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Entry  Wed Feb 20 23:55:51 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, ALS delay line electronics delayLineDemod.pdf.zip
    Reply  Thu Mar 7 01:06:38 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, ALS delay line electronics 
       Reply  Tue Mar 12 22:51:25 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, ALS delay line electronics 
       Reply  Wed Mar 13 01:27:30 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, ALS delay line electronics DFDcal.pdfDFDnoise.pdf
          Reply  Sun Mar 17 00:42:20 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, NF1611 cannot be shot-noise limited? PDnoise.pdf
             Reply  Thu Mar 28 19:40:02 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, BeatMouth with NF1611s assembled IMG_7381.JPGIMG_7382.JPGrelTF_schem.pdfdarkNoise.pdf
                Reply  Fri Mar 29 21:00:06 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, BeatMouth with NF1611s installed IMG_7384.JPGIMG_7385.JPG
                   Reply  Sun Mar 31 15:05:53 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Fiber beam-splitters not PM IMG_7384.JPG
                      Reply  Wed Apr 3 09:04:01 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Note about new fiber couplers 
                         Reply  Wed Apr 3 12:32:33 2019, Koji, Update, ALS, Note about new fiber couplers 
                      Reply  Fri Apr 5 00:33:58 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Promising IR ALS noise IMG_7388.JPGfreeSpace_IR_beat.pdf
                         Reply  Fri Apr 5 11:49:30 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, PSL + X green beat recovery 
                         Reply  Mon Apr 8 00:04:08 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, IR ALS noise budget DFDnoise.pdf
                            Reply  Mon Apr 8 18:28:25 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, EX Green PDH checkout IMG_7393.JPGgreenModeMatch.pdf
                               Reply  Mon Apr 8 23:52:09 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, EX Green PDH error monitor calibrated errMonCalib.pdferrMon.pngOLTF.pdfEX_frequencyNoises.pdf
                                  Reply  Tue Apr 9 00:16:22 2019, rana, Update, ALS, EX Green PDH error monitor calibrated 
                                     Reply  Tue Apr 9 00:18:19 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, EX Green PDH error monitor calibrated 
                                  Reply  Tue Apr 9 18:44:00 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, EX Green PDH discriminant measurement cavityFlashes.pdfmodelPDH.pdf
                            Reply  Tue Apr 9 19:07:12 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, IR ALS noise budget ALS_noiseBudget.pdfALS_noiseBudget.pdf
                               Reply  Thu Apr 11 01:10:05 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Large 2kHz peak (and harmonics) in ALS X EX_PDH_2kNoise.pdf
                                  Reply  Wed Apr 17 00:50:17 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Large 2kHz peak (and harmonics) in ALS X no more EX_PDHnoise.pdf
                                     Reply  Wed Apr 17 11:01:49 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Large 2kHz peak (and harmonics) in ALS X no more EX_PDH_specGram.pdf
                      Reply  Wed May 29 18:13:25 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, Fiber beam-splitters are now PM 
                         Reply  Fri May 31 15:55:16 2019, gautam, Update, ALS, PSL + X beat restored 
Message ID: 14475     Entry time: Thu Mar 7 01:06:38 2019     In reply to: 14468     Reply to this: 14477   14478
Author: gautam 
Type: Update 
Category: ALS 
Subject: ALS delay line electronics 

Summary:

The restoration of the delay-line electronics is complete. The chassis has not been re-installed yet, I will put it back in tomorrow. I think the calculations and measurements are in good agreement.

Details:

Apart from restoring the transimpedance of the I/F amplifier, I also had to replace the two differential-sending AD8672s in the RF Log detector circuit for both LO and RF paths in the ALS-X board. I performed the same tests as I did the last time on the electronics bench, results will be uploaded to the DCC page for the 40m version of the board. I think the board is performing as advertised, although there is some variation in the noise of the two pairs of I/Q readouts. Sticking with the notation of the HP Application Note for delay line frequency discriminators, here are some numebrs for our delay line system:

  • K_{\phi} = 3.7 \ \mathrm{V/rad}  - measured by driving the LO/RF inputs with Fluke/Marconi at 7dBm/0dBm (which are the expected signal levels accounting for losses between the BeatMouth and the demodulator) and looking at the Vpp of the resulting I/F beat signal on a scope. This is assuming we use the differential output of the demodulator (divide by 2 if we use the single-ended output instead).
  • \tau_d = \frac{45 \ \mathrm{m}}{0.75c} \approx 0.2 \mu s [see measurement]
  • K_{d} = K_{\phi}2 \pi \tau_{d} \approx 4 \mu \mathrm{V/Hz} (to be confirmed by measurement by driving a known FM signal with the Marconi)
  • Assuming 1mW of light on our beat PDs and perfect contrast, the phase noise due to shot noise is \pi \sqrt{2\bar{P}\frac{hc}{\lambda}} / 1 \ \mathrm{mW} \approx 60 \ \mathrm{nrad /}\sqrt{\mathrm{Hz}}which is ~ 5 orders of magnitude lower than the electronics noise in equivalent frequency noise at 100 Hz.
  • The noise due to the FET mixer seems quite complicated to calculate - but as a lower bound, the Johnson current noise due to the 182 ohms at each RF input is ~ 10 pA/rtHz. With a transimpedance gain of 1 kohm, this corresponds to ~10 nV/rtHz. 

In conclusion: the ALS noise is very likely limited by ADC noise (~1 Hz/rtHz frequency noise for 5uV/rtHz ADC noise). We need some whiteningWhy whiten the demodulated signal instead of directly incorporating the whitening into the I/F amplifier input stage? Because I couldn't find a design that satisfies all the following criteria (this was why my previous design was flawed):

  1. The commutating part of the FET mixer must be close to ground potential always.
  2. The loading of the FET mixer is mostly capacitive.
  3. The DC gain of the I/F amplifier is low, with 20-30dB gain at 100 Hz, and then rolled off again at high frequencies for stability and sum-frequency rejection. In fact, it's not even obvious to me that we want a low DC gain - the quantity K_{\phi} is directly proportional to the DC transimpedance gain, and we want that to be large for more sensitive frequency discriminating.

So Rich suggested separating the transimpedance and whitening operations. The output noise of the differential outputs of the demodulator unit is <100 nV/rtHz at 100 Hz, so we should be able to saturate that noise level with a whitening unit whose input referred noise level is < 100 nV/rtHz. I'm going to see if there are any aLIGO whitening board spares - the existing whitening boards are not a good candidate I think because of the large DC signal level.

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