As I did for YARM (elog 11779), I measured the relation between offsets added just after the demodulation of the dithering loop of XARM and beam spot shift on ETMX. Defferent from YARM, the beam spot on ITMX DOES change because only BS is used as a steering mirror (TT1&2 are used for the dithering of YARM). Instead, the beam spot on BS DOES NOT change.
This time, I measured by oplevs the angles of both ETMX and ITMX for each value of offset, and using these angles I calculated the shift of the beam spot on ETMX so that I got two independent estimations (one from ETMX oplev, and the other from ITMX oplev) as shown below. The calibration of the oplevs reported in elog 11831 is taken into account.
The difference of two estimations comes from the error of calibration of oplevs and/or imperfect alignment, I think.
What we want from the light source for the AS port light injection:
We have four possible laser sources that we can use for the injection of 1064 nm from the back:
I think for maximum flexibility it's best to fiber-couple whichever source we choose on the PSL table and then just collimate it out of a fiber on the AS table. This way if we want to add fiber-coupled modulators of any kind it's a plug-and-play modification.
Different frequency control schemes are:
Either way we'll need a few things:
I'm working on how to best set this up at the AS port and interfere with normal operation as little as possible. Ideally we use a Faraday just like for squeezed light injection, but this requires some modification of the layout, although nothing that involves mode-matching.
While Gautam is working the restoration of Yarm ASS, I worked on Xarm.
Basically, I have changed the oscillator freqs and amps so as to have linear signals to the misalignment of the mirrors.
Also reduced the complexity of the input/output matrices to avoid any confusion.
Now the ITM dither takes care of the ITM alignment, and the ETM dither takes care of the ETM alignment.
The cavity alignment servos (4dofs) are running fine although the control band widths are still low (<0.1Hz).
The ETM spot positions should be controlled by the BS alignment, but it seems that these loops have suspicion about the signal quality.
While Gautam wa stouching the input TTs, we occasionally saw anomalously high transmission of the arm cavities (~1.2).
We decided to use this beam as this could have indicated partial clipping of the beam somewhere in the input optics chain.
Then the arm cavity was aligned to have reasonably high transmission for the green beam. i.e. Use the green power mon PD as a part of the alignment reference.
This resulted very stable transmission of both the IR and green beams. We liked them. We decide to use this a reference beam at least for now.
Attachment1: GTRX image at the end of the work.
Attachment2: ASSX screen shot
Attachment3: ASSX servo screen shot
Attachment4: Green ASX servo screen shot
Attachment 5: Screen shot of the ASS X strip tool
Attachment 6: Screen shot of the ASS X input matrix
Attachment 7: Screen shot of the ASS X output matrix
I started by checking if shaking an optic in pitch really moves it in pitch - i.e. how much PIT to YAW coupling is there. The motivation being if we aren't really dithering the optics in orthogonal DoFs, the demodulated error signals carry mixed information which the dither alignment servos get confused by. First, I checked with a low frequency dither (~4Hz) and looked at the green transmission on the video monitors. The spot seemed to respond reasonably orthogonally to both pitch and yaw excitations on either ITMY or ETMY. But looking at the Oplev control signal spectra, there seems to be a significant amount of cross coupling. ITMY YAW, ETMY PIT, and ETMY YAW have the peak in the orthogonal degree of freedom at the excitation frequency roughly 20% of the height of the DoF being driven. But for ITMY PIT, the peaks in the orthogonal DoFs are almost of equal height. This remains true even when I changed the excitation frequencies to the nominal dither alignment servo frequencies.
I then tried to see if I could get parts of the ASS working. I tried to manually align the ITM, ETM and TTs as best as I could. There are many "alignment references" - prior to the coil driver board removal, I had centered all Oplevs and also checked that both X and Y green beams had nominal transmission levels (~0.4 for GTRY, ~0.5 for GTRX). Then there are the Transmon QPDs. After trying various combinations, I was able to get good IR transmission, and reasonable GTRY.
Next, I tried running the ASS loops that use error signals demodulated at the ETM dither frequencies (so actuation is on the ITM and TT1 as per the current output matrix which I did not touch for tonight). This worked reasonably well - Attachment #1 shows that the servos were able to recover good IR transmission when various optics in the Y arm were disturbed. I used the same oscillator frequencies as in the existing burt snapshot. But the amplitudes were tweaked.
Unfortunately I had no luck enabling the servos that demodulate the ITM dithers.
The plan for daytime work tomorrow is to check the linearity of the error signals in response to static misalignment of some optics, and then optimize the elements of the output matrix.
I am uploading a .zip file with Sensoray screen-grabs of all the test-masses in their best aligned state from tonight (except ITMX face, which for some reason I can't grab).
And for good measure, the Oplev spot positions - Attachment #3.
Rana suggested taking a look at the Y-arm test mass actuator TFs (measured by driving the coils one at a time, with only local damping loops on, using the Oplev to measure the response to a given drive). Attached are the results from this measurement (I used the Oplev pitch error signal for all 8 measurements). Although the magnitude response for all coils have the expected 1/f^2 shape, there seems to be some significant (~10dB) asymmetry in both the ETM and ITM coils. The phase-response is also not well understood. If we are just measuring the TF of a pendulum with 1 Hz resonant frequency, then at and above 10Hz, I would expect the phase to be either 0 or 180 deg. Looks like there is a notch at 60 Hz somewhere, but it is unclear to me where the ~90 degree phase at ~100Hz is coming from.
For the ITM, the UL OSEM was replaced during the 2016 summer vent - the coil that is in there is now of the short OSEM variety, perhaps it has a different number of turns or something. I don't recall any coil balancing being done after this OSEM swap. For the ETM, it is unclear to me how long this situation has been like this.
