I am currently working on an optical arrangement consisting of a QPD that measures the fluctuations of an incoming HeNe laser beam that is reflected by a mirror. The goal is to add a second QPD to the optical arrangement to form a linear combination that effectively cancels out the (angular) fluctuations from the laser beam itself so that we can only focus on the fluctuations produced by the mirror.
In order to solve this problem, I have written a program for calculating the different contributions of the fluctuations of the HeNe laser and fluctuations from the mirror, for each QPD (program script attached). The goal of the program is to find the optimal combination of L0, L1, L2, and f2 that cancels the fluctuations from the laser beam (while retaining solely the fluctuations from the mirror) when adding the fluctuations of QPD 1 and QPD 2 together.
By running this program for different combinations of distances and focal lengths, I have found that the following values should work to cancel out the effects of the oscillations from the HeNe laser beam (assuming a focal length of 0.2 m for the lens in front of the original QPD):
L0 = 1.0000 m (distance from laser tube to mirror)
L1 = 0.8510 m (distance from mirror to lens in front of QPD 1)
L2 = 0.9319 m (distance from beamsplitter to lens in front of QPD 2)
f2 = 0.3011 m (focal length of lens in front of QPD 2)
Based on these calculations, I propose to try the following lens for QPD 2:
1’’ UV Fused Silica Plano-Convex Lens, AR-Coated: 350 - 700 nm (focal length 0.3011 m). https://www.thorlabs.com/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=6508
The schematic of the homodyne configuration is shown below.
Following are the list of components
One set of fiber is now kept along the arm of the interferometer
Fiber coupled (3 No's)
Free space ( 2 No's)
Attachment #1 shows the schematic of the test setup. Signal generator (Marconi) was used to supply the RF input. We observed the IF output in the following three test conditions.
We characterized the power splitter ( Minicircuit- ZAPD-2-252-S+). The schematic of the measurement setup is shown in attachment #1. The network/spectrum/impedance analyzer (Agilent 4395A) was used in the network analyzer mode for the characterisation. The RF output is enabled in the network analyser mode. We used an other spliiter (Power splitter #1) to splitt the RF power such that one part goes to the network analzer and the other part goes to the power spliiter (Power splitter #2) . We are characterising power splitter #2 in this test. The characterisation results and comparison with the data sheet values are shown in Attachment # 2-4.
Attachment #2 : Comparison of total loss in port 1 and 2
Attachment #3 : Comparison of amplitude unbalance
Attachment #4 : Comparison of phase unbalance
The goal was to characterise the new amplifier (AP1053). For a practice, I did the characterisation of the old amplifier.This test is similar to that reported in Elog ID 13602.
Attachment #1 shows the schematic of the experimental setup for the frequency noise measurement of 1 um laser source.
AUX laser will be used as the seed source and it is already coupled to a 60 m fiber (PM980). The other end of the fiber was at the AS table and we have now removed it and placed in the PSL table.
Attachment # 2 shows the photograph of the experimental setup. The orange line shows the beam that is coupled to the delayed arm of MZI and the red dotted line shows the undelayed path.
As mentioned, AUX is already coupled to the 60 m fiber and the other end of the fiber is now moved to the PSL table. This end needs to be collimated. We are planning to take the same collimator from AS table where it was coupled into before. The position where the collimator to be installed is shown in attachment #2. Also, we need to rotate the mirror (as indicated in attachment #2) to get the delayed beam along with the undelayed beam and then to combine them. As indicated in attachment #2, we can install one more photo diode to perform balanced detection.
We need to decide on which photodetector to be used. It could be NF1801 or PDA255.
We also performed the power measurement at different locations in the beam path. The different locations at which power measurement is done is shown attachment #3
There is an AOM in the beam path that coupled to the delayed arm of MZI. The output beam after AOM was coupled to the zero-order port during this measurement. That is the input voltage to the AOM was at 0 V, which essentially says that the beam after the AOM is not deflected and it is coupled to the zero-order port. The power levels measured at different locations in this condition are as follows. A)282 mW B)276 mW C)274 mW D)274 mW E)273 mW F)278 mW G)278 mW H)261 mW I)263 mW J)260 mW K)131 mW L)128 mW M)127 mW N)130 mW
It can be seen that the power is halved from J to K. This because of a neutral density filter in the path of the beam
In this case, we measured a power of 55 mW at the output of the delayed fiber. We then adjusted the input voltage to the AOM driver to 1 V such that the output of AOM is coupled to the first order port. This reduced the power level in the zero-order port of AOM that is coupled to the delayed arm of the MZI. In this case we measured a power of 0.8 mW at the output of delayed fiber.
