frequency range of interest is to combine these 'DC path' and 'AC path' in a clever way.

     In our case, the 'DC path' signal is not as good as the 'AC path' signal above 30 mHz, so we cut off those high frequency signals by using a digital low pass filter.

In addition to it, I put a gain of 1000 in order to match the relative gain difference between 'DC path' and 'AC path'.

Then the resultant signal after the summing point keeps the good SNR with a flat transfer function up to 1 kHz. 


Two different measurement have been performed for a test of the green locking last night.

Everything is getting better. yes. yes.

  4354   Thu Feb 24 21:46:30 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockinginstalled a summing box

In this past weekend I replaced a summing amplifier for the end green PDH locking by a home-made summing circuit box in order to increase the control range.

It's been working well so far.

However due to this circuit box, the demodulation phase of the PDH locking is now somewhat different from the past, so we have to readjust it at some point.



    At the X end station, the voltage going to the NPRO PZT had been limited up +/- 4 V because of the summing amplifier : SR560.

Therefore the laser was following the cavity motion only up to ~ +/- 4 MHz, which is not wide enough. (it's okay for night time)

So we decided to put a passive circuit instead of SR560 to have a wider range.


(summing box)

   We made a passive summing circuit and put it into a Pomona box.

The circuit diagram is shown below. Note that we assume the capacitance of the 1W Innolight has the same capacitance as that of the PSL Innolight (see #3640).


The feedback signal from a PDH box goes into the feedback input of the circuit.

Then the signal will be low passed with the corner frequency of 200 kHz because of the combination of RC (where R is 681 Ohm and C is capacitance of the PZT).

Because of this low pass filter, we don't drive the PZT unnecessarily at high frequency.

On the other hand the modulation signal from a function generator goes into the other input and will be high passed by 50 pF mica capacitor with the corner frequency of 200 kHz.

This high pass filter will cut off noise coming from the function generator at low frequency.

In addition to it, the 50 pF capacitor gives a sufficient amount of attenuation for the modulation because we don't want have too big modulation depth.


Here is a plot for the expected transfer functions.

You can see that the modulation transfer function (blue curve) has non-zero phase at 216 kHz, which is our modulation frequency.



  4357   Fri Feb 25 13:28:14 2011 kiwamuSummaryGeneralto do list
 Because it maybe useful to share this kind of information among us, I just put a to-do-list which has been continuously noted in my laptop.
 I guess those items can be applied for the coming two months (i.e. March and April). Anything else ?

-- Alignment

     - C1ASS

           * finalize the model and make user friendly scripts and medm screens
           * adjustment of phase rotations
           * cavity auto alignment for green

     - MC WFS 

          * put sensing matrices
          * whitening ?

    - OPLEVs

        * binary output for OPLEV whitening
        * calibration of OPLEVs  [rad/count]
        * characterization of OPLEV servos
        * bigger trans impedance gains to have reasonable readouts

-- Optimization of Suspended Optics

  - diagonalizations

         * input matrices
         * f2p with higher precision

  - damping control

        * fix ETMY damping
         * Bounce Roll notches
         * Q adjustment for damping

  - upgrading of electronics

        * bigger trans impedance gain for OSEMs
        * widen the voltage range of AA filter boards

   - weekly check

       * a routine script for measuring free swinging spectra

-- Input Optics

   - PMC

         * mode matching
         * epics LO HI values

   - FSS and ISS

        * recover FSS
        * make ISS working

   - EOM

       * AM minimization
       * triple resonant box

   - doubling and RFPD for green

        * mode matching to doubling crystal
        * connect RFPD_DC_MON to ADC
        * string +/-150 V and +/-15power cables from 1X1 rack to RFPDs
        * visibility check and loss investigations for the beat RFPD
        * rearrange RF amplifiers (ZLN series) for the RFPD
        * realgin Jenne's DCPD


-- Length Sensing and Control

   - digital system and electronics

       * characterization of RFPDs ==> SUresh/UG
       * installation of RF generation box and distribution box ==> Suresh/U
       * new LSC model and start making useful scripts (csh ? perl ? python ?)
       * binary outputs for PD whitening
       * make item lists for ordering (?)
       * draw cool diagrams for RF cable distribution and map of LSC rack.