Yesterday night, I tried to measure the ASS output matrix by stepping the ITM, ETM and TTs in PIT and YAW, and looking at the response in the various ASS error signals. During this test, I found the ETM and ITM pitch and yaw error signals to be highly coupled (the input matrix was diagonal). As Rana suggested, I think the whole coil driver signal chain from DAC output to coil driver board output has to be checked before attempting to fix ASS. Results from this investigation to follow.
Note: The OSEM calibration hasn't been done in a while (though the HeNes have been swapped out), but as Attachment #2 shows, if we believe the shadow sensor calibration, then the relative calibrations of the ITM and ETM Oplevs agree. So we can directly compare the TFs for the ITM and ETM.
I repeated the test of driving C1:SUS-<Optic>_<coil>_EXC individually and measuring the transfer function to C1:SUS-<Optic>_OPLEV_PERROR for Optic in (ITMX, ITMY, ETMX, ETMY, BS), coil in (LLCOIL, LRCOIL, ULCOIL, URCOIL).
There seems to be a few dB imbalance in the coils in both ETMs, as well as ITMX. ITMY and the BS seem to have pretty much identical TFs for all the coils - I will cross-check using OPLEV_YERROR, but is there any reason why we shouldn't adjust the gains in the coil output (not output matrix) filter banks to correct for this observed imbalance? The Oplev calibrations for the various optics are unknown, so it may not be fair to compare the TFs between optics (I guess the same applies to comparing TF magnitudes from coil to OPLEV_PERROR and OPLEV_YERROR, perhaps we should fix the OL calibrations before fiddling with coil gains...)
The anomalous behaviour of ITMY_UL (10dB greater than the others) was traced down to a rogue x3 gain in the filter module . This has been removed, and now Y arm ASS works fine (with the original dither servo settings). X arm dither still doesn't converge - I double checked the digital filters and all seems in order, will investigate the analog part of the drive electronics now.
I investigated the analog electronics in the coil driver chain by using awggui to drive a given channel with Uniform noise between DC and 8kHz, with an overall gain of 1000 cts. This test was done for both ITMs and the BS. The Whitening/De-Whitening was off during the test. I measured the spectra in
Attachment #1 - There is good agreement between all 3 measurements. To convert the DTT spectrum to Vrms/rtHz, I multiplied the Y-axis by 10V / ( 2*sqrt(2) * 2^15 cts). Between DC and ~1kHz, the measured spectrum everywhere is flat, as expected given the test conditions. The AI filter response is also seen.
Attachment #2 - Zoomed in view of Attachment #1 (without the AI filter part).
*The DTT plots have been coarse-grained to keep the PDF file size managable. X (Y) axes are shared for all the plots in columns (rows).
Similar verification remains to be done for the ETMs, after which the test has to be repeated with the Whitening/DeWhitening engaged. But it's encouraging that things make sense so far (except perhaps the coil balancing can be better as suggested by the previous elog).
I've left both arms locked. The Y-arm dither alignment is working well again, but for the X arm, the loops that actuate on the BS are still weird. Nothing obvious in the tests so far though.
GV 6pm 8 Jun 2017: I realized the X arm transmission was being monitored by the high-gain PD and not the QPD (which is how we usually run the ASS). The ASC mini screen suggested the transmitted beam was reasonably well centered on the X end QPD, and so I switched to this after which the X end dither alignment too converged. Possibly the beam was falling off the other PD, which is why the BS loops, which control the beam spot position on the ETM, were acting weirdly.
will investigate the analog part of the drive electronics now.
Not related to this work:
I noticed the X-arm LSC servo was often hitting its limit - so I reduced the gain from 0.03 to 0.02. This reduced the control signal RMS, and re-acquiring lock at this lower gain wasn't a problem either. See attachment #3 (will be rotated later) for control signal spectra at this revised setting.
I tried playing around with the Oplev loop shape on ITMY, in order to see if I could successfully engage the Coil Driver whitening. Unfortunately, I had no success tonight.
I was trying to guess a loop shape that would work - I guess this will need some more careful thought about loop shape optimization. I was basically trying to keep all the existing filters, and modify the low-passing that minimizes control noise injection. By adding a 4th order elliptic low pass with corner at 50Hz and stopband attenuation of 60dB yielded a stable loop with upper UGF of ~6Hz and ~25deg of phase margin (which is on the low side). But I was able to successfully engage this loop, and as seen in Attachment #1, the noise performance above 50Hz is vastly improved. But it also seems that there is some injection of noise around 6Hz. In any case, as soon as I tried to engage the dewhitening, the DAC output quickly saturated. The whitening filter for the ITMs has ~40dB of gain at ~40Hz already, so it looks like the high frequency roll-off has to be more severe.
I am not even sure if the Elliptic filter is the right choice here - it does have the steepest roll off for a given filter order, but I need to look up how to achieve good roll off without compromising on the phase margin of the overall loop. I am going to try and do the optimization in a more systematic way, and perhaps play around with some of the other filters' poles and zeros as well to get a stable controller that minimizes control noise injection everywhere.
While staring at epics records all day I noticed something about the PIT/YAW offset sliders and ASS offset offloading to slow channels scripts that I'm not sure others are aware off, so I'll briefly discuss it in this post.
The PIT and YAW sliders directly control soft channels that are hosted on the slow machine. Secondary epics records disentangle them for the individual coils:
These channels are the direct input for the physical output channels that generate the control voltage.
The fast channels for PIT and YAW have a numerical correction factor built in that accounts for differences between the OSEMs, but the slow channels don't. This means that the slow PIT/YAW controls are not entirely orthogonal but have crosstalk on the order of 10 percent. This in itself is not that dramatic, however the offload offsets scripts for the dither alignment use the fast PIT/YAW values as inputs, which represent the necessary adjustments to the OSEMs only after the individual correction factors have been applied. The offloading to slow knows nothing of this calibration difference between the OSEMs. The result is that there is a ~10 percent of the offset correction error on the mirror alignment AFTER offloading. This will of course converge after a few iterations, but in any case it is recommendable to run the dither alignment again after offloading and not offload the new offsets to the fast channels.