We must be careful about the power level that is reaching the photodetector such that it should not exceed the damage threshold of the detector.
The power measured at the output of undelayed path is 0.8 mW.
We also must place the QWP and HWP in the beam path to align the polarisation.
To facilitate the 1um MZ frequency stabilization project, I decided that the AUX laser was a better candidate than any of the other 3 active NPROs in the lab as (i) it is already coupled into a ~60m long fiber, (ii) the PSL table has the most room available to set up the readout optics for the delayed/non-delayed beams and (iii) this way I can keep working on the IR ALS system in parallel. So we moved the end of the fiber from the AS table to the SE corner of the PSL table. None of the optics mode-matching the AUX beam to the interferometer were touched, and we do not anticipate disturbing the input coupling into the fiber either, so it should be possible to recover the AUX beam injection into the IFO relatively easily.
Anjali is going to post detailed photos, beam layout, and her proposed layout/MM solutions later today. The plan is to use free space components for everything except the fiber delay line, as we have these available readily. It is not necessarily the most low-noise option, but for a first pass, maybe this is sufficient and we can start building up a noise budget and identify possible improvements.
The AUX laser remians in STANDBY mode for now. HEPA was turned up while working at the PSL table, and remains on high while Anjali works on the layout.
One of the main draw backs of the measurement was the polarisation was not aligned properly in the setup. So, then the next step was to identify the polarisation at different locations in the beam path and to maximise the polarisation to either S or P component.
So, we introduced HWP at the input beam path after isolator as shown in attachment #1. Also, the polarisation was tested at positions P1, P2, P3, and P4 shown in attachment #1 by placing a polarisation beam splitter at these locations and then by observing the transmitted (P component) and reflected light (S component) using power meter.
The observations at different locations are as the follows
These observations show that the P and S components are almost equal, and this is not a good polarisation arrangement. At this point, we also had to check whether the incoming beam is linearly polarised or not.
To test the same, the PBS was placed at position P1 and the P and S components were observed with power meter as the HWP is rotated.Attachment # 2 shows the results of the same, that is the variation in P and S component as the HWP is rotated.
This result clearly shows that the input beam is linearly polarised. The HWP was then adjusted such that the P component is maximum and coupled to the MZI. With this orientation of HWP, the polarisation observed at different positions P1, P2, P3, and P4 are as follows.
This shows that the polarisation is linearly polarised as well as it is oriented along the P direction (parallel to the optical table).
We have the polarisation maintaining fiber (PM 980) as the delay fiber. The polarisation of the light as it propagates through a PM fiber depends on how well the input beam is coupled to the axis (slow or fast) of the fiber. So, the next task was to couple the light to one of the axes of the fiber.
The alignment key on the fiber is a good indication of the axis of the fiber. In our case, the alignment key lines up with the slow axis of the fiber. We decided to couple the light to the fast axis of the fiber. Since the incoming beam is P polarised, the output fiber coupler was aligned such that the fast axis is parallel to optical table as possible.
A PBS was then introduced after the fiber output collimator . There is a HWP (marked as HWP2 in attachment 1) in front of the input coupler of the fiber as well. This HWP was then rotated and observed the P and S component from the PBS that is now placed after the output coupler with a power meter.The idea was , when the light is coupled to the fast axis of the fiber, we will see the maximum at the P componet at the output
Attachment # 3 shows the observation.
In this way I tried to find the orientation of the HWP2 such that the P component is maximum at the output. But I was not succeeded in this method and observed that the output was fluctuating when the fiber was disturbed. One doubt we had was whether the fiber is PM or not . Thus we checked the fiber end with fiber microscope and confirmed that it is PM fiber.
Thus, we modifed the setup as shown in attachement # 4.The photodetector (PDA55) was monitoring the S component and the output of the detector was observed on an oscilloscope. We rotated the HWP2 such that the S component is almost minimum. At the same time, we were disturbing the fiber and was observing whether the output is fluctuating. The HWP2 angle was tweaked around the minimum of S component and observed the output with disturbing the fiber. This way we found the orientation of HWP2 such that the light is coupled to the fast axis of the fiber and the output was not fluctuating while we disturb the fiber. We tested it by heating the fiber with a heat gun as well and confirmed that the output is not fluctuating and thus the light is coupled to the fast axis of the fiber.