-- Green Locking

    - X end station

           * eliminate undesired multiple spots on RFPD
           *  connect REFLPD_DCMON to ADC
           *  remote local boost
           * demodulation phase adjustment
           *  look for a high voltage amp. (bipoler)
           * installation of a mechanical shutter
           *  ETMX_TRANS CCD camera
           * analog low pass filter for temperature control

    - Y arm green locking ==> Suresh/Bryan

        * item lists
        * preparation of base mounts
        * mode matching estimation
        * mode measurement of input beam from Lightwave
        * temeperature scanning for beat location finding with IR beam
        * Installation
       * modification of PDH box

    - digital control systems

           * user friendly medm screens
           * apply proper filters for AC-DC whitened signal blending
           * add MC2 feedback path

      - noise budget

          * in-loop and out-of-loop evaluation
          * shot noise  
          * RFPD noise modeling
          * how intensity noise couples through MFD
          * electrical noise
          * frequency noise contribution from end laser and PSL
          * calibration of arm PDH signal

   - cavity scan and handing off

         * optimization of open loop transfer function for ALS
         * auto scripts   

-- misc.

   - CCD camera
        * color filters to separate IR and green (?)
   - lab laptops
        * a laptop for each end station (?)
    - dichroic TT (?)
        * large wegded and AR coated for 532nm (?)
    - epics for RS232C      
        * RS232C for doubling oven temperature


  4361   Sat Feb 26 02:33:16 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingsidebands on beatnote

The power ratio of the beatnote signal vs. the 216kHz sideband has been measured.

The measured ratio was -55 dB, which is smaller by about 20 dB than Aidan's estimation.

To confirm this fact we should check the modulation depth of the end PDH somehow.


The below is a picture showing the sidebands around the beatnote locked at 66.45 MHz.

Other than the +/-216 kHz sidebands, we can see some funny peaks at +/- 50 kHz and +/-150 kHz

I wonder if they come from the servo oscillation of the MC servo whose UGF is at 24 kHz.  We can check it by unlocking the MC.


Quote: #4351 by Aidan

So, on the vertex PD, the power of the 80MHz +/-200kHz sidebands should be around sqrt(0.15)*0.05 = 0.02 = 2% of the 80MHz beatnote.

Once we get the green and IR locked to the arm again, we're going to look for the sidebands around the beatnote.

  4372   Thu Mar 3 00:12:52 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingplan
Tomorrow's tasks
  - Auto noise budget (Jamie)
  - Demodulation phase adjustment (Kate)
  - Auto alignment for green (Joe/Kiwamu)
  - ADC connection for the X end green REFL_DC ( )
  - remote local boost for the X end green ( )
  - TDS stuff (Joe)
  - check harmonic distortions on the RF distribution box (Larisa/Koji)
  - connect the X end mechanical shutter to c1auxex (Steve)
  4373   Thu Mar 3 07:25:24 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingscrewed up the end PDH box

 I somehow screwed up the PDH box at the X end station. 

Right now it's not working, so I am going to check and fix it today.


 In the last evening I found that one of the gain stages on the PDH box wasn't fully functional.

So I started investigating it and I though it was going to finish soon, but actually it wasn't so easy.


  The PDH box has several gain stages. So an input signal goes through a buffer, a filter, a boost and an output buffer stages sequentially.

The boost stage is supposed to have gain of 10, but I found it didn't have such gain.

In fact the gain was something like -30dB which is pretty small. Plus this boost stage was imposing an wired bump on the transfer function around 50 kHz.

I checked the voltages on some components around the boost stage and confirmed there were no strange voltage.

Then I suspected that the op-amp : LF356 had been broken for some reason. So I replaced it by LT1792 to see if it fixes the issue.

Indeed it did make it functional. However after few minutes of the replacement, it went back to the same bad condition.

I have no idea about what was going on at that time. Anyway it needs more careful investigations.


  I temporarily put a jumper cable on the board to skip this stage, but now the PDH lock is not healthy at all.

  4376   Fri Mar 4 03:31:35 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingA first noise budget

I made a noise budget for the ALS noise measurement that I did a week ago (see #4352).

I am going to post some details about this plot later because I am now too sleepy.


  4379   Fri Mar 4 18:06:34 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingnoise budget : differential noise

Here I explain how I estimate the contribution from the differential noise shown in the plot on my last entry (#4376) .



 According to the measurement done about a week ago, there is a broadband noise in the green beatnote path when both Green and IR are locked to the X arm.

The noise can be found on the first plot on this entry (#4352) drawn in purple. We call it differential noise.

However, remember, the thing we care is the noise appearing in the IR PDH port when the ALS standard configuration is applied (i.e. taking the beatnote and feeding it back to ETMX).

So we have to somehow convert the noise to that in terms of the ALS configuration.

In the ALS configuration, since the loop topology is slightly different from that when the differential noise was measured, we have to apply a transfer function to properly estimate the contribution.