I attached a wiring schematic from the slow DAQ to the eurocrate modules. Of these, pins 1-32 (or 1A-16C) and pins 33-64 (17A-32C) are on separate DSub connectors. Therefore the easiest solution is to splice the slow DIO channels into the existing breakouts so we can proceed with the transition. This will still remove a lot of the current cable salad. For the YEND we can start thinking about a more elegant solution (For example a connector on the front panel of the Acromag chassis for the fast DIO) now that the problem is better defined.
This splicing in of fast binary channels we discussed at yesterday's and today's meetings is getting messy with the current chassis. Cleaning up the cable mess was a key point, so I got a 4U height DEEP chassis from Rich and drew up a front panel for a modular approach that we can use at the other 40m locations as well. The front panel will have slots for smaller slot panels to which we can mount the breakout boards as before, so all the wiring that I've done can be transfered to this design. If some new connector standard is required it will be easy to draw a new slot panel from a template, for now I'll make some with two DSub37 and IDC50. Since this chassis is so huge it will have ample space for cross-connects.
I also moved the communication of c1auxex2 with the Acromag units off the martian network, connecting them with a direct cable connection out of the second ethernet port. To test if this works I configured the second ethernet port of c1auxex2 to have the IP address 192.168.114.1 and one of the acromag units to have 192.168.114.11, and initialized an IOC with some test channels. Much to my surprise this actually worked straight out of the box, and the test channels can be accessed from the control room computers without having a direct ethernet link to the acromag modules. huzzah!
Steve: it would be nice to have all plugs- connectors lockable
I don't think this is really a problem - we offload to the fast channels and not to the slow (although we really should offload to the slow channels). I think the best approach is to use the ezcaservo utility to offload the DC part of the ASS control signals to the slow channels, so as to not waste fast channel DAC counts on DC offsets. In principle, this approach should be somewhat immune to the slow channel calibration not being perfect.
We managed to realize stable ASS configuration for Yarm. The transmission of 1.06~1.07 was recovered by introducing intentional beam spot offset in the horizontal direction towards the opposite side of the elliptic reflector. The end table optics were adjusted to have the spots about the center of the mirrors, lenses, and PDs/QPDs.
- The Y arm was manually aligned with a given input axis. The transmission was ~0.8.
- Then, TT2 was moved in yaw such that it introduced the horizontal beam shift at the end. By moving the spot to the opposite side of the reflector. The transmission ~0.95 was obtained after patient alignment work.
- Went to the end table and checked the spots. The beam was not at the center of the last 1" lens for the Trans PDs. The beam steering was adjusted to have the spot nicely going through the lens and the mirrors. This made the transmission level to be ~1.05.
- The beam centering on the Trans PD was checked and adjusted.
- The beam centering on the RF BBPD for the arm scan was checked. The spot was too big for that PD. The lens was slightly moved away from the PD to make the spot on the BBPD small. Now the PD saw the plateu when the steering was scanned (i.e. the spot is small enough).
- With the Y arm locked with MC2, the servo gain needs to be 0.012 instead of nominal 0.015 with ETMY to prevent from servo oscilating.
- First of all, only the bottom 4 loops out of total 8 loops were tuned. They are the servos for the beam alignment with regard to the caivty. The linearity and the zero crossings were checked with regard to the reference alignment. All of these 4 showed offsets that causes the servo running away. Don't know the reason of this offset, but it is freq dependent. Therefore the dither freqs were tuned to make the offset zeroed, and tuned the demod phases there. This kept the transmission as high as the reference (~1.05)
- This allowed us to play with the spot position a bit by tuning the caivty alignment. In the end, the transmission of ~1.08 was obtained. Using this alignment, A2L offset for ETMY Yaw was determined to be +17 (to make the error signal -17). This offset produces almost a beam radius (5mm) shifted on the end mirror towards the opposite direction of the reflector.
- The nominal servo setting made the spot servo running away. Gautam pointed out that this could be a gain hierarchy problem (i.e. the spot servos are too fast). We ended up reducing the gain of the servo from 1.0 to 0.3 to make the spot servo stable.
- All the ASS setting was stored in a new snap file "script/ASS/ASS-DITEHR_ON.snap". The previous snap was saved to "script/ASS/ASS_DITHER_ON_preVent201807.snap". This did not save the exc gains of the oscillators. Therefore "DITHER_ASS_ON.py" was modified to have the new exc gains (CLKGAIN). The old values are stored in the comments in this script.
Overall this is not an ideal situation as we don't know what is the actually cause of the offsets in the dither error signals. We expect to correct the beam clipping and the suspension sooner or later. Therefore, we will come back to the ASS again once the other issues are corrected.
After I effected the series resistance change for ETMX, the X arm ASS didn't work (i.e. IR transmission would degrade if the servo was run). Today, we succeeded in recovering a functional ASS servo .
So both arms have working dither alignment servos now. But remember that the Y arm ASS gains have been set for locking the Y arm with MC2 as the actuator, not ETMY.
We then tried to maximize GTRX using the PZT mirrors, but were only successful in reaching a maximum of 0.41. The value I remember from before the vent was 0.5, and indeed, with the IR alignment not quite optimized before we began this work, I saw GTRX of 0.48. But the IR dither servo signals indicate that the cavity axis may have shifted (spot position on the ITM, which is uncontrolled, seems to have drifred significantly, the Pitch signal doesn't stay on the StripTool scale anymore). So we may have to double check that the transmitted beam isn't falling off the GTRX DC PD.