Steve had showed me some stock of long fibers a while back - they are from Oz Optics, and are 50m long, and are already spooled - so barring objections, we will try the MZ setup with the spooled fiber and see if there is any improvement in the fringing rate of the MZ. Then we can evaluate what additional stabilization of the fiber length is required. Anjali will upload a photo of the spooled fiber.
The alignement was disturbed after the replcement of the beam splitter. We tried to get the alignment back . But we are not succeeded yet in getting good interfernce pattern. This is mainly because of poor mode matching of two beams. We will also try with the spooled fiber.
At some point I'd like to reclaim this setup for ALS, but meantime, Anjali can work on characterization/noise budgeting. Since we have some CDS signals, we can even think of temperature control of the NPRO using pythonPID to keep the fringe in the linear regime for an extended period of time.
My understanding is that the main advantage in going to the heterodyne scheme is that we can extract the frequecy noise information without worrying about locking to the linear region of MZI. Arctan of the ratio of the inphase and quadrature component will give us phase as a function of time, with a frequency offset. We need to to correct for this frequency offset. Then the frequency noise can be deduced. But still the frequency noise value extracted would have the contribution from both the frequency noise of the laser as well as from fiber length fluctuation. I have not understood the method of giving temperature feedback to the NPRO.I would like to discuss the same.
The functional form used for the curve labeled as theory is 5x104/f. The power spectral density (V2/Hz) of the the data in attachment #1 is found using the pwelch function in Matlab and square root of the same gives y axis in V/rtHz. From the experimental data, we get the value of Vmax and Vmin. To ride from Vmax to Vmin , the corrsponding phase change is pi. From this information, V/rad can be calculated. This value is then multiplied with 2*pi*time dealy to get the quantity in V/Hz. Dividing V/rtHz value with V/Hz value gives y axis in Hz/rtHz. The calculated value of shot noise and dark current noise are way below (of the order of 10-4 Hz/rtHz) in this frequency range.
I forgor to take the picture of the setup at that time. Now Andrew has taken the fiber beam splitter back for his experiment. Attachment #1 shows the current view of the setup. The data from the previous trial is saved in /users/anjali/MZ/MZdata_20190417.hdf5
If I understand correctly, the Mach-Zehnder readout port power is only a function of the differential phase accumulated between the two interfering light beams. In the homodyne setup, this phase difference can come about because of either fiber length change OR laser frequency change. We cannot directly separate the two effects. Can you help me understand what advantage, if any, the heterodyne setup offers in this regard? Or is the point of going to heterodyne mainly for the feedback control, as there is presumably some easy way to combine the I and Q outputs of the heterodyne measurement to always produce an error signal that is a linear function of the differential phase, as opposed to the sin^2 in the free-running homodyne setup? What is the scheme for doing this operation in a high bandwidth way (i.e. what is supposed to happen to the demodulated outputs in Attachment #3 of your elog)? What is the advantage of the heterodyne scheme over applying temperature feedback to the NPRO with 0.5 Hz tracking bandwidth so that we always stay in the linear regime of the homodyne readout?
Also, what is the functional form of the curve labelled "Theory" in Attachment #2? How did you convert from voltage units in Attachment #1 to frequency units in Attachment #2? Does it make sense that you're apparently measuring laser frequency noise above 10 Hz? i.e. where do the "Dark Current Noise" and "Shot Noise" traces for the experiment lie relative to the blue curve in Attachment #2? Can you point to where the data is stored, and also add a photo of the setup?
It is noticed that one of the doors (door # 2 ) of the PSL table is broken. Attachement #1 shows the image
From the earlier results with homodyne measurement,the Vmax and Vmin values observed were comparable with the expected results . So in the time interval between these two points, the MZI is assumed to be in the linear region and I tried to find the frequency noise based on data available in this region.This results is not significantly different from that we got before when we took the complete time series to calculate the frequency noise. Attachment #1 shows the time domain data considered and attachment #2 shows the frequecy noise extracted from that.
As discussed, we will be trying the heterodyne method next. Initialy, we will be trying to save the data with two channel ADC with 16 kHz sampling rate. With this setup, we can get the information only upto 8 kHz.