(How to estimate)

 It's not so difficult to calculate the contribution from the differential noise under some reasonable assumptions.

Let us assume that the MC servo and the end PDH servo have a higher UGF than the ALS, and assume their gains are sufficiently big.

Then those assumptions allow us to simplify the control loop to like the diagram below:


 Since we saw the differential noise from the beatnote path, I inject the noise after the frequency comparison in this model.

Eventually the noise is going to propagate to the f_IR_PDH port by multiplying by G/(1+G), where G is the open loop transfer function of the ALS.

The plot below shows the open loop transfer function which I used and the resultant G/(1+G).


In the curve of G/(1+G), you can see there is a broad bump with the gain of more than 1,  approximately from 20 Hz to 60 Hz.

Because of this bump, the resultant contribution from the differential noise at this region is now prominent as shown in the plot on the last entry (#4376).

Quote: #4376

I made a noise budget for the ALS noise measurement that I did a week ago (see #4352).

I am going to post some details about this plot later


  4382   Mon Mar 7 18:20:01 2011 kiwamuSummaryGreen Lockingplans
This week's goal is to investigate the source of the differential noise and to lower it.
Plans for tonight
 - realign GREEN_TRANS PD at the PSL table
 - update the noise budget
 - take spectrum of the differential noise
 - investigate a noise coupling to the differential noise especially from the intensity noise
 - update the noise budget again
Plans for this week :
 - Auto alignment scripts for green (Kiwamu)
 - connect the end REFL_DC  to an ADC (Kiwamu)
 - make an active phase rotation circuit for the end PDH (undergrads)
 - bounce-roll notches (Suresh)
 - optimization of the suspensions including the input matrices and the Q-values (Jenne)
 - optimization of MFSS (Koji/Rana/Larisa)
 - rewire the mechanical shutter on the 1X9 binary outputs (Steve)


  4383   Tue Mar 8 06:29:06 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise setup

[Jenne, Chris, Kiwamu]

 A photo diode and an AOM driver have been newly setup on the PSL table to measure the intensity noise coupling to the beat note signal.

We tried taking a transfer function from the PD to the beat, but the SNR wasn't sufficient on the PD. So we didn't get reasonable data.


(what we did)

  - put a DCPD after the doubling crystal on the PSL table. The PD is sitting after the Y1 mirror, which has been used for picking off the undesired IR beam.

  - installed the AOM driver (the AOM itself had been already in place)

  - injected some signals onto the AOM to see if we can see an intensity fluctuation on the PD as well as the beat signal


(intensity noise)

  In order to have better SNR for the intensity measurement, we put an AC coupled SR560 with the gain of 100 just before the ADCs.

When a single frequency signal was applied from a Stanford Research's function generator to the AOM, we could clearly see a peak at the doubled frequency of the injected signal.

Also a peak at the same frequency was found on the beat note signal as well.

But when random noise was injected from the same function generator, the random noise looked below the ADC noise.

Jenne adjusted the output voltage from the PD to about 1 V to avoid a saturation in the analog path, but later we realized that the ADC counts was marely ~ 20 counts.

So we will check the ADC tomorrow. Hopefully we will get a good SNR.

  4384   Tue Mar 8 14:50:19 2011 kiwamuUpdateCDSnames for filter modules


 We found there are some filter names that we can not properly build for some reason.

The following names are not properly going to be built :


 - AUX

If we use the names shown above for filters, it doesn't compile any filter modules.

We took a quick look around the src files including feCodegen.pl, but didn't find any obvious bugs.

  4385   Tue Mar 8 15:20:31 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingdifferential noise on Mar.8th


Noise below 10 Hz became larger again compared with the data before (see here #4352)

Note that the Y-axis is in MHz.

  4387   Tue Mar 8 15:33:09 2011 kiwamuSummaryGreen Lockingplan on Mar.8th
Today's goal is to measure the contribution from the intensity noise to the beatnote.
Plans for today
  - check the ADC for the DCPD that Jenne installed yesterday
  - adjust RF power on the AOM
  - take spectrum of the differential noise and measure the coupling from the intensity noise
  - update the noise budget

Quote: from #4382
This week's goal is to investigate the source of the differential noise and to lower it.


  4389   Wed Mar 9 04:46:13 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingmore intensity noise measurement


Here is a diagram for our intensity noise coupling measurement.



The below is a plot for the intensity noise on the DCPD. (I forgot to take a spectra of the PD dark noise)

For some reason, the RIN spectrum becomes sometimes noisier and sometimes quieter. Note that after 10 pm it's been in the quiet state for most of the time.

An interesting thing is that the structure below 3 Hz looks like excited by motion of the MC when it's in the louder state.


Quote: from #4383

A photo diode and an AOM driver have been newly setup on the PSL table to measure the intensity noise coupling to the beat note signal.

We tried taking a transfer function from the PD to the beat, but the SNR wasn't sufficient on the PD. So we didn't get reasonable data.

  4390   Wed Mar 9 16:07:42 2011 kiwamuUpdateVIDEOcable session

[Koji, Steve, Suresh, Kiwamu]

The following video cables have been newly laid down :

  - MC1F/MC3F (65 ft.)

  - PMCR (100 ft.)

  - PSL spare (100 ft.)

  - PSL1  (100 ft.)

  - PSL2  (100 ft.)


  4392   Wed Mar 9 18:17:11 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise coupling

Here is a new plot for the differential noise measurement. I plot a noise contribution from the intensity noise (brown curve).

If we believe this data, the differential noise is NOT dominated by the intensity noise of the PSL.



(intensity noise coupling measurement)

 Here is a plot for the transfer functions (TFs) from the intensity noise DCPD to the beat signal.


   In principle these TFs tell us how much intensity noise are contributed into the differential noise.

When I measured the spectra shown above, the frequency offset of the beatnote was at about 8 MHz from the zero cross point.

Keeping the same lock, I measured the transfer function (red curve) by using the swept sine technique on DTT. The setup for this measurement is depicted on the last entry (#4389).

Then I made the spectra above by multiplying the intensity spectrum by this TF.

  Later I measured another transfer function when the beatnote was at about 2 MHz from the zero cross point.

According to this measurement, our MFD gets insensitive to the intensity noise as the beat offset goes close to the zero cross point. This is consistent with what we expected.

  4393   Wed Mar 9 23:19:04 2011 kiwamuUpdateCDSrebooted c1ioo

For some reason the c1ioo machine suddenly died just 30 miteus before.

It died after we added a DAQ channel for c1gcv and rebooted the frame builder.

It didn't respond to a ping command. Therefore I rebooted the machine by clicking the physical reset button.

Now it seems fine.

  4397   Thu Mar 10 14:06:54 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

We are limited by the intensity noise of the X arm transmitted green light.

Since the intensity noise from the PSL wasn't big enough to explain the differential noise (#4392), so this time I measured the noise contribution from the X arm transmitted light.


(coupling measurement)


  I performed the same intensity noise coupling measurement, but this time between the DC signal of the beatnote RFPD and the beatnote signal.

 While measuring it, I excited the intensity of the PSL laser by using the same AOM like I did yesterday. This AM cause the observable intensity noise on the beatnote RFPD.

With the excited AM, we can pretend to have an excited AM on the green transmitted light from the X arm, of course assuming the intensity noise coupling from the PSL is less.

  4398   Thu Mar 10 14:22:58 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingIntensity noise limits the beatnote sensitivity

The next steps we should do are :

    - to investigate a cause of the intensity fluctuation
          * end green laser
          * suspensions' angular motions
          * doublecheck the RIN contribution if it's from the PSL or the X arm in the beatnote RFPD to make sure the RIN is dominated by the X arm transmitted light
    - to think about how to make the system insensitive to the intensity noise
          - bring the beat frequency to the zero cross point of the MFDs ?
          - PLL ?


We are limited by the intensity noise of the X arm transmitted green light.

  4411   Fri Mar 18 12:22:04 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingY arm plan for today

 Prior to the works on the Y end setup I propose to perform the temperature scan business like Koji and Suresh did before (see this entry).

This business will allow us to easily find a beatnote at 532nm after the installation on the Y end.

 I guess the right persons for this work are Bryan and Suresh.

Bryan will have a safety guidance from Steve in this after noon. So after that they can start working on it.


/* - - - coarse plan - - - */

* remove Alberto's laser from the AS table

* setup Alberto's laser on the PSL table

* put some stuff such as lenses, mirrors and etc. (Use the IR beam picked off after the doubling crystal for the main laser source)

* mode matching

* measurement


Which laser are we going to use,  Alberto's laser or MOPA laser ?

  4412   Fri Mar 18 14:18:00 2011 kiwamuSummaryGeneralnew laser pointers

Just for a record. We got 4 new laser pointers (2 greens, 1 blue, and 1 green and red combination). Don't lose them.

They reside in a bucket on the SP table, where IR viewers and sensor cards also reside.


  4413   Fri Mar 18 16:06:30 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen LockingRe: Y arm plan for today

We use Alberto's laser for the Y end Green Locking.


 Which laser are we going to use,  Alberto's laser or MOPA laser ?


  4419   Mon Mar 21 16:49:11 2011 kiwamuSummaryGreen Lockingplan for this week

- Plan for this week

  * Intensity stabilization for the end green laser (Matt / Kiwamu)

  * Hand off the servo from Green to Red (Matt / Kiwamu)

  * Y end green locking (Suresh / Bryan) (rough schedule)

  * Reconnect the X end mechanical shutter to 1X9 (Kiwamu)

  * Connect the end DCPD signal to a DAC (done)

  * Make a LPF in a Pomona box for the temperature (Larisa)

  * Clean up and finalize the X end setup (Kiwamu)

  * Make a item lists for electronics. Order the electronics. (Aidan / Kiwamu)

  4420   Mon Mar 21 18:34:10 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingadded a new ADC channel on 1X9

I added a new ADC channel for a DC signal from the X end green PD.

It is called C1:GCX-REFL_DC and connected to adc_0_1, which is the second channel of ADC_0.


By the way, when I tried connecting it to an ADC I found that most of the channels on the AA board on 1X9 were not working.

Since the outputs form the board are too small the circuits may have benn broken. See the picture below.

In addition to that  I realized that the signal from the PDH box for the temperature actuation is limited by +/- 2V due to the range of this AA board.

In fact the signal is frequently saturated due to this small voltage range.

We have to enlarge the range of this AA board like Valera did before for the suspensions (see this entry).


  4421   Tue Mar 22 00:01:25 2011 kiwamuSummaryGreen Lockingplan for daytime tasks

Some tasks for the daytime tomorrow.

  * Beam profile measurements of the Y end laser  (Suresh / Bryan)

  * Taking care of CDS and the simulated plant (Jamie / Joe)

  * Reconnect the X end mechanical shutter to 1X9 (Kiwamu)

  * LPF for the X end temperature feedback (Larisa)

  4424   Tue Mar 22 16:39:51 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingcomaprator installed : 80 pm residual displacement

 A comparator has been installed before the MFDs (mixer-based frequency discriminator) to eliminate the effect from the amplitude fluctuation (i.e. intensity noise).

As a result we reached an rms displacement of 580 Hz or 80 pm.


(differential noise measurement)


  Here is the resultant plot of the usual differential noise measurement.

The measurement has been done when the both green and red lasers were locked to the X arm.

In the blue curve I used only MFD. In the black curve I used the combination of the comparator and the MFD.

Noise below 3 Hz become lower by a factor of about 4, resulting in a better rms integrated from 40 Hz.

Note that the blue and the black curve were taken while I kept the same lock.

A calibration was done by injecting a peak at 311 Hz with an amplitude of 200 cnt on the ETMX_SUS_POS path.



  Yesterday Koji modified his comparator circuit such that we can take a signal after it goes thorough the comparator.

The function of this comparator is to convert a sinusoidal signal to a square wave signal so that the amplitude fluctuation doesn't affect the frequency detection in the MFD.

I installed it and put the beat-note signal to it. Then the output signal from the comparator box is connected to the MFDs.

The input power for the comparator circuit has been reduced to -5 dBm so that it doesn't exceeds the maximum power rate.

  4426   Wed Mar 23 00:51:47 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingplan for tomorrow

  - Plan for tomorrow

    * Video cable session (I need ETMY_TRNAS) (team)

    * Characterization of the Y end laser  (Bryan / Suresh)

    * LPF for the X end laser temperature control (Larisa)

    * Frequency Divider  (Matt)

    * X end mechanical shutter (Kiwamu)

  4427   Wed Mar 23 05:11:08 2011 kiwamuUpdateGreen Lockingservo handig off

Succeeded in handing off the servo from the green to the red.




(noise performance)

 This time we found that the fluctuation in the IR signals became lesser as the gain of the ALS servo increased.

Therefore I increased the UGF from 40 Hz to 180 Hz to have less noise in the IR PDH signal.

Here is a preliminary plot for today's noise spectra.


The blue curve is the ALS in-loop spectrum, that corresponds to the beat fluctuation.

The red curve is an out-of-loop spectrum taken by measuring the IR PDH signal.

Since the UGF is at about 180 Hz the rms is integrated from 200 Hz.

The residual displacement noise in the IR PDH signal is now 1.2 kHz in rms.

I am going to analyze this residual noise by comparing with the differential noise that I took yesterday (see the last entry ).

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