While working on the single arm alignment, I noticed that today, i was able to get the X arm transmission back to ~1.22, and the GTRX to 0.52. These are closer to the values I remember from prior to the vent. Running the dither alignment promptly degrades both the green and IR transmissions. Since the pianosa SL7 upgrade, I can't use the sensoray to capture images, but to me, the spot looks a little off-center in Yaw on ETMX in this configuration, I've tried to show this in the phone grab (Atm #2). Maybe indicative of clipping somewhere upstream of ITMX?
Anyways, I'm pushing onwards for now, something to check out in the daytime.
In an earlier elog, I had claimed that the suspected clipping of the cavity axis in the Y arm was not solved even after shifting the heater. I now think that it is extremely unlikely that there is still clipping due to the heater. Nevertheless, the ASS system is not working well. Some notes:
We have to systematically re-commission the ASS system to get to the bottom of this.
We were wondering yesterday if we can somehow test the ASS system in air. Though the arm cavity can be locked with the low power IMC transmission, I think the dither would render the POY lock unstable. But I wonder if we can use the green beam for a test. The steering PZTs installed by Yuki can serve the role of TT1/TT2 and we can dither the arm cavity mirrors while the green TEM00 mode is locked to the arm no problem. This would at least give us confidence that the actuation of ETMY/ITMY are okay (in addition to the other suspension tests). Then on the sensing side, after pumping down, the only thing we'd be foiled by is in-vacuum clipping or some major gunk on ETMY - everything else should be de-buggable even after pumping down?
I think most of the CDS infrastructure for this is already in place.
[Kruthi, Gautam, Rana]
Gautam installed Atom text editor on Pianosa yesterday.
MC spot position measurement scripts (these can be found in /scripts/ASS/MC directory):
Late elog: Original time of work Tue Aug 17 20:30 2021
I locked the arms yesterday remotely and tried running runASS.py scripts (generally ran by clicking Run ASS buttons on IFO OVERVIEW screen of ASC screen). We have known for few weeks that this script stopped working for some reason. It would start the dithering and would optimize the alignment but then would fail to freeze the state and save the alignment.
I found the caget('C1:LSC-TRX_OUT') or caget('C1:LSC-TRY_OUT') were not working in any of the workstations. This is weird since caget was able to acquire these fast channel values earlier and we have seen this script to work for about a month without any issue.
Anyways, to fix this, I just changed the channel name to 'C1:LSC-TRY_OUT16' when the script checks in the end if the arm has indeed been aligned. It was only this step that was failing. Now the script is working fine and I tested them on both arms. On the Y arm, I misaligned the arm by adding bias in yaw by changing C1:SUS-ITMY_YAW_OFFSET from -8 to 22. The script was able to align the arm back.
[Jon, Keerthana, Sandrine]
Thu.-Fri. we continued with PRC scans using the AUX laser, but now the "scanned" parameter is the frequency of AM sidebands, rather than the frequency of the AUX carrier itself. The switch to AM (or PM) allows us to coherently measure the cavity transfer as a function of modulation frequency.
In order to make a sentinel measurement, I installed a broadband PDA255 at an unused pickoff behind the first AUX steering mirror on the AS table. The sentinel PD measures the AM actually imprinted on the light going into the IFO, making our measurement independent of the AOM response. This technique removes not only the (non-flat) AOM transfer function, but also any non-linearities from, e.g., overdriving the AOM. The below photo shows the new PD (center) on the AS table.
With the sentinel PD installed, we proceeded as follows.
The below photo shows the measured transfer function [AUX Reflection / AUX Injection]. The measurement coherence is high to ~55 MHz (the AOM bandwidth is 60 MHz). We clearly resolve two FSRs, visible as Lorentzian dips at which more AUX power couples into the cavity. The SURFs have these data and will be separately posting figures for the measurements.
With the basic system working, we attempted to produce HOMs, first by partially occluding the injected AUX beam with a razor blade, then by placing a thin two-prong fork in the beam path. We also experimented with using a razor blade on the output to partially occlude the reflection beam just before the sensor. We were able to observe an apparent secondary dip indicative of an HOM a few times, as shown below, but could not repeat this deterministically. Besides not having fine control over the occlusion of the beams, there is also large few-Hz angular noise shaking the AS beam position. I suspect from moment to moment the HOM content is varying considerably due to the movement of the AS beam relative to the occluding object. I'm now thinking about more systematic ways to approach this.
How much was the osc freq of the marconi? And then how much was the resulting freq offset between PSL and AUX?
Are we supposed to see two dips with the separation of an FSR? Or four dips (you have two sidebands)?
And the distance between the dips (28MHz-ish?) seems too large to be the FSR (22MHz-ish).
(Jon, Keerthana, Sandrine)
I am attaching the plots of the Reflected and transmitted AUX beam. In the transmission graph, we are getting peak corresponding to the resonance frequencies, as at that frequency maximum power goes to the cavity. But in the Reflection graph, we are obtaining dips corresponding to the resonance frequency because maximum power goes to the cavity and the reflected beam intensity becomes very less at those points.
I made the first successful AUX laser scan of a 40m cavity last night.
Attachment #1 shows the measured Y-end transmission signal w.r.t. the Agilent drive signal, which was used to sweep the AUX carrier frequency. This is a distinct approach from before, where the carrier was locked at a fixed offset from the PSL carrier and the frequency of AM sidebands was swept instead. This AUX carrier-only technique appears to be advantageous.
This 6-15 MHz scan resolves three FSR peaks (TEM00 resonances) and at least six other higher-order modes. The raw data are also enclosed (attachment #2). I'll leave it as an excercise for the SURFs to compute the Y-arm cavity Gouy phase.