We repeated the homodyne measurement to check whether we are measuring the actual frequency noise of the laser. The idea was to repeat the experiment when the laser is not locked and when the laser is locked to IMC.The frequency noise of the laser is expected to be reduced at higher frequency (the expected value is about 0.1 Hz/rtHz at 100 Hz ) when it is locked to IMC . In this measurement, the fiber beam splitter used is Non PM. Following are the observations
1. Time domain output_laser unlocked.pdf : Time domain output when the laser is not locked. The frequency noise is estimated from data corresponds to the linear regime. Following time intervals are considered to calculate the frequency noise (a) 104-116 s (b) 164-167 s (c) 285-289 s
2. Frequency_noise_laser_unlocked.pdf: Frequency noise when the laser is not locked. The model used has the functional form of 5x104/f as we did before. Compared to our previous results, the closeness of the experimental results to the model is less from this measurement. In both the cases, we have the uncertainty because of the fiber length fluctuation. Moreover, this measurement could have effect of polarisation fluctuation as well.
3.Time domain output_laser locked.pdf :Time domain output when the laser is locked. Following time intervals are considered to calculate the frequency noise (a) 70-73 s (b) 142-145 s (c) 266-269 s.
4. Frequency_noise_laser_locked.pdf : Frequency noise when the laser is locked
5. Frequency noise_comparison.pdf : Comparison of frequency noise in two cases. The two values are not significantly different above 10 Hz. We would expect reduction in frequency noise at higher frequency once the laser is locked to IMC. But this result may indicate that we are not really measuring the actual frequency noise of the laser.
I borrowed one Marconi (2023 B) from 40 m lab to QIL lab.
[Annalisa, Jenne, Rana, Steve]
We installed the fibres on cable trays the 1Y2 and the Control Room.
Still to do: find a power supply for the Fiboxes and plug everything in.
I studied the eigenfrequencies of a mirror support using COMSOL.
I studied the eigenfrequencies of a mirror mount designed with COMSOL.
I imposed fixed constraints for the base screws and for the screw connecting the base with the pedestal. Note that the central screw is connected to the base only for a small thickness, and the pedestal touches the base only with a thin annulus. This is in way to make a better model of the actual stress.
Shown in fig. 2 is the lowest eigenfrequency of the mount.
I' going to change the base and study the way the eigenfrequency vary, in way to find the configuration which minimizes the lowest eigenfrequency.
We want to measure the g-factor of the PRC using the beat note of the main laser with an auxiliary NPRO laser.
We are going to phase lock the NPRO to the main laser (taking it from POY) and then we will inject the NPRO through the AS edge of the ITMY.
Today Sendhil and I installed the auxiliary laser on the ITMY table moving it from the AS table.
We also installed the beam steering optics, except the BS which will launch the beam through the AR edge of the ITMY.
To do: install the BS, take the POY beam and mix it with the auxiliary laser on a photodiode to phase lock the two lasers, do better calculations for the mode matching optics to be used for the auxiliary laser beam.
Sendhil and I installed the S polarized BS on the ITMY table to steer the NPRO beam through the AR wedge and align it to the POY beam.
We took a shutter from the BSPRM table (which was not used) and a beam dump from the AS table (which was used by the auxiliary laser already removed and installed on the ITMY).
To do: do better alignment of the NPRO beam, maybe installing some iris after the BS and before the AS wedge, phase lock the two beams.
Zach has just replied, and said that we should feel free to take the laser from his iodine setup in the West Bridge subbasement, in the ATF lab.
Annalisa, please ask Koji or Tara to show you where it is, and help you bring it to the 40m. You should install it (temporarily) on the PSL table, measure the waist, and find the beat in IR. Elog 3755 and elog 3759 have some of the details on how it has been done in the past.
Ok, I'm going to contact Koji.
1) Annalisa is going to start working on mode profiling and beat note search for the old MOPA NPRO.
2) In the meantime, Manasa is working on the end table items. This will be reviewed by KA in the afternoon.
The laser at ATF is moved to the 40m when the status of 1) and 2) is determined by KA to be reasonable.
We also make the beat note measurement for the ATF laser too.
Today I installed mirrors to steer the pick-off from the main laser beam in a more free part of the PSL table and make the beat note measurement between it and the NPRO.
At the beginning I took the beam from the harmonic separator after the doubling crystal, and I was going to bring it in a less full part of the table . At the end I realized that there was already a beam steered up to a more free part of the table, and the beam is taken from the transmission of the PMC.
Tomorrow I'm going to use that beam to find the beat note with the NPRO.
I also removed almost all the steering optics that I used on the ITMY table to send the auxiliary beam for ABSL through the window parallel to the POY beam. The most important thing is that I removed the BS, which was on the same path of the POY beam (see elog 8257).
I moved the auxiliary laser from the ITMY table to the PSL table and installed all the optics (mirrors and lenses) to steer the beam up to a PDA55 photodiode, where also the pick-off of the PSL is sent.
Tomorrow I'm going to measure the beat note between the two.