# AG4395A Measurement - Timestamp: Jul 02 2018 - 18:55:04
#---------- Measurement Parameters ------------
# Start Frequency (Hz): 6000000.0, 6000000.0
# Stop Frequency (Hz): 15000000.0, 15000000.0
# Frequency Points: 801, 801
# Measurement Format: LOGM, PHAS
# Measuremed Input: AR, AR
#---------- Analyzer Settings ----------
# Number of Averages: 16
# Auto Bandwidth: Off, Off
More progress on the AUX-laser cavity scans.
Both data sets are attached.
This note reports analysis of cavity scans made by directly sweeping the AUX laser carrier frequency (no sidebands). The measurement is made by sweeping the RF offset of the AUX-PSL phase-locked loop and demodulating the cavity reflection/transmission signal at the offset frequency.
Due to the simplicity of its expected response, the Y-arm cavity was scanned first as a test of the AUX hardware and the sensitivity of the technique. Attachment 1 shows the measured cavity transmission with respect to RF drive signal.
The AUX laser launch setup is capable of injecting up to 9.3 mW into the AS port. This high-power measurement is shown by the black trace. The same measurement is repeated for a realistic SQZ injection power, 70 uW, indicated by the red curve. At low power, the technique still clearly resolves the FSR and six HOM resonances. From the identified mode resonance frequencies the following cavity parameters are directly extracted.
An analogous scan was performed for the PRC, with the IFO locked on PSL carrier in PRMI. Attachment 2 shows the measurement of PRC transmission with respect to drive signal.
The scan resolves HOM resonances to at least ~13th order, whose frequencies yield the following cavity parameters.
Ideally (and at the sites) the SRC mode resonances will be measured in SRMI configuration. Because every other cavity is misaligned, this configuration provides an easily-interpretable spectrum whose resonances can all be attributed to the SRC.
Due to time constraints at the 40m, the IFO could not be restored to lockability in SRMI. It has been more than two years since this configuration was last run. For this reason the scan was made instead with the IFO locked in DRMI, as shown in Attachment 3. The quantity measured is the AUX reflection with respect to drive signal.
This result requires far more interpretation because resonances of both the SRC and PRC are superposed. However, the resonances of the PRC are known a priori from the independent PRMI scan. The SRC mode resonances identified below do not conincide with any of the first five PRC mode resonances.
Based on the identified mode resonance frequencies, the SRC parameters are measured as follows.
From experience with the 40m, the main challenges to repeating this measurement at the sites will be the following.
From the Measurement Jon made, FSR is 3.967 MHz and the Gouy phase is 52 degrees. From this, the length of the Y-arm cavity seems to be 37.78 m and the radius of curvature of the mirror seems to be 60.85 m.
FSR = Free spectral Range
L = Lenth of the arm
R = Radius of curvature of the mirror (R1 = , R2= unknown)
[Annalisa, Terra, Koji, Gautam]
Summary: We find a configuration for arm scans which significantly reduces phase noise. We run several arm scans and we were able to resolve several HOM peaks; analysis to come.
As first, we made a measurement with the already established setup and, as Jon already pointed out, we found lots of phase noise. We hypothesized that it could either come from the PLL or from the motion of the optics between the AUX injection point (AS port) and the Y arm.
In this configuration, we were able to do arm scans where the phase variation at each peak was pretty clear and well defined. We took several 10MHz scan, we also zoomed around some specific HOM peak, and we were able to resolve some frequency split.
We add some pictures of the setup and of the scan.
The data are saved in users/OLD/annalisa/Yscans. More analysis and plots will follow tomorrow.
I recently realized that the PLL is only using about 20% of the available actuation range of the AUX PZT. The +/-10 V control signal from the LB1005 is being directly inputted into the fast AUX PZT channel, which has an input range of +/-50 V.
I recommend to install a PZT driver (amplifier) between the controller and laser to use the full available actuator range. For cavity scans, this will increase the available sweep range from +/-50 MHz to +/-250MHz. This has a unique advantage even if slow temperature feedback is also implemented. To sample faster than the timescale of most of the angular noise, scans generally need to be made with a total sweep time <1 sec. This is faster than the PLL offset can be offloaded via the slow temperature control, so the only way to scan more than 100 MHz in one measurement is with a larger dynamic range.
To facilitate the 1um MZ frequency stabilization project, I decided that the AUX laser was a better candidate than any of the other 3 active NPROs in the lab as (i) it is already coupled into a ~60m long fiber, (ii) the PSL table has the most room available to set up the readout optics for the delayed/non-delayed beams and (iii) this way I can keep working on the IR ALS system in parallel. So we moved the end of the fiber from the AS table to the SE corner of the PSL table. None of the optics mode-matching the AUX beam to the interferometer were touched, and we do not anticipate disturbing the input coupling into the fiber either, so it should be possible to recover the AUX beam injection into the IFO relatively easily.
Anjali is going to post detailed photos, beam layout, and her proposed layout/MM solutions later today. The plan is to use free space components for everything except the fiber delay line, as we have these available readily. It is not necessarily the most low-noise option, but for a first pass, maybe this is sufficient and we can start building up a noise budget and identify possible improvements.
The AUX laser remians in STANDBY mode for now. HEPA was turned up while working at the PSL table, and remains on high while Anjali works on the layout.
Attachment #1 shows the schematic of the experimental setup for the frequency noise measurement of 1 um laser source.
AUX laser will be used as the seed source and it is already coupled to a 60 m fiber (PM980). The other end of the fiber was at the AS table and we have now removed it and placed in the PSL table.
Attachment # 2 shows the photograph of the experimental setup. The orange line shows the beam that is coupled to the delayed arm of MZI and the red dotted line shows the undelayed path.
As mentioned, AUX is already coupled to the 60 m fiber and the other end of the fiber is now moved to the PSL table. This end needs to be collimated. We are planning to take the same collimator from AS table where it was coupled into before. The position where the collimator to be installed is shown in attachment #2. Also, we need to rotate the mirror (as indicated in attachment #2) to get the delayed beam along with the undelayed beam and then to combine them. As indicated in attachment #2, we can install one more photo diode to perform balanced detection.
We need to decide on which photodetector to be used. It could be NF1801 or PDA255.
We also performed the power measurement at different locations in the beam path. The different locations at which power measurement is done is shown attachment #3
There is an AOM in the beam path that coupled to the delayed arm of MZI. The output beam after AOM was coupled to the zero-order port during this measurement. That is the input voltage to the AOM was at 0 V, which essentially says that the beam after the AOM is not deflected and it is coupled to the zero-order port. The power levels measured at different locations in this condition are as follows. A)282 mW B)276 mW C)274 mW D)274 mW E)273 mW F)278 mW G)278 mW H)261 mW I)263 mW J)260 mW K)131 mW L)128 mW M)127 mW N)130 mW
It can be seen that the power is halved from J to K. This because of a neutral density filter in the path of the beam
In this case, we measured a power of 55 mW at the output of the delayed fiber. We then adjusted the input voltage to the AOM driver to 1 V such that the output of AOM is coupled to the first order port. This reduced the power level in the zero-order port of AOM that is coupled to the delayed arm of the MZI. In this case we measured a power of 0.8 mW at the output of delayed fiber.
We must be careful about the power level that is reaching the photodetector such that it should not exceed the damage threshold of the detector.
The power measured at the output of undelayed path is 0.8 mW.
We also must place the QWP and HWP in the beam path to align the polarisation.
We measured the Xend green laser PDH Open loop transfer function by following method:
Attachment 1 shows the closed loop of Xend Green laser Arm PDH lock loop. Free running laser noise gets injected at laser head after the PZT actuation as . The PDH error signal at output of miser is fed to a gain 1 SR560 used as summing junction here. Used in 'A-B mode', the B port is used for sending in excitation where .
We have access to three ports for measurement, marked at output of mixer, at output of SR560, and at PZT out monitor port in uPDH box. From loop algebra, we get following:
, where is the open loop transfer function of the loop.
So measurement of can be done in following two ways (not a complete set):
Working in Xend with mask on has become unbearable. It is very hot there and I would really like if we fix this issue.
Today, the Xend Green laser was just unable to hold lock for longer than 10's of seconds. The longest I could see it hold lock was for about 2 minutes. I couldn't find anything obviously wrong with it. Attached are noise spectrums of error and control points. The control point spectrum shows good matching with typical free running laser noise.
Are the few peaks above 10 kHz in error point spectrum worrysome? I need to think more about it in a cooler place to make sure.
I wanted to take a high frequency spectrum of error point to make sure that higher harmonics of 250 kHz modulation frequency are not leaking into the PDH box after demodulation. However, the lock could not be maintained long enough to take this final measurement. I'll try again tomorrow morning. It is generally cooler in the mornings.
This post is just an update on what's happening. I need to work more to get some meaningful inferences about this loop.
Attachment 1 shows the case when excitation is sent at control point i.e. the PZT output. As before, free running laser noise in units of Hz/rtHz is added after the actuator and I've also shown shot noise being added just before the detector.
Again, we have a access to three output points for measurement. right at the output of mixer (the PDH error signal), the feedback signal to be applied by uPDH box (PZT Mon) and the output of the summing box SR560.
Doing loop algebra as before, we get:
So measurement of can be done by
This means at 100 Hz, with 10 integration cycles, we should have needed only 3 mV of excitation signal to get an SNR of 100. However, we have been unable to get good measurements with even 25 mV of excitation. We tried increasing the cycles, that did not work either.
This post is to summarize this analysis. We need more tests to get any conclusions.
We did the measurement of OLTF for Xend green laser PDH loop with excitation added at control point using a SR560 as shown in attachment 1 of 16202. We also measured coherence in our measurement, see attachment 1.
There was some uncertainty as to which channels were being input into the Adaptive Filtering screen, so I checked it out to confirm. As expected, the rows on the ASS_TOP_PEM screen directly correspond to the BNC inputs on the PEM_ADCU board in the 1Y6 (I think it's 6...) rack. So C1:ASS-TOP_PEM_1_INMON corresponds to the first BNC (#1) on the ADCU, etc.
After checking this out, I put text tags next to all the inputs on the ASS_TOP_PEM screen for all of the seismometers (which had not been there previously). Now it's nice and easy to select which witness channels you want to use for the adaptation.
When Sanjit and I were looking at the adaptive filtering system on Monday and Friday, we noticed that turning on the Accelerometers (which had been used in the past) seemed to do good things, but that turning on the seismometers (which I just put into the system last week) made the OAF output integrate up. Rana pointed out that this is an indication of a missing high pass filter. And indeed, when I put the seismometers in, I neglected to copy the high pass filter at low frequencies, and the low pass at 64Hz from the accelerometer path to the seismometer path. The accelerometers had a HP at 1Hz, which is okay since they don't really do useful things down to the mHz level. I gave all of the seismometers HP at 1mHz. These are now in the filter banks in the ASS_TOP_PEM screen. The accelerometers are on channels 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and the seismometers are on channels 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 24.
I now need to modify the upass script to turn these filters on before doing adaptive filtering.
It seems now that we are able to get the OAF system to do a pretty good job of approximating the MC_L signal, but we can't get it to actually do any subtracting. I think that we're not correctly setting the phase delay between the witness and the MC_L channels or something (I'm not sure though why we get a good filter match if the delay is set incorrectly, but we do get a good filter match for very different delay settings: 1, 5, 100, 1000 all seem to do equally well at adjusting the filter to match MC_L).
The Matt Evans document in elog 395 suggests measuring the phase at the Nyquist frequency, and calculating the appropriate delay from that. The sticking point with this is that we can't get test points for any channel which starts with C1:ASS. I've emailed Alex to see what he can do about this. Elog 1982 has a few words about how we're perhaps using a different awgtpman on the ass machine than we used to, which may be part of the problem.
The golden plan, which in my head will work perfectly, is as follows: Alex will fix the testpoint problem, then Sanjit and I will be able to measure the phase between our OAF signal and the incoming MC_L signal, we will be able to match them as prescribed in the Matt Evans document, and then suddenly the Adaptive Filtering system will do some actual subtracting!
The plot below shows the Reference MC_L without any OAF system (black), the output of the OAF (green), and the 'reduced' MC_L (red). As you can see, the green trace is doing a pretty good job of matching the black one, but the red trace isn't getting reduced at all.
The OAF system did something useful today! Attached is a plot. Black is the reference (13 averages) with the OAF off. Blue is the output of the OAF, and red is the reduced MC_L signal (13 averages). If you turn tau and mu both to 0, it "pauses" the filter, but keeps the feedforward system working, so that you can take a long average to get a better idea of how well things are working. If you ramp down the output of the CORR filter bank, that lets you take a long average with the OAF "off", but doesn't mess up your nicely adapted filter. The cyan and gold traces in the upper plot are 2 of the Guralp channels, so you can see the real seismic motion.
In the lower plot, you can see that the cyan and light green seismic channels have good coherence with IOO-MC_L (the names don't really mean anything right now...these 2 seismometer channels are the 2 Guralps' channels, one per end of the MC, which are aligned with the MC.) The dark blue trace is the coherence between IOO-MC_L and the output of the OAF.
500 taps, delay=5, 2 Guralp channels (the ones aligned with the MC), tau~0.00001 (probably), and mu~0.01 or 0.005
The up and down scripts accessible from the OAF (still C1:ASS-TOP) screen are now totally functional and awesome. They are under the blue ! button. The up script can either be for the Seismometers, or the Accelerometers at this time. The only difference between these 2 is which burt restore file they look at: the seismometer version puts all 7 seismometer channels in the PEM selecting matrix, while the accelerometer version puts the 6 accelerometer channels in that matrix. Both scripts also turn on HP_1mHz filters in the ERR_EMPH filter bank and all of the witness filter banks, and the AA32 and AI32 filters in ERR_EMPH, CORR and PEM filter banks. This makes all of the starting filters the same between the witness paths and the error path.
If you want to use a different combination of sensors, run one of the up scripts, then change the PEM matrix by hand.
The down script disables the output to the optics, and resets the adapted filter coefficients. DO NOT use this script if you're trying to "pause" the filter to take some nice long averages.
As per Matt's instructions in his OAF document (elog 395) in the Tuning section, Sanjit and I took a transfer function measurement from the output of the OAF system, to the input. i.e. we're trying to measure what happens out in the real world when we push on MC1, and how that is fed back to the input of our filter as MC_L. The game plan is to measure this transfer function, and read off the phase at the nyquist frequency, and use this value to calculate the appropriate sample-and-hold delay to be used in the OAF. The downsample rate for the OAF is 32, so that we're running at 64Hz instead of the 2048Hz of the front-end. Thus, our Nyquist frequency is 32Hz.
Phase@Nyquist * ------------------------
In the attached figure we do a swept sine from CORR_EXC to ERR_EMPH_OUT to determine the transfer function. Here, we turn off all of the filters in both the CORR and EXC banks, because those are already matched/taken into account in the PEM filter banks.
Using the cursor on DTT, we find that the phase at 29.85Hz is -228.8deg, and at 37.06Hz is -246.0deg. Extrapolating, this means that at 32Hz, we expect about -234deg phase. Using our handy-dandy formula, this means that we should try a delay of 41 or 42 (41.6 is between these two...)
We'll give this a shot!
Phase@Nyquist * ------------------------ = Delay
As Rana pointed out to me last night, I was using continuous phase, which is not good. When using regular phase, I find: (29.85Hz, 131.216deg), (37.06Hz, 113.963deg), so extrapolating gives (32Hz, 126.07deg). Plugging this in to our handy-dandy formula, we get a delay of 22.4, so we should try both 22 and 23.
Here's a plot of the spectra of the seismometers and MCL. The coherence shows which axes are aligned right now: MC1_X is coherent with GUR_NS which means that its mis-oriented.
I've now swapped the "MC1" cables: so the old "NS" now goes into EW and the old EW now goes into NS. VERT is unchanged.
Also fixed the channel names - the Guralp previously named MC1 is now GUR1 and the other one is GUR2. Also no more EW, NS, & VERT. Its all XYZ.
DAQD restarted with the new channel names.
I remeasured the OAF time delay using the OAF-TF template from the Templates/ directory.
Troublingly, I found the MC1 dewhitening switches set OFF - please make sure that the MC1 dewhitening is back ON after each OAF tuning so that the interferometer locking is not hosed.
The OAF-TF template had the excitation amplitude set ~20x too high. I reduced it and the coherence was still > 0.95. The phase at 32 Hz was still ~126 deg as Jenne had measured, but since the phase at DC is 180 deg, the overall phase lag is just 180-126 = 54 deg. So the delay should be 54/180 * 32 = 9.7 => 10. Luckily, Jenne is working on an instructional manual for OAF that will make all of this crystal clear.
I spiffed up the order of the cables / sensors plugged into the PEM ADCU. Now all of the seismometers are labeled as Rana left them, and the 2 Guralp's have their sets of 3 channels next to eachother in channel-number-land. None of the accelerometer names/cabling have changed recently. In the table, Cable-label refers to the physical tag tied to the end of the cables plugged into the ADCU...they are meant to be descriptive of what seismometer channels they are hooked up to, and then the names change to something useful for us when they come into the DAQ system. Also, the labels of input channels on the ASS_TOP_PEM screen have been updated accordingly.
There is some craziness going on with the delay in the PEM path for the OAF. We plot the difference between the C1:PEM-SEIS_GUR1_X and C1:ASS-TOP_PEM_10. These are physically the same channel, plugged into the PEM ADCU, and then the signal is used as a regular PEM channel, and is also sent to the ASS computer and used there for the OAF system. As you can see in the blue trace on the bottom plot, there is a huge amount of delay, and it's very noisy. We also plot the _GUR2_X / ASS-TOP_PEM_2 pair (red), and it has a similar amount of delay, but it is not nearly as fuzzy and noisy. For comparison, we plot the SUS-MC2_MCL (which is identical to IOO-MC_L) and ASS-TOP_ERR_MCL pair (green), and they don't have any big overall delay problems, so it's not totally a problem with the signals getting to the ASS computer.
This problem was present during/after all of the following attempts to fix it:
* The sample rate on the ASS computer is 2048. The PEM channels were being acquired the ADCU at 512. We changed the ADCU sampling rate to 2048 to match.
* We soft rebooted the ASS computer, in case it was a timing problem.
* Doing a "sudo shutdown -r now" while logged in as controls.
We might also try resetting/power cycling c0dcu in the morning. Alex has been emailed to help us try to figure this out.
In other news, the time delay that we measure from the plot gives us 180degrees in ~210Hz. This corresponds to a little more than 2msec of delay, with the C1:ASS version lagging behind the C1:PEM version. (2 samples at 840Hz) Converting to the 2048 sampling rate, we have a delay of 4.8, so 5 front-end cycles. Since Rana measured this morning that the delay indicated by the transfer function is 10 cycles, and this delay shows that the ASS lags the actual seismometer signal by 5 cycles, we should subtract this 5 from the 10 from the transfer function, giving us a final sample-and-hold delay of 5. Coincidentally(?), 5 is the delay that was found in the C1:ASS-TOP screen, after it's one year of dormancy. The point of the delay feature in the code is to help match the delay in the two signal paths: the PEM path and the output path of the filter. Since the output has a lag of 10, and the PEM path has a lag of 5, to make them match, we artificially put in a delay of 5.
The c1ass computer, which is now used for the OAF system, has many remnants from the days when it was actually used as an ASS. These PIT and YAW filter banks and other things were taking up a lot of unnecessary space, so I deleted them in the ass.mdl file. These files are all backed up, so we can always revert back to an older version when we want some Alignment Stabilization again someday. I then did a make ass, following the instructions on the 40m Wiki -> Computers and Scripts -> Simulink to Front-End Code page. Rana moved some things around, most notably all of the things (like the ASS screens) which were only in ...../users/alex/.... are now in ....../caltech/cds/advLigo/..... . This required a few restarts of the c1ass machine (after a couple different versions of the simulink diagram....one to make sure we knew how to do it, and then again actually deleting the unused portions).
The big lesson of the night was that there are 2 signal paths for the PEM channels. As is shown in Figure 3 in the mevans document, the PEM channels get the matching filters when they go to the adaptation algorithm, but when they go to the FIR filter, they do not get the matching filters. This is implemented by taking the output of the giant PEM matrix, and having a duplicate of each of the channels "selected for adaptation", one which gets filtered through the PEM_N_ADPT banks, and one which goes straight (in code-land) to the FIR filter. So, it seems like all the filters which we had been including in the input side of the matrix for matching purposes need to be put in the output side. One of the AA32 filters needs to stay in the input side, for actual anti imaging of the PEM channels, then we put the AA32 and AI32 which are for matching the ERR_EMPH and CORR filter banks up in the PEM_N_ADAPT banks. Rana and I made these filters, and they are now turned on appropriately with the OAF down script (so that all the filters are ready and waiting for the OAF to be turned on).
A little success with getting the 3Hz peak reduced, but not a lot beyond that. Tomorrow I'll put the accelerometers back where they used to be to see if they help out at all.
Alex came in a week ago Friday to help figure this timing problem out, and some progress was made, although there's more to be done.
Here are the (meager) notes that I took while he was working:
we can rename the tpchn_C1_new back to tpchn_C1, but the _new one works right now, so why change it?
need to find dcuDma.c source code...this is (?) what sends the PEM channels over to ASS. Found: source code is dcu.c, th
en the binary is dcuDma.o Trying to recompile/remake dcuDma to make everything (maybe) good again.
Possibility: maybe having so many channels written to the RFM takes too long? shouldn't be a problem, but maybe it is. I
n the startup.cmd (or similar?) change the number of ISC modules to 1, instead of 2, since we only have one physical board
to plug BNCs into, even though we have 2 isc boards. c0dcu1 rebooted fine with the one isc board. now can't get ass tes
tpoints to try the DTT timing measurement again. rebooting fb40m to see if that helps. fb40m is back, but we still don't
have ASS testpoints. Alex had to leave suddenly, so maybe more later.
Also, next possibility is that c0dcu and c1ass are not synched together properly....we should look at the timing of the AS
After these adventures, the noisy trace in the timing delay (in the plot in elog 2066) has become quiet, as shown below (The blue trace, which was noisy in 2066 is now hiding behind the red trace). However, the overall timing delay problem still exists, and we don't quite understand it. Alex and I are meeting tomorrow morning at the 40m to try and suss this out. Our first plan of attack is to look at the ASS code, to see if it puts any weird delays